Publications by authors named "Jeffrey M Cloutier"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Meiotic recombination mirrors patterns of germline replication in mice and humans.

Cell 2021 Aug 13;184(16):4251-4267.e20. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Genetics and Biochemistry Branch, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Genetic recombination generates novel trait combinations, and understanding how recombination is distributed across the genome is key to modern genetics. The PRDM9 protein defines recombination hotspots; however, megabase-scale recombination patterning is independent of PRDM9. The single round of DNA replication, which precedes recombination in meiosis, may establish these patterns; therefore, we devised an approach to study meiotic replication that includes robust and sensitive mapping of replication origins. We find that meiotic DNA replication is distinct; reduced origin firing slows replication in meiosis, and a distinctive replication pattern in human males underlies the subtelomeric increase in recombination. We detected a robust correlation between replication and both contemporary and historical recombination and found that replication origin density coupled with chromosome size determines the recombination potential of individual chromosomes. Our findings and methods have implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying DNA replication, genetic recombination, and the landscape of mammalian germline variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.025DOI Listing
August 2021

Nodular fasciitis of the breast: clinicopathologic and molecular characterization with identification of novel USP6 fusion partners.

Mod Pathol 2021 Oct 7;34(10):1865-1875. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Nodular fasciitis is a benign, self-limited, pseudosarcomatous neoplasm that can mimic malignancy due to its rapid growth, cellularity, and mitotic activity. Involvement of the breast is rare and diagnosis on biopsy can be challenging. In this largest series to date, we examined the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of 12 cases of nodular fasciitis involving the breast/axilla. All patients were female, with a median age of 32 years (range 15-61). The lesions were 0.4 to 5.8 cm in size (median 0.8). All cases presented as palpable masses, and two patients had overlying skin retraction. Microscopically, lesions were relatively well-circumscribed nodular masses of bland myofibroblastic spindle cells within a variably myxoid stroma. Infiltrative growth into adipose tissue or breast epithelium was frequent. Mitotic figures were present in all cases, ranging from 1 to 12 per 10 high-power fields (median 3). Immunohistochemically, all cases expressed smooth muscle actin and were negative for pan-cytokeratin, p63, desmin, CD34, and nuclear beta-catenin. Targeted RNA sequencing performed on 11 cases identified USP6 gene fusions in eight; one additional case was positive by break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization. The common MYH9-USP6 rearrangement was detected in four cases; another case had a rare alternative fusion with CTNNB1. Three cases harbored novel USP6 gene fusions involving NACA, SLFN11, or LDHA. All fusions juxtaposed the promoter region of the 5' partner gene with the full-length coding sequence of USP6. Outcome data were available for eight patients; none developed recurrence or metastasis. Five patients elected for observation without immediate excision, and self-resolution of the lesions was reported in three cases. Albeit uncommon, nodular fasciitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast spindle cell lesions. A broad immunohistochemical panel to exclude histologic mimics, including metaplastic carcinoma, is important. Confirmatory detection of USP6 rearrangements can aid in classification, with potential therapeutic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00844-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Cutaneous desmoid-type fibromatosis: A rare case with molecular profiling.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 Sep 30;48(9):1185-1188. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pathology, Stanford Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Fibromatoses encompass a broad group of histopathologically similar fibroblastic/myofibroblastic proliferations with divergent clinical manifestations and behavior. Deep (desmoid-type) fibromatoses are typically large, rapidly growing, and locally aggressive tumors that occur in the abdominal wall, mesentery, and extra-abdominal soft tissue, principally the musculature of the trunk and extremities. Most sporadic cases of desmoid fibromatosis harbor inactivating mutations in CTNNB1, the gene encoding beta-catenin. Tumors occurring in the context of familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome bear inactivating mutations in APC. By contrast, mutations in CTNNB1 or APC have not been identified in cases of superficial fibromatosis. Cutaneous involvement by desmoid fibromatosis is exceedingly rare. Here we present a 78-year-old male with desmoid-type fibromatosis arising in the dermis of the right medial calf with a pathogenic mutation in CTNNB1 and a variant of unknown significance in APC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cup.14058DOI Listing
September 2021

Immunohistochemical ALK Expression in Granular Cell Atypical Fibroxanthoma: A Diagnostic Pitfall for ALK-Rearranged Non-neural Granular Cell Tumor.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Nov;43(11):831-834

Department of Pathology, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA.

