Publications by authors named "Jeffrey N Weitzel"

186 Publications

Association of germline variation with the survival of women with BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants and breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2020 Sep 10;6(1):44. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-00185-6DOI Listing
September 2020

Weight Gain and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer in and Mutation Carriers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Weight gain and other anthropometric measures on the risk of ovarian cancer for women with mutations are not known. We conducted a prospective analysis of weight change since age 18, height, body mass index (BMI) at age 18, and current BMI and the risk of developing ovarian cancer among and mutation carriers.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study, height, weight, and weight at age 18 were collected at study enrollment. Weight was updated biennially. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ovarian cancer.

Results: This study followed 4,340 women prospectively. There were 121 incident cases of ovarian cancer. Weight gain of more than 20 kg since age 18 was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of ovarian cancer, compared with women who maintained a stable weight (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13-3.54; = 0.02). Current BMI of 26.5 kg/m or greater was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in mutation carriers, compared with those with a BMI less than 20.8 kg/m (Q4 vs. Q1 HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.04-4.36; = 0.04). There were no significant associations between height or BMI at age 18 and risk of ovarian cancer.

Conclusions: Adult weight gain is a risk factor for ovarian cancer in women with a or mutation.

Impact: These findings emphasize the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adulthood in women at high risk for ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0296DOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic epidemiology of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated cancer across Latin America.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Aug 19;7(1):107. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Latin American School of Oncology (Escuela Latinoamericana de Oncología), Tuxla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico.

The prevalence and contribution of BRCA1/2 (BRCA) pathogenic variants (PVs) to the cancer burden in Latin America are not well understood. This study aims to address this disparity. BRCA analyses were performed on prospectively enrolled Latin American Clinical Cancer Genomics Community Research Network participants via a combination of methods: a Hispanic Mutation Panel (HISPANEL) on MassARRAY; semiconductor sequencing; and copy number variant (CNV) detection. BRCA PV probability was calculated using BRCAPRO. Among 1,627 participants (95.2% with cancer), we detected 236 (14.5%) BRCA PVs; 160 BRCA1 (31% CNVs); 76 BRCA2 PV frequency varied by country: 26% Brazil, 9% Colombia, 13% Peru, and 17% Mexico. Recurrent PVs (seen ≥3 times), some region-specific, represented 42.8% (101/236) of PVs. There was no ClinVar entry for 14% (17/125) of unique PVs, and 57% (111/196) of unique VUS. The area under the ROC curve for BRCAPRO was 0.76. In summary, we implemented a low-cost BRCA testing strategy and documented a significant burden of non-ClinVar reported BRCA PVs among Latin Americans. There are recurrent, population-specific PVs and CNVs, and we note that the BRCAPRO mutation probability model performs adequately. This study helps address the gap in our understanding of BRCA-associated cancer in Latin America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00317-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377150PMC
August 2021

Risk of Late-Onset Breast Cancer in Genetically Predisposed Women.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 22:JCO2100531. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: The prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in established breast cancer predisposition genes in women in the general population over age 65 years is not well-defined. However, testing guidelines suggest that women diagnosed with breast cancer over age 65 years might have < 2.5% likelihood of a PV in a high-penetrance gene. This study aimed to establish the frequency of PVs and remaining risks of breast cancer for each gene in women over age 65 years.

Methods: A total of 26,707 women over age 65 years from population-based studies (51.5% with breast cancer and 48.5% unaffected) were tested for PVs in germline predisposition gene. Frequencies of PVs and associations between PVs in each gene and breast cancer were assessed, and remaining lifetime breast cancer risks were estimated for non-Hispanic White women with PVs.

Results: The frequency of PVs in predisposition genes was 3.18% for women with breast cancer and 1.48% for unaffected women over age 65 years. PVs in , , and were found in 3.42% of women diagnosed with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, 1.0% with ER-positive, and 3.01% with triple-negative breast cancer. Frequencies of PVs were lower among women with no first-degree relatives with breast cancer. PVs in , , , and were associated with increased risks (odds ratio = 2.9-4.0) of breast cancer. Remaining lifetime risks of breast cancer were ≥ 15% for those with PVs in , , and .

Conclusion: This study suggests that all women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer or ER-negative breast cancer should receive genetic testing and that women over age 65 years with and PVs and perhaps with and PVs should be considered for magnetic resonance imaging screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00531DOI Listing
July 2021

Development and Pilot Implementation of the Genomic Risk Assessment for Cancer Implementation and Sustainment (GRACIAS) Intervention in Mexico.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 06;7:992-1002

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA.

