Publications by authors named "Jeffrey Pagaduan"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Effects of Verbal Encouragement during a Soccer Dribbling Circuit on Physical and Psychophysiological Responses: An Exploratory Study in a Physical Education Setting.

Children (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Tanyu Research Laboratory, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

Verbal encouragement (VE) can be used by physical education (PE) practitioners for boosting motivation during exercise engagement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of VE on psychophysiological aspects and physical performance in a PE context. Twenty secondary school male students (age: 17.68 ± 0.51 yrs; height: 175.7 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 67.3 ± 5.1 kg, %fat: 11.9 ± 3.1%; PE experience: 10.9 ± 1.0 yrs) completed, in a randomized order, two test sessions that comprised a soccer dribbling circuit exercise (the Hoff circuit) either with VE (CVE) or without VE (CNVE), with one-week apart between the tests. Heart rate (HR) responses were recorded throughout the circuit exercise sessions. Additionally, the profile of mood-state (POMS) was assessed pre and post the circuit exercises. Furthermore, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), traveled distance, and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were assessed after the testing sessions. Furthermore, the CVE trial resulted in higher covered distance, %HRmax, RPE, PACES score, (Cohen's coefficient d = 1.08, d = 1.86, d = 1.37, respectively; all, < 0.01). The CNVE trial also showed lower vigor and higher total mood disturbance (TMD) (d = 0.67, d = 0.87, respectively, < 0.05) and was associated with higher tension and fatigue, compared to the CVE trial (d = 0.77, d = 1.23, respectively, < 0.01). The findings suggest that PE teachers may use verbal cues during soccer dribbling circuits for improving physical and psychophysiological responses within secondary school students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children9060907DOI Listing
June 2022

Relationships between perceived measures of internal load and wellness status during overseas futsal training camps.

PLoS One 2022 19;17(4):e0267227. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Tanyu Research Laboratory, Taipei, Taiwan.

Exercise and sport practitioners frequently utilize rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to evaluate the players' psychophysiological strains during training sessions. The subjective rating of physical exertion level during sports training has been shown to have a reciprocal relationship with wellness status during periodic training or competitive seasons. However, the relationship between subjective physical exertions and wellness status during short-term overseas training camps (OTCs) has not been extensively investigated. This study aimed to examine the perceived responses of physical exertions [session-RPE (sRPE), training monotony, and training strain] and wellness status (fatigue, sleep, delayed onset muscle soreness, stress, and mood) measures in elite young adult futsal players from four separate OTCs with different training tasks. Twenty-seven U-20 male national team futsal players voluntarily participated in this study. The players recruited for OTCs were based on their performance during domestic training camps and the tactical demand of the team. The task of each OTCs was defined as: 1) 1st OTC = game-based camp (n = 14); 2) 2nd and 3rd OTC = training-based camp (n = 20 and n = 17, respectively); and 3) 4th OTC = pre-tournament camp (n = 14). The OTCs consisted of 11 training sessions (18.9 hours) and 16 friendly matches (23.8 hours). During daily training sessions and friendly matches, sRPE was used to quantify training load (TL). Additionally, a five-elements general wellness questionnaire was used to evaluate daily wellness status in the morning. The results demonstrated that the mean and sum sRPE in the game-based OTCs were significantly lower compared to the mean sRPE [p < 0.01, effect size (ES) = -4.8; p < 0.01, ES = -2.9] and sum sRPE in the training-based OTCs (p < 0.01, ES = -3.6; p < 0.01, ES = -3.1). The mean (p = 0.01; ES = -2.0) and sum sRPE (p < 0.01; ES = -3.4) in the game-based OTC were also lower than that in the pre-tournament OTC. Conversely, the wellness scores in the game-based OTC were higher compared to the training-based (p = 0.01; ES = 1.8) and the pre-tournament OTCs (p < 0.01; ES = 1.6). There was a negative relationship between mean and sum sRPE and all wellness scores (mean sRPE = r = -0.441 ~ -0.575, p < 0.001; sum sRPE = r = -0.41 ~ -0.559, p < 0.001). Our findings suggested that responses to training sessions, derived from mean and sum sRPE and wellness scores, are dependent upon the task-specific nature of OTCs among elite futsal players. Utilization of mean and sum sRPE and wellness measures to monitor the psychophysiological health during short-term OTCs is recommended.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0267227PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9017953PMC
April 2022