Abstract: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a neoplasm that most commonly occurs on sun-damaged skin of the head and neck in elderly patients and that usually exhibits indolent clinical behavior with complete excision. The granular cell variant of AFX demonstrates overlapping histopathologic features with dermal non-neural granular cell tumor (NNGCT), which typically arises on the extremities of young to middle aged adults with rare reports of regional metastasis. A subset of NNGCT harbors ALK rearrangements and expresses ALK by immunohistochemistry. Here, we present 2 cases of granular cell AFX occurring on the scalp of males aged 73 and 87 with ALK expression by immunohistochemistry and no evidence of an ALK rearrangement on fluorescence in situ hybridization, representing a diagnostic pitfall for NNGCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000001931DOI Listing
November 2021

PDGFB RNA in situ hybridization for the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

Mod Pathol 2021 08 24;34(8):1521-1529. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a spindle cell neoplasm of the skin and superficial soft tissue with a tendency for locally aggressive behavior; metastatic potential coincides with fibrosarcomatous transformation. The vast majority of DFSPs harbor the t(17;22) translocation resulting in a COL1A1-PDGFB fusion that drives autocrine growth stimulation via PDGFB overexpression. Here, we examined the utility of PDGFB RNA chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) for the diagnosis of DFSP. A total of 337 tumors represented in whole tissue sections and tissue microarrays, including 37 cases of DFSP and 300 histologically similar spindle cell tumors, were subjected to PDGFB RNA CISH using commercially available probes. PDGFB overexpression was observed by light microscopy in 24 of 26 conventional DFSPs (92%) and 11 of 11 fibrosarcomatous DFSPs (100%). One of two DFSPs negative for PDGFB by RNA CISH was found to harbor an uncommon alternative rearrangement involving PDGFD. All examined cases of histologic mimics were negative for PDGFB overexpression; limited PDGFB expression, not reaching an empirical threshold of greater than 5 puncta or one aggregate of chromogen in more than 25% of cells, was observed in 7 of 300 mimics (2.3%), including desmoplastic melanoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, angiosarcoma, and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma. Vascular PDGFB expression was seen in several tumor types. We conclude that PDGFB RNA CISH, with careful interpretation and the use of appropriate thresholds, may serve as a surrogate marker of PDGFB rearrangement and a useful ancillary tool for the diagnosis of DFSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00800-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298273PMC
August 2021

"Inflammatory Leiomyosarcoma" and "Histiocyte-rich Rhabdomyoblastic Tumor": a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic study of 13 cases, with a proposal for reclassification as "Inflammatory Rhabdomyoblastic Tumor".

Mod Pathol 2021 04 22;34(4):758-769. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Inflammatory leiomyosarcoma (ILMS), defined as "a malignant neoplasm showing smooth muscle differentiation, a prominent inflammatory infiltrate, and near-haploidization", is a very rare soft tissue tumor with a generally favorable prognosis. The morphologic features of "histiocyte-rich rhabdomyoblastic tumor" (HRRMT) are similar to those of ILMS, although this lesion shows by definition a skeletal muscle phenotype. Recent gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical studies have also suggested that ILMS and HRRMT may be related. We studied the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic features of four cases previously classified as ILMS and nine classified as HRRMT. Tumors from both groups tended to occur in the deep soft tissues of the extremities of young to middle-aged males and exhibited indolent behavior. Morphologically, all were well-circumscribed, often encapsulated, and showed a striking histiocyte-rich inflammatory infiltrate admixed with variably pleomorphic tumor cells showing spindled and epithelioid to rhabdoid morphology, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and prominent nucleoli, but few, if any, mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and the rhabdomyoblastic markers PAX7, MyoD1, and myogenin. H-caldesmon expression was absent in all cases, using the specific h-CD antibody. Karyotypic study (1 HRRMT) and genome-wide copy number analysis (7 HRRMT, OncoScan SNP assay), revealed near-haploidization in four cases, with subsequent genome doubling in one, an identical phenotype to that seen in ILMS. We propose reclassification of ILMS and HRRMT as "inflammatory rhabdomyoblastic tumor", a name which accurately describes the salient morphologic and immunohistochemical features of this distinctive tumor, as well as its intermediate (rarely metastasizing) clinical behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-00703-8DOI Listing
April 2021