Purpose: Genomic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) is standard-of-care practice that uses genomic tools to identify individuals with increased cancer risk, enabling screening for early detection and cancer prevention interventions. GCRA is not available in most of Mexico, where breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer death and ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate.

Methods: Guided by an implementation science framework, we piloted the Genomic Risk Assessment for Cancer Implementation and Sustainment (GRACIAS) intervention, combining GCRA training, practice support, and low-cost / () gene testing at four centers in Mexico. The RE-AIM model was adapted to evaluate GRACIAS intervention outcomes, including reach, the proportion of new patients meeting adapted National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria who participated in GCRA. Barriers to GCRA were identified through roundtable sessions and semistructured interviews.

Results: Eleven clinicians were trained across four sites. Mean pre-post knowledge score increased from 60% to 67.2% (range 53%-86%). GCRA self-efficacy scores increased by 31% (95% CI, 6.47 to 55.54; = .02). Participant feedback recommended Spanish content to improve learning. GRACIAS promoted reach at all sites: 77% in Universidad de Guadalajara, 86% in Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, 90% in Tecnológico de Monterrey, and 77% in Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán. Overall, a pathogenic variant was identified in 15.6% (195 of 1,253) of patients. All trainees continue to provide GCRA and address barriers to care.

Conclusion: We describe the first project to use implementation science methods to develop and deliver an innovative multicomponent implementation intervention, combining low-cost testing, comprehensive GCRA training, and practice support in Mexico. Scale-up of the GRACIAS intervention will promote risk-appropriate care, cancer prevention, and reduction in related mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.20.00587DOI Listing
June 2021

A Novel, Likely Pathogenic Germline Variant in a Patient With Unilateral Pheochromocytoma.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Aug 3;5(8):bvab085. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Neuroendocrinology Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Tlalpan 14000, Mexico City, Mexico.

Context: Inherited MYC-associated factor X () gene pathogenic variants (PVs) increase risk for pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and/or paragangliomas (PGLs) in adults and children. There is little clinical experience with such mutations.

Objective: This report highlights an important approach.

Methods: Clinical assessment, including blood chemistry, imaging studies, and genetic testing were performed.

Results: A 38-year-old Hispanic woman was diagnosed with PCC in 2015, treated with adrenalectomy, and referred to endocrinology clinic. Notably, she presented to her primary care physician 3 years earlier complaining of left flank pain, intermittent diaphoresis, and holocranial severe headache. We confirmed severe hypertension (180/100 mm Hg) over multiple antihypertensive regimens. Biochemical and radiological studies workup revealed high plasma metanephrine of 255 pg/mL (normal range, < 65 pg/mL) and plasma normetanephrine of 240 pg/mL (normal range, < 196 pg/mL). A noncontrast computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a 4.2 × 4.3 × 4.9-cm, round-shaped and heterogenous contrast enhancement of the left adrenal gland, and a 2-mm nonobstructive left kidney stone. A presumptive diagnosis of secondary hypertension was made. After pharmacological therapy, laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Based on her age, family history, and a high suspicion for genetic etiology, genetic testing was performed that revealed the presence of a novel likely pathogenic variant involving a splice consensus sequence in the gene, designated .

Conclusion: The phenotype of PV-related disease and paraganglioma are highlighted. The novel mutation is reported here and should be considered in the diagnostic workup of similar cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvab085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218934PMC
August 2021

Risk of Breast Cancer Among Carriers of Pathogenic Variants in Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes Varies by Polygenic Risk Score.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 8;39(23):2564-2573. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Population Health Sciences Department, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Purpose: This study assessed the joint association of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer (BC) predisposition genes and polygenic risk scores (PRS) with BC in the general population.

Methods: A total of 26,798 non-Hispanic white BC cases and 26,127 controls from predominately population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility consortium were evaluated for PVs in , , , , , , , , and . PRS based on 105 common variants were created using effect estimates from BC genome-wide association studies; the performance of an overall BC PRS and estrogen receptor-specific PRS were evaluated. The odds of BC based on the PVs and PRS were estimated using penalized logistic regression. The results were combined with age-specific incidence rates to estimate 5-year and lifetime absolute risks of BC across percentiles of PRS by PV status and first-degree family history of BC.