Chronic Effects of Foam Rolling on Flexibility and Performance: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 04 4;19(7). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Sports Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature on chronic effects of foam rolling (FR) on flexibility and performance. Electronic databases were searched during January 2022 for topics related to FR. Included studies met the following criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles written in English; (b) FR intervention of at least four weeks; (c) non-motorized FR device during intervention; (d) randomized controlled trial with existence of a control group; and (e) any lower body parameter related to flexibility, recovery, and performance. Nine studies met that criteria. Results revealed that chronic FR demonstrated conflicting results for improvement of flexibility. On the other hand, a majority of the articles in this review showed no beneficial effects of FR on performance. Lastly, the effect of FR on recovery is unclear. These findings suggest the need for further studies to establish the consensus about the long-term application of FR in flexibility, recovery, and performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8998857PMC
April 2022

Day-to-day Variation of The Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, and Energy Expenditure During FIFA 11+ and Dynamic Warm-up Exercises.

J Hum Kinet 2022 Jan 10;81:73-84. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei 11153, Taiwan.

There seems to be a scarcity in literature investigating day-to-day warm-up (WU) variations. We investigated day-to-day variation of psychophysiological responses during Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11 and dynamic warm-up (DWU) exercises. Twenty-one male collegiate soccer players were randomly assigned to the FIFA 11 (n = 10) or DWU group (n = 11). Each group performed the assigned WU protocol on three different occasions with a 48-h interval in between. The inter-day variation of the heart rate (HR), time distribution of HR zones, heart rate variability (HRV), estimated energy expenditure (EE), blood lactate (BL) concentration, and the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. A two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance was used to compare the differences in chosen variables [group (2) × day (3)]. The coefficient of variation was used to determine the dispersion of the variables over the sessions. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with a two-way random model and a single measure (ICC) was used to determine inter-day reliability. There were no significant differences in time spent at particular HR zones and EE in both groups. The FIFA 11 exercises showed high reliability of exercise duration, average HR (HR), minimal HR (HR), peak HR (HR), and post-exercise RPE. In the DWU group, high reliability was found only in HR, HR, and post-exercise RPE. The FIFA 11 exercises showed similar EE, exercise HR patterns, BL, and RPE compared to the DWU. The FIFA 11 program is an intense WU protocol with a characteristically low variation of day-to-day exercise HR and RPE responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2022-0007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8884869PMC
January 2022

Training During the COVID-19 Lockdown: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of 12,526 Athletes from 142 Countries and Six Continents.

Sports Med 2022 04 23;52(4):933-948. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte, Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

Objective: Our objective was to explore the training-related knowledge, beliefs, and practices of athletes and the influence of lockdowns in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Methods: Athletes (n = 12,526, comprising 13% world class, 21% international, 36% national, 24% state, and 6% recreational) completed an online survey that was available from 17 May to 5 July 2020 and explored their training behaviors (training knowledge, beliefs/attitudes, and practices), including specific questions on their training intensity, frequency, and session duration before and during lockdown (March-June 2020).