DDIT3 Immunohistochemistry Is a Useful Tool for the Diagnosis of Myxoid Liposarcoma.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 02;45(2):230-239

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Myxoid liposarcoma is a malignant adipogenic neoplasm characterized by prominent arborizing capillaries, occasional lipoblasts, and primitive-appearing spindle cells in a myxoid background. A recurrent translocation in myxoid liposarcoma results in an oncoprotein consisting of full-length DDIT3 (CHOP) fused to an N-terminal segment of either FUS (TLS) or, less often, EWSR1. Here, we explore the diagnostic significance of DDIT3 expression in myxoid liposarcoma using a mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope in the N-terminal region. Studying a total of 300 tumors, we find diffuse, moderate-to-strong nuclear-localized anti-DDIT3 immunoreactivity in all 46 cases of myxoid liposarcoma representing 36 unique tumors, including 6 cases with high-grade (round cell) morphology. DDIT3 immunohistochemistry also highlighted a distinctive vasculocentric growth pattern in 7 myxoid liposarcomas treated with neoadjuvant radiation. In contrast, the vast majority of other examined lipomatous and myxoid neoplasms exhibited no DDIT3 expression; limited, weak immunoreactivity in <10% of cells was infrequently observed in dedifferentiated liposarcoma (6/39, 15%), solitary fibrous tumor (3/12, 25%), pleomorphic liposarcoma (1/15, 7%), and high-grade myxofibrosarcoma (2/17, 12%). Although this minimal DDIT3 expression did not correlate with DDIT3 amplification or myxoid liposarcoma-like morphology in dedifferentiated liposarcoma, there was evidence among sarcomas (excluding myxoid liposarcoma) of a relationship between expression and exposure to neoadjuvant radiation or cytotoxic chemotherapy. The constellation of findings indicates that DDIT3 immunohistochemistry may have utility in the evaluation of myxoid and lipomatous neoplasms to support the diagnosis of myxoid liposarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796975PMC
February 2021

Soft tissue pathology for the radiologist: a tumor board primer with 2020 WHO classification update.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Jan 2;50(1):29-42. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305-5105, USA.

Radiologists serve an important role in the diagnosis and staging of soft tissue tumors, often through participation in multidisciplinary tumor board teams. While an important function of the radiologist is to review pertinent imaging and assist in the differential diagnosis, a critical role is to ensure that there is concordance between the imaging and the pathologic diagnosis. This requires a basic understanding of the pathology of soft tissue tumors, particularly in the case of diagnostic dilemmas or incongruent imaging and histologic features. This work is intended to provide an overview of soft tissue pathology for the radiologist to optimize participation in multidisciplinary orthopedic oncology tumor boards, allowing for contribution to management decisions with expertise beyond image interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-020-03567-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Cutaneous pleomorphic fibromas arising in patients with germline TP53 mutations.

J Cutan Pathol 2020 Aug 6;47(8):734-741. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Pleomorphic fibromas are rare benign cutaneous neoplasms associated with deletion/loss of chromosomes 13q and 17p, where RB1 and TP53 are located, respectively. Herein, we report five cases of pleomorphic fibroma arising in patients with germline TP53 mutations, suggesting a potential link with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. All three patients were female and young (mean age 27) with a strong personal and/or family oncologic history and confirmed pathogenic germline TP53 mutations. In two patients, multiple pleomorphic fibromas were diagnosed. Clinically, the lesions arose at various cutaneous sites and were small (≤2 cm) and raised (4/5). Histopathologically, the tumors were paucicellular, composed of atypical spindled to stellate cells with hyperchromatic and variably pleomorphic nuclei. Mitotic activity was exceedingly low, although rare atypical mitotic figures were seen in one case. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for p16 (3/3) and showed loss of Rb expression (5/5). All cases showed aberrant p53 expression (overexpression in 4, complete loss in 1). The tumors have followed a benign clinical course with no evidence of progression or recurrence. In conclusion, the development of multiple pleomorphic fibromas in a young patient may be a clue to an underlying genetic cancer syndrome involving TP53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cup.13686DOI Listing
August 2020

Diagnostic classification of soft tissue malignancies: A review and update from a surgical pathology perspective.