Results: The estimated lifetime risks of BC among general-population noncarriers, based on 10th and 90th percentiles of PRS, were 9.1%-23.9% and 6.7%-18.2% for women with or without first-degree relatives with BC, respectively. Taking PRS into account, more than 95% of , , and carriers had > 20% lifetime risks of BC, whereas, respectively, 52.5% and 69.7% of and carriers without first-degree relatives with BC, and 78.8% and 89.9% of those with a first-degree relative with BC had > 20% risk.

Conclusion: PRS facilitates personalization of BC risk among carriers of PVs in predisposition genes. Incorporating PRS into BC risk estimation may help identify > 30% of and nearly half of carriers below the 20% lifetime risk threshold, suggesting the addition of PRS may prevent overscreening and enable more personalized risk management approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330969PMC
August 2021

Integrating Clinical and Polygenic Factors to Predict Breast Cancer Risk in Women Undergoing Genetic Testing.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 28;5. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Screening and prevention decisions for women at increased risk of developing breast cancer depend on genetic and clinical factors to estimate risk and select appropriate interventions. Integration of polygenic risk into clinical breast cancer risk estimators can improve discrimination. However, correlated genetic effects must be incorporated carefully to avoid overestimation of risk.

Materials And Methods: A novel Fixed-Stratified method was developed that accounts for confounding when adding a new factor to an established risk model. A combined risk score (CRS) of an 86-single-nucleotide polymorphism polygenic risk score and the Tyrer-Cuzick v7.02 clinical risk estimator was generated with attenuation for confounding by family history. Calibration and discriminatory accuracy of the CRS were evaluated in two independent validation cohorts of women of European ancestry (N = 1,615 and N = 518). Discrimination for remaining lifetime risk was examined by age-adjusted logistic regression. Risk stratification with a 20% risk threshold was compared between CRS and Tyrer-Cuzick in an independent clinical cohort (N = 32,576).

Results: Simulation studies confirmed that the Fixed-Stratified method produced accurate risk estimation across patients with different family history. In both validation studies, CRS and Tyrer-Cuzick were significantly associated with breast cancer. In an analysis with both CRS and Tyrer-Cuzick as predictors of breast cancer, CRS added significant discrimination independent of that captured by Tyrer-Cuzick ( < 10 in validation 1; < 10 in validation 2). In an independent cohort, 18% of women shifted breast cancer risk categories from their Tyrer-Cuzick-based risk compared with risk estimates by CRS.

Conclusion: Integrating clinical and polygenic factors into a risk model offers more effective risk stratification and supports a personalized genomic approach to breast cancer screening and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140787PMC
January 2021

Germline mutations and age at onset of lung adenocarcinoma.

Cancer 2021 Aug 15;127(15):2801-2806. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California.

Background: To identify additional at-risk groups for lung cancer screening, which targets persons with a long history of smoking and thereby misses younger or nonsmoking cases, the authors evaluated germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma for an association with an accelerated onset.

Methods: The authors assembled a retrospective cohort (1999-2018) of oncogenetic clinic patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Eligibility required a family history of cancer, data on smoking, and a germline biospecimen to screen via a multigene panel. Germline PVs (TP53/EGFR, BRCA2, other Fanconi anemia [FA] pathway genes, and non-FA DNA repair genes) were interrogated for associations with the age at diagnosis via an accelerated failure time model.

Results: Subjects (n = 187; age, 28-89 years; female, 72.7%; Hispanic, 11.8%) included smokers (minimum of 5 pack-years; n = 65) and nonsmokers (lighter ever smokers [n = 18] and never smokers [n = 104]). Overall, 26.7% of the subjects carried 1 to 2 germline PVs: TP53 (n = 5), EGFR (n = 2), BRCA2 (n = 6), another FA gene (n = 11), or another DNA repair gene (n = 28). After adjustment for smoking, sex, and ethnicity, the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was accelerated 12.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-20.6 years) by BRCA2 PVs, 9.0 years (95% CI, 0.5-16.5 years) by TP53/EGFR PVs, and 6.1 years (95% CI, -1.0 to 12.6 years) by PVs in other FA genes. PVs in other DNA repair genes showed no association. Germline associations did not vary by smoking.

Conclusions: Among lung adenocarcinoma cases, germline PVs (TP53, EGFR, BRCA2, and possibly other FA genes) may be associated with an earlier onset. With further study, the criteria for lung cancer screening may need to include carriers of high-risk PVs, and findings could influence precision therapy and reduce lung cancer mortality by earlier stage diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33573DOI Listing
August 2021

Multigene assessment of genetic risk for women for two or more breast cancers.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Aug 7;188(3):759-768. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

City of Hope Cancer Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Purpose: The prevalence, penetrance, and spectrum of pathogenic variants that predispose women to two or more breast cancers is largely unknown.