Results: Overall, 85% of athletes wanted to "maintain training," and 79% disagreed with the statement that it is "okay to not train during lockdown," with a greater prevalence for both in higher-level athletes. In total, 60% of athletes considered "coaching by correspondence (remote coaching)" to be sufficient (highest amongst world-class athletes). During lockdown, < 40% were able to maintain sport-specific training (e.g., long endurance [39%], interval training [35%], weightlifting [33%], plyometric exercise [30%]) at pre-lockdown levels (higher among world-class, international, and national athletes), with most (83%) training for "general fitness and health maintenance" during lockdown. Athletes trained alone (80%) and focused on bodyweight (65%) and cardiovascular (59%) exercise/training during lockdown. Compared with before lockdown, most athletes reported reduced training frequency (from between five and seven sessions per week to four or fewer), shorter training sessions (from ≥ 60 to < 60 min), and lower sport-specific intensity (~ 38% reduction), irrespective of athlete classification.

Conclusions: COVID-19-related lockdowns saw marked reductions in athletic training specificity, intensity, frequency, and duration, with notable within-sample differences (by athlete classification). Higher classification athletes had the strongest desire to "maintain" training and the greatest opposition to "not training" during lockdowns. These higher classification athletes retained training specificity to a greater degree than others, probably because of preferential access to limited training resources. More higher classification athletes considered "coaching by correspondence" as sufficient than did lower classification athletes. These lockdown-mediated changes in training were not conducive to maintenance or progression of athletes' physical capacities and were also likely detrimental to athletes' mental health. These data can be used by policy makers, athletes, and their multidisciplinary teams to modulate their practice, with a degree of individualization, in the current and continued pandemic-related scenario. Furthermore, the data may drive training-related educational resources for athletes and their multidisciplinary teams. Such upskilling would provide athletes with evidence to inform their training modifications in response to germane situations (e.g., COVID related, injury, and illness).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01573-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8536915PMC
April 2022

A preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of heart rate variability biofeedback on heart rate variability and respiration of athletes.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Arts, and Design, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

To date, there is no quantitative review examining the influence of heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BFB) on the athlete population. Such an undertaking may provide valuable information on the autonomic and respiration responses of athletes when performing HRV BFB. Thus, purpose of this preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of HRV BFB on HRV and respiration of athletes. Searches of Springerlink, SportDiscus, Web of Science, PROQUEST Academic Research Library, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were conducted for studies that met the following criteria: (1) experimental studies involving athletes that underwent randomized control trial; (2) availability of HRV BFB as a treatment compared with a control (CON)/placebo (PLA); (3) any pre and post HRV variable and/or breathing frequency as dependent variable/s; and, (4) peer-reviewed articles written in English. Four out of 660 studies involving 115 athletes (25 females and 90 males) ages 16-30 years old were assessed in this review. Preliminary findings suggest the promising ability of HRV BFB to improve respiratory mechanics in athlete population. More work is needed to determine the autonomic modulatory effect of HRV BFB in athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0528DOI Listing
June 2021

Agreement of Ultra-Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Recordings During Overseas Training Camps in Under-20 National Futsal Players.

Front Psychol 2021 5;12:621399. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

Monitoring the daily change in resting heart rate variability (HRV) can provide information regarding training adaptation and recovery status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during training camps. However, it remains unclear whether postural stabilization is essential for valid and reliable ultra-short-term (HRV) recordings in short-term overseas training camps. Observational and longitudinal study. This study aimed to investigate ultra-short-term heart rate variability recordings under stabilization or post-stabilization periods in four overseas training camps. Twenty-seven U-20 male national team futsal players voluntarily participated in this study. Resting HRV was evaluated for 10 min during the early morning of each training camp. The natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive normal-to-normal interval differences (LnRMSSD) was used for comparisons. Time segments of HRV were divided into two periods with three measures within each: (1) the first 30-s (1st_30 s LnRMSSD), the first 60-s (1st_60 s LnRMSSD), and the 5-min standard (1st_5 min LnRMSSD) during stabilization; (2) the first 30-s (2nd_30 s LnRMSSD), the first 60-s (2nd_60 s LnRMSSD), and the 5-min standard (2nd_5 min LnRMSSD) after stabilization. The results demonstrated trivial to small ES (-0.03; 0.46), very large to nearly perfect ICC (0.76; 0.98), and narrow range of SEM (0.06; 0.31) when all time segments of HRV were compared to the 1st_5 min and 2nd_5 min HRV. Furthermore, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients ranged from very high to nearly perfect for all the time segments ( = 0.83; 0.97). The HRV posted excellent agreement in all time segments (bias = -0.05; 0.12) with/without postural stabilization. Trivial to small levels of effect size in all time segments of LnRMSSD (0.02; 0.41 ES) and LnRMSSD (-0.49; -0.02 ES) across overseas training camps was identified. The first 30 or 60-s LnRMSSD recordings can be used to evaluate daily cardiac-autonomic function during overseas training camps in futsal players. The process for stabilization seems to be unnecessary for measuring the morning resting LnRMSSD in overseas training camps among young adult futsal players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.621399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892599PMC
February 2021