Curr Probl Cancer 2019 08 28;43(4):250-272. Epub 2019 May 28.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA. Electronic address:

Soft tissue sarcomas encompass a broad spectrum of histologically, clinically, and molecularly diverse neoplasms that present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Accurate classification is essential both for appropriate risk stratification and for guiding clinical management. Once classified almost exclusively based on the morphologic appearance of the tumor by light microscopy, many soft tissue sarcomas are now known to manifest recurrent patterns of genetic alterations. In addition to enabling molecular confirmation of histologic diagnoses, discovery of these recurrent genetic alterations has helped to refine existing morphologic definitions of sarcoma subtypes and even prompted the discovery of new subtypes. As therapy for sarcoma has become increasingly tailored to a specific entity, the integration of molecular data has assumed added importance in diagnostic decision making. In this article, we summarize principles of the histologic evaluation of soft tissue sarcomas, discuss specific diagnostic features of several of the most common sarcoma subtypes, and describe our vision for a future of soft tissue sarcoma diagnosis that merges morphologic, genetic, and epigenetic features to arrive at diagnoses that are aligned with tumor-specific, biologically targeted treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2019.05.006DOI Listing
August 2019

Necrotic Keratinocytes Are Common in Psoriasis and Have a Predilection to the Upper Epidermis: A Quantitative and Comparative Analysis.

Am J Dermatopathol 2020 Jan;42(1):20-23

Dermatopathology Laboratory, California Skin Institute, San Jose, CA.

Background: The most salient histopathological features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia, hypogranulosis, parakeratosis, dilated capillaries in dermal papillae, and intraepidermal and intracorneal neutrophils. Several additional "nonclassic" features of psoriasis have recently been reported, including necrotic keratinocytes (NK). To determine the diagnostic utility of NK, we characterized NK in a large cohort of psoriasis cases compared with psoriasiform spongiotic dermatitis (PSD) and normal skin.

Methods: NK were quantified in 101 cases of psoriasis, 20 cases of PSD, and 20 cases of normal skin. The location of NK within the lower, middle, or upper thirds of the epidermis was recorded.

Results: NK were identified in 77/101 (76%) of psoriasis cases. By comparison, NK were seen in 8/20 (40%) cases of PSD and 4/20 (20%) cases of normal skin. The linear concentration of NK was significantly higher in psoriasis (0.36 NK/mm) compared with PSD (0.12 NK/mm) and normal skin (0.03 NK/mm) (P = 0.0009). NK were preferentially located in the upper (58%) and middle (31%) epidermis in psoriasis.

Conclusions: NK are a common feature of psoriasis and have a predilection to the upper layers of epidermis. Superficial NK may provide additional diagnostic support for psoriasis in challenging or borderline cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000001444DOI Listing
January 2020

Biomarker discovery analysis: Alterations in p14, p16, p53, and BAP1 expression in nevi, cutaneous melanoma, and metastatic melanoma.

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2019 05 10;32(3):474-478. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12768DOI Listing
May 2019

Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals.

PLoS Genet 2015 Oct 28;11(10):e1005462. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

The Francis Crick Institute, Mill Hill Laboratory, London, United Kingdom.

Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO) and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX). We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX) levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4624946PMC
October 2015

Antagonistic roles of ubiquitin ligase HEI10 and SUMO ligase RNF212 regulate meiotic recombination.

Nat Genet 2014 Feb 5;46(2):194-9. Epub 2014 Jan 5.

1] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA. [2] Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA. [3] Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA. [4] Department of Cell Biology & Human Anatomy, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Crossover recombination facilitates the accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. In mammals, poorly characterized regulatory processes ensure that every pair of chromosomes obtains at least one crossover, even though most recombination sites yield non-crossovers. Designation of crossovers involves selective localization of the SUMO ligase RNF212 to a minority of recombination sites, where it stabilizes pertinent factors such as MutSγ (ref. 4). Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase HEI10 (also called CCNB1IP1) is essential for this crossover/non-crossover differentiation process. In HEI10-deficient mice, RNF212 localizes to most recombination sites, and dissociation of both RNF212 and MutSγ from chromosomes is blocked. Consequently, recombination is impeded, and crossing over fails. In wild-type mice, HEI10 accumulates at designated crossover sites, suggesting that it also has a late role in implementing crossing over