Methods: We queried clinical and genetic data from women with one or more breast cancer diagnosis who received multigene panel testing between 2013 and 2018. Clinical data were obtained from provider-completed test request forms. For each gene on the panel, a multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to test for association with risk of multiple breast cancer diagnoses. Models accounted for age of diagnosis, personal and family cancer history, and ancestry. Results are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: This study included 98,979 patients: 88,759 (89.7%) with a single breast cancer and 10,220 (10.3%) with ≥ 2 breast cancers. Of women with two or more breast cancers, 13.2% had a pathogenic variant in a cancer predisposition gene compared to 9.4% with a single breast cancer. BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, MSH6, PALB2, PTEN, and TP53 were significantly associated with two or more breast cancers, with ORs ranging from 1.35 for CHEK2 to 3.80 for PTEN. Overall, pathogenic variants in all breast cancer risk genes combined were associated with both metachronous (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.53-1.79, p = 7.2 × 10) and synchronous (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.50, p = 2.4 × 10) breast cancers.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that several high and moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes are associated with ≥ 2 breast cancers, affirming the association of two or more breast cancers with diverse genetic etiologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06201-yDOI Listing
August 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

A Population-Based Study of Genes Previously Implicated in Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):440-451. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

From Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (C. Hu, S.N.H., R.G., K.Y.L., J.N., J.L., S. Yadav, N.J.B., T.L., J.E.O., C.S., C.M.V., E.C.P., F.J.C.); Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health (H.H., C.G., D.J.H., P.K.), Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University (K.A.B., J.R.P., L.R.), and Brigham and Women's Hospital (H.E.) - all in Boston; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany (R.S., J.K.); Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo (C.B.A., S. Yao), and Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (R.T.) - both in New York; the University of California, Irvine (H.A.-C., A.Z.), Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte (L.B., H.M., S.N., J.N.W.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (C. Haiman), and Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (E.M.J., A.W.K.) - all in California; the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, Milwaukee (P.A.), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison (E.S.B., I.M.O., A.T.-D.); the Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick (E.V.B.); the Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta (B.D.C., S.M.G., M.G., J.M.H., E.J.J., A.V.P.); the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (D.J.H.); the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (C.K., P.A.N.) and the Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington (S.L.) - both in Seattle; the Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu (L.L.M.); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, NC (K.M.O., D.P.S., J.A.T., C.W.); Vanderbilt University, Nashville (T.P., S.R.); the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (D.E.G.); and the Department of Medicine and the Basser Center for BRCA, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.M.D., K.L.N.).

Background: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants.

Methods: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed.

Results: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in and were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in , , and were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in , , and were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in , were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Conclusions: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127622PMC
February 2021

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic, Version 2.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 01 6;19(1):77-102. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute.

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic focus primarily on assessment of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. This manuscript focuses on cancer risk and risk management for BRCA-related breast/ovarian cancer syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Carriers of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. There is also evidence that risks of prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer are elevated in these carriers. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk for cancer, including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, and brain tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0001DOI Listing
January 2021

Breast cancer associated pathogenic variants among women 61 years and older with triple negative breast cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol 2021 06 1;12(5):749-751. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics Research, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Women with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have a high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations, and current clinical guidelines recommend genetic testing for patients with TNBC aged ≤60 years. However, studies supporting this recommendation have included few older women with TNBC.

Methods: Genetic testing results from women aged >60 years with TNBC enrolled in the Clinical Cancer Genomics Community Research Network (CCGCRN) registry were included in this analysis. Prevalence of breast cancer-associated pathogenic variants (PVs) was compared across age groups.

Results: We identified 151 women with TNBC aged >60 years (median 65 years; SD 5.3). Of these, 130 (86%) underwent genetic testing, and a breast cancer-associated PV was identified in 16 (12.3%; 95% CI 7-19): BRCA1 (n = 6), BRCA2 (n = 5), PALB2 (n = 2), ATM (n = 1) and RAD51C (n = 2). We found no differences in the proportion of patients with close blood relatives with breast (≤50 years) or ovarian cancer (any age) between PV carriers (37.5%) and non-carriers (34.2%) (p = 0.79). Among PV's carriers, the proportion of older women with a BRCA1 PV was lower when compared to younger women (37.5% vs 77.2%; p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Breast cancer-associated PVs were found in an important proportion of women aged >60 years with TNBC undergoing genetic testing, including greater representation of BRCA2. These results suggest that older women with TNBC should be offered genetic testing, and that their exclusion based on chronologic age alone may not be appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2020.11.008DOI Listing
June 2021

Mutation screening of germline TP53 mutations in high-risk Chinese breast cancer patients.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 2;20(1):1053. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Germline TP53 mutations are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a severe and rare hereditary cancer syndrome. Despite the rarity of germline TP53 mutations, the clinical implication for mutation carriers and their families is significant. The risk management of TP53 germline mutation carriers is more stringent than BRCA carriers, and radiotherapy should be avoided when possible.