Effect of Acute Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on H-reflex Modulation: A Pilot Study.

J Hum Kinet 2021 Jan 29;76:83-88. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei Taiwan.

Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BFB) is paced breathing scheme that stimulates resonance in the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a single-session HRV BFB on Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) of the soleus muscle. Twelve healthy males (height: 173.7 ± 7.18 cm; weight: 72.7 ± 17.7 kg; age: 24.0 ± 5.02 yrs) completed a randomized-crossover intervention involving a 10-minute HRV BFB and normal breathing (CON) separated by 48 hours. Results revealed significantly lower 1a afferent activation after HRV BFB. Similarly, the HRV BFB also demonstrated lower proportion of activated motor neurons from 1a afferents. In conclusion, an acute HRV BFB influenced the reduction in motoneuron excitability at resting condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2021-0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877276PMC
January 2021

Can Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Improve Athletic Performance? A Systematic Review.

J Hum Kinet 2020 Jul 21;73:103-114. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Faculty of Health, Arts, and Design, School of Health Sciences, Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.

This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effect of heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BFB) on performance of athletes. Six electronic databases (Springerlink, SportDiscus, Web of Science, PROQUEST Academic Research Library, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect) and article references were searched. Eligibility criteria were: 1. experimental studies involving athletes randomly allocated among groups (randomized control trial); 2. availability of HRV BFB as a treatment compared to a control condition (CON) that involves regular sport/dance training, a placebo (PLA) or other methods of BFB; 3. performance-related variables such as a dependent index; and, 4. peer-reviewed articles written in English. Out of 660 articles, six studies were included in the systematic review which involved 187 athletes (females: n = 89; males n = 98). Six studies compared HRV BFB with a CON, three studies compared HRV BFB with a PLA, and two studies differentiated HRV BFB with other methods of BFB. Findings support HRV BFB as a potential intervention to improve fine and gross motor function in athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2020-0004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386140PMC
July 2020

A Novel Smartphone App for the Measurement of Ultra-Short-Term and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability: Validity and Reliability Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 07 31;8(7):e18761. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Smartphone apps for heart rate variability (HRV) measurement have been extensively developed in the last decade. However, ultra-short-term HRV recordings taken by wearable devices have not been examined.

Objective: The aims of this study were the following: (1) to compare the validity and reliability of ultra-short-term and short-term HRV time-domain and frequency-domain variables in a novel smartphone app, Pulse Express Pro (PEP), and (2) to determine the agreement of HRV assessments between an electrocardiogram (ECG) and PEP.

Methods: In total, 60 healthy adults were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 22.3 years [SD 3.0 years], mean height 168.4 cm [SD 8.0 cm], mean body weight 64.2 kg [SD 11.5 kg]). A 5-minute resting HRV measurement was recorded via ECG and PEP in a sitting position. Standard deviation of normal R-R interval (SDNN), root mean square of successive R-R interval (RMSSD), proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of RR intervals (pNN50), normalized very-low-frequency power (nVLF), normalized low-frequency power (nLF), and normalized high-frequency power (nHF) were analyzed within 9 time segments of HRV recordings: 0-1 minute, 1-2 minutes, 2-3 minutes, 3-4 minutes, 4-5 minutes, 0-2 minutes, 0-3 minutes, 0-4 minutes, and 0-5 minutes (standard). Standardized differences (ES), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and the Spearman product-moment correlation were used to compare the validity and reliability of each time segment to the standard measurement (0-5 minutes). Limits of agreement were assessed by using Bland-Altman plot analysis.

Results: Compared to standard measures in both ECG and PEP, pNN50, SDNN, and RMSSD variables showed trivial ES (<0.2) and very large to nearly perfect ICC and Spearman correlation coefficient values in all time segments (>0.8). The nVLF, nLF, and nHF demonstrated a variation of ES (from trivial to small effects, 0.01-0.40), ICC (from moderate to nearly perfect, 0.39-0.96), and Spearman correlation coefficient values (from moderate to nearly perfect, 0.40-0.96). Furthermore, the Bland-Altman plots showed relatively narrow values of mean difference between the ECG and PEP after consecutive 1-minute recordings for SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50. Acceptable limits of agreement were found after consecutive 3-minute recordings for nLF and nHF.

Conclusions: Using the PEP app to facilitate a 1-minute ultra-short-term recording is suggested for time-domain HRV indices (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) to interpret autonomic functions during stabilization. When using frequency-domain HRV indices (nLF and nHF) via the PEP app, a recording of at least 3 minutes is needed for accurate measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428904PMC
July 2020

A Meta-Analysis on the Effect of Complex Training on Vertical Jump Performance.

J Hum Kinet 2020 Jan 31;71:255-265. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Sports Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

Complex training (CT) is a strength training intervention performed by completing all the sets of a resistance exercise followed by a series of high-velocity/plyometric exercise/s. The purpose of this novel study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the effect of CT on vertical jump (VJ) performance. Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to CT and the VJ. Studies needed to include randomized trials comparing CT with traditional resistance training (RT)/plyometric training (PLYO)/control (CON) lasting ≥ 4 weeks and the VJ as a dependent variable. Seven studies qualified for the meta-analysis with two studies differentiating VJ performance from CT and RT, two studies comparing VJ performance of CT and PLYO, and two studies establishing the difference in VJ performance between CT and CON. Results indicated similar improvement in VJ performance from CT and RT (p = 0.88). On the other hand, greater VJ performance in CT than PLYO was identified (ES = 0.86; 95% CI 0.24, 1.47; p = 0.01). CT also showed significantly greater enhancement in VJ compared to CON (ES = 1.14; 95% CI 0.60, 1.68; p < 0.01). In conclusion, CT can serve as alternative training from RT in improving VJ performance. On the other hand, CT is a better option in VJ enhancement than PLYO and CON.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052715PMC
January 2020

Reliability, Validity and Usefulness of a New Response Time Test for Agility-Based Sports: A Simple vs. Complex Motor Task.

J Sports Sci Med 2019 12 19;18(4):623-635. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