Methods: TP53 gene mutation screening was performed in 2538 Chinese breast cancer patients who tested negative for BRCA mutations.

Results: Twenty TP53 mutations were identified with high next-generation sequencing concerning for germline mutations in Chinese breast cancer families. The majorities of the TP53 carriers had early-onset, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and had strong family history of cancer. Among all, 11 patients carried a germline mutation and 6 of which were likely de novo germline mutations. In addition, 1 case was suspected to be induced by chemotherapy or radiation, as this patient had no significant family history of cancer and aberrant clonal expansion can commonly include TP53 mutations. Furthermore, we have identified one mosaic LFS case. Two novel mutations (c.524_547dup and c.529_546del) were identified in patients with early-onset.

Conclusions: In view of the high lifetime risk of malignancy, identification of patients with germline TP53 mutations are important for clinicians to aid in accurate risk assessment and offer surveillance for patients and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07476-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607817PMC
November 2020

Breastfeeding and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 12 30;159(3):820-826. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: BRCA mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. The strong inverse association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer is established in the general population but is less well studied among women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

Method: Thus, we conducted a matched case-control analysis to evaluate the association between breastfeeding history and the risk of developing ovarian cancer. After matching for year of birth, country of residence, BRCA gene and personal history of breast cancer, a total of 1650 cases and 2702 controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with various breastfeeding exposures.

Results: A history of ever-breastfeeding was associated with a 23% reduction in risk (OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.66-0.90; P = 0.001). The protective effect increased with breastfeeding from one month to seven months after which the association was relatively stable. Compared to women who never breastfed, breastfeeding for seven or more months was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.0001) and did not vary by BRCA gene or age at diagnosis. The combination of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use was strongly protective (0.47; 95%CI 0.37-0.58; P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: These findings support a protective effect of breastfeeding for at least seven months among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, that is independent of oral contraceptive use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.09.037DOI Listing
December 2020

Association of germline variation with the survival of women with pathogenic variants and breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2020 10;6:44. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Toronto, ON Canada.

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in or genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30,  = 3.1 × 10). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-00185-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483417PMC
September 2020

Mutation Rates in Cancer Susceptibility Genes in Patients With Breast Cancer With Multiple Primary Cancers.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 19;4. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Basser Center for BRCA and Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown.

Patients And Methods: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with -negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]).

Results: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% 4.9% [ = .02] and 7.1% 4.2% [ = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. and mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas and mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC.

Conclusion: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.19.00301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496037PMC
August 2020

A Rare Mutation Predominant in Ashkenazi Jews Confers Risk of Multiple Cancers.

Cancer Res 2020 09 16;80(17):3732-3744. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, New York.

Germline mutations in cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of . The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including , and ) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-1390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484045PMC
September 2020

Tissue-Biased Expansion of DNMT3A-Mutant Clones in a Mosaic Individual Is Associated with Conserved Epigenetic Erosion.

Cell Stem Cell 2020 08 15;27(2):326-335.e4. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) is the most commonly mutated gene in clonal hematopoiesis (CH). Somatic DNMT3A mutations arise in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) many years before malignancies develop, but difficulties in comparing their impact before malignancy with wild-type cells have limited the understanding of their contributions to transformation. To circumvent this limitation, we derived normal and DNMT3A mutant lymphoblastoid cell lines from a germline mosaic individual in whom these cells co-existed for nearly 6 decades. Mutant cells dominated the blood system, but not other tissues. Deep sequencing revealed similar mutational burdens and signatures in normal and mutant clones, while epigenetic profiling uncovered the focal erosion of DNA methylation at oncogenic regulatory regions in mutant clones. These regions overlapped with those sensitive to DNMT3A loss after DNMT3A ablation in HSCs and in leukemia samples. These results suggest that DNMT3A maintains a conserved DNA methylation pattern, the erosion of which provides a distinct competitive advantage to hematopoietic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.06.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494054PMC
August 2020

Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 10 15;22(10):1653-1666. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Exeter, UK.