The importance of response time (RT) in sports is well known, but there is an evident lack of reliable and valid sport-specific measurement tools applicable in the evaluation of RT in trained athletes. This study aimed to identify the validity, reliability, and usefulness of four newly developed RT testing protocols among athletes from agility-saturated (AG) and non-agility-saturated (NAG) sports. Thirty-seven AG and ten NAG athletes (age: 20.9 ± 2.9; eleven females) volunteered to undergo: three randomized simple response time (SRT-1, SRT-2, and SRT-3) protocols that included a single limb movement, and one complex response time (CRT) protocol that included multi joint movements and whole body transition over a short distance (1.5 and 1.8m). Each RT test involved 3 trials with 5 randomized attempts per trial. Two sensors were placed at the left- and right-hand side for SRT-1 and SRT-2. Three sensors were positioned (left, middle, right) in SRT-3 and CRT. The intra-class-correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated as a measure of reliability. Independent sample t-test, effect size (d), and area-under-the-curve (AUC) were calculated to define discriminative validity of the tests. The results showed the newly developed tests were more reliable and useful in the AG than NAG athletes (i.e., ICC between 0.68 and 0.97 versus 0.31-0.90, respectively). The RT of AG athletes was faster than that of NAG athletes in the CRT test from the left (p <0.01, = 2.40, AUC: 0.98), centre (p < 0.01, = 1.57, AUC: 0.89), and right sensor (p < 0.01, = 1.93, AUC: 0.89) locations. In contrast, there were no differences between the groups in the SRT tests. The weak correlation (i.e., r= 0.00-0.33) between the SRT and CRT tests suggests that response time of the single limb and multijoint limb movements should not be considered as a single motor capacity. In conclusion, this study showed that AG athletes had faster response time than their NAG peers during complex motor tasks. Such enhanced ability to rapidly and accurately reprogram complex motor tasks can be considered one of the essential qualities required for advanced performance in agility-based sports.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873124PMC
December 2019

Acute effects of resonance frequency breathing on cardiovascular regulation.

Physiol Rep 2019 11;7(22):e14295

School of Health Sciences, Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.

Acute slow breathing may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular regulation by affecting hemodynamics and the autonomic nervous system. Whether breathing at the resonance frequency (RF), a breathing rate that maximizes heart rate oscillations, induces differential effects to that of slow breathing is unknown. We compared the acute effects of breathing at either RF and RF + 1 breaths per minute on muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA) and baroreflex function. Ten healthy men underwent MSNA, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) recordings while breathing for 10 min at their spontaneous breathing (SB) rate followed by 10 min at both RF and RF + 1 randomly assigned and separated by a 10-min recovery. Breathing at either RF or RF + 1 induced similar changes in HR and HR variability, with increased low frequency and decreased high frequency oscillations (p < .001 for both). Both respiration rates decreased MSNA (-5.6 and -7.3 bursts per min for RF and RF + 1 p < .05), with the sympathetic bursts occurring more often during mid-inspiration to early expiration (+57% and + 80%) and longer periods of silence between bursts were seen (p < .05 for RF + 1). Systolic BP was decreased only during RF (-4.6 mmHg, p < .05) but the decrease did not differ to that seen during RF + 1 (-3.1 mmHg). The sympathetic baroreflex function remained unchanged at either breathing rates. The slope of the cardiac baroreflex function was unaltered but the cardiac baroreflex efficiency was improved during both RF and RF + 1. Acute breathing at either RF or RF + 1 has similar hemodynamic and sympatho-inhibitory effects in healthy men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882954PMC
November 2019

Trait Self-Control, Social Cognition Constructs, and Intentions: Correlational Evidence for Mediation and Moderation Effects in Diverse Health Behaviours.

Appl Psychol Health Well Being 2019 11 5;11(3):407-437. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Curtin University, Australia.

Background: We examined effects of trait self-control, constructs from social cognition theories, and intentions on health behaviours. Trait self-control was expected to predict health behaviour indirectly through theory constructs and intentions. Trait self-control was also predicted to moderate the intention-behaviour relationship.

Methods: Proposed effects were tested in six datasets for ten health-related behaviours from studies adopting prospective designs. Participants (N = 3,249) completed measures of constructs from social cognition theories and self-control at an initial time point and self-reported their behaviour at follow-up.

Results: Results revealed indirect effects of self-control on behaviour through social cognition constructs and intentions for eight behaviours: eating fruit and vegetables, avoiding fast food, dietary restrictions, binge drinking, physical activity, walking, out-of-school physical activity, and pre-drinking. Self-control moderated the intention-behaviour relationship in four behaviours: dietary restriction, and alcohol-related behaviours.

Conclusions: Mediation effects suggest that individuals with high self-control are more likely to hold beliefs and intentions to participate in future health behaviour, and more likely to act. Moderation effects indicate that individuals with high self-control are more likely to enact healthy intentions and inhibit unhealthy intentions, but findings were restricted to few behaviours. Training self-control and managing contingencies that derail goal-directed action may be effective intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12153DOI Listing
November 2019

Acute effects of loaded whole body vibration training on performance.

Asian J Sports Med 2015 Mar 20;6(1):e24054. Epub 2015 Mar 20.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Background: The application of whole body vibration (WBV) as a warm-up scheme has been receiving an increasing interest among practitioners.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of loaded and unloaded WBV on countermovement jump, speed and agility.

Patients And Methods: Twenty-one healthy male college football players (age: 20.14 ± 1.65 years; body height: 179.9 ± 8.34 cm; body mass: 74.4 ± 13.0 kg; % body fat: 9.45 ± 4.8) underwent randomized controlled trials that involved standing in a half squat position (ST), ST with 30% of bodyweight (ST + 30%), whole body vibration at f = 50 Hz, A = 4 mm (WBV), and WBV with 30% bodyweight (WBV + 30% BW) after a standardized warm-up. Post measures of countermovement jump, 15-m sprint, and modified t-test were utilized for analyses.

Results: One way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the countermovement jump performance, F (3, 60 = 9.06, η2 = 2.21, P = 0.000. Post-hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW posted significant difference compared to (P = 0.008), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). There was also a significant difference in the sprint times among interventions, F (3, 60) = 23.0, η2 = 0.865, P = 0.000. Post hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW displayed significantly lower time values than ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). Lastly, there was a significant difference in the agility performance across experimental conditions at F(2.01, 40.1) = 21.0, η2 = 0.954, P = 0.000. Post hoc demonstrated that WBV have lower times than ST (P = 0.013). Also, WBV + 30% BW posted lower times compared to ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.003).

Conclusions: Additional external load of 30% bodyweight under WBV posted superior gains in countermovement jump, speed and agility compared to unloaded WBV, loaded non-WBV and unloaded non-WBV interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.24054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393544PMC
March 2015

Effect of various warm-up protocols on jump performance in college football players.

J Hum Kinet 2012 Dec 30;35:127-32. Epub 2012 Dec 30.

College of Human Kinetics, University of the Philippines - Diliman, Philippines.

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of warm-up strategies on countermovement jump performance. Twenty-nine male college football players (age: 19.4 ± 1.1 years; body height: 179.0 ± 5.1 cm; body mass: 73.1 ± 8.0 kg; % body fat: 11.1 ± 2.7) from the Tuzla University underwent a control (no warm-up) and different warm-up conditions: 1. general warm-up; 2. general warm-up with dynamic stretching; 3. general warm-up, dynamic stretching and passive stretching; 4. passive static stretching; 5. passive static stretching and general warm-up; and, 6. passive static stretching, general warm-up and dynamic stretching. Countermovement jump performance was measured after each intervention or control. Results from one way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference on warm-up strategies at F (4.07, 113.86) = 69.56, p < 0.001, eta squared = 0.72. Bonferonni post hoc revealed that a general warm-up and a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted the greatest gains among all interventions. On the other hand, no warm-up and passive static stretching displayed the least results in countermovement jump performance. In conclusion, countermovement jump performance preceded by a general warm-up or a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted superior gains in countermovement jump performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10078-012-0086-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3588691PMC
December 2012

Exercise Science Academic Programs and Research in the Philippines.

Int J Exerc Sci 2010;3(4):157-164. Epub 2010 Oct 15.

Sports Science Department, College of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, PHILIPPINES.

In this invited editorial, professors from leading institutions in the Philippines, share information regarding their programs relating to Exercise Science. They have provided information on academic components such as entrance requirements, progression through programs, and professional opportunities available to students following completion; as well as details regarding funding available to students to participate in research, collaboration, and specific research interests.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4738868PMC
October 2010
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