Purpose: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

Results: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

Conclusion: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0862-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521995PMC
October 2020

Characterization of the Cancer Spectrum in Men With Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variants: Results From the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA).

JAMA Oncol 2020 08;6(8):1218-1230

Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population.

Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected.

Main Outcomes And Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview.

Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier.

Conclusions And Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.2134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333177PMC
August 2020

Association of a Polygenic Risk Score With Breast Cancer Among Women Carriers of High- and Moderate-Risk Breast Cancer Genes.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 07 1;3(7):e208501. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Importance: To date, few studies have examined the extent to which polygenic single-nucleotide variation (SNV) (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism) scores modify risk for carriers of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer susceptibility genes. In previous reports, polygenic risk modification was reduced for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers, but limited information is available for carriers of CHEK2, ATM, or PALB2 PVs.

Objective: To examine an 86-SNV polygenic risk score (PRS) for BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PV carriers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective case-control study using data on 150 962 women tested with a multigene hereditary cancer panel between July 19, 2016, and January 11, 2019, was conducted in a commercial testing laboratory. Participants included women of European ancestry between the ages of 18 and 84 years.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of the 86-SNV score with invasive breast cancer after adjusting for age, ancestry, and personal and/or family cancer history. Effect sizes, expressed as standardized odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs, were assessed for carriers of PVs in each gene as well as for noncarriers.

Results: The median age at hereditary cancer testing of the population was 48 years (range, 18-84 years); there were 141 160 noncarriers in addition to carriers of BRCA1 (n = 2249), BRCA2 (n = 2638), CHEK2 (n = 2564), ATM (n = 1445), and PALB2 (n = 906) PVs included in the analysis. The 86-SNV score was associated with breast cancer risk in each of the carrier populations (P < 1 × 10-4). Stratification was more pronounced for noncarriers (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.45-1.49) and CHEK2 PV carriers (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.36-1.64) than for carriers of BRCA1 (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.32) or BRCA2 (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.34) PVs. Odds ratios for ATM (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.55) and PALB2 (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55) PV carrier populations were intermediate between those for BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 noncarriers.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, the 86-SNV score was associated with modified risk for carriers of BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PVs. This finding supports previous reports of reduced PRS stratification for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers. Modification of risk in CHEK2 carriers associated with the 86-SNV score appeared to be similar to that observed in women without a PV. Larger studies are needed to provide more refined estimates of polygenic modification of risk for women with PVs in other moderate-penetrance genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330720PMC
July 2020

Suggested application of HER2+ breast tumor phenotype for germline TP53 variant classification within ACMG/AMP guidelines.

Hum Mutat 2020 09 12;41(9):1555-1562. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Genetics and Computational Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

Early onset breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, caused by germline TP53 pathogenic variants. It has repeatedly been suggested that breast tumors from TP53 carriers are more likely to be HER2+ than those of noncarriers, but this information has not been incorporated into variant interpretation models for TP53. Breast tumor pathology is already being used quantitatively for assessing pathogenicity of germline variants in other genes, and it has been suggested that this type of evidence can be incorporated into current American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines for germline variant classification. Here, by reviewing published data and using internal datasets separated by different age groups, we investigated if breast tumor HER2+ status has utility as a predictor of TP53 germline variant pathogenicity, considering age at diagnosis. Overall, our results showed that the identification of HER2+ breast tumors diagnosed before the age of 40 can be conservatively incorporated into the current TP53-specific ACMG/AMP PP4 criterion, following a point system detailed in this manuscript. Further larger studies will be needed to reassess the value of HER2+ breast tumors diagnosed at a later age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484289PMC
September 2020

Contribution of Germline Predisposition Gene Mutations to Breast Cancer Risk in African American Women.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 12;112(12):1213-1221

Departments of Health Sciences Research, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902, USA.

Background: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies.

Methods: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer.

Results: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer.

Conclusions: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735769PMC
December 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic, Version 1.2020.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 04;18(4):380-391

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center.

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic provide recommendations for genetic testing and counseling for hereditary cancer syndromes, and risk management recommendations for patients who are diagnosed with syndromes associated with an increased risk of these cancers. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments, examine relevant new data, and reevaluate and update recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding criteria for high-penetrance genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer beyond BRCA1/2, pancreas screening and genes associated with pancreatic cancer, genetic testing for the purpose of systemic therapy decision-making, and testing for people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.0017DOI Listing
April 2020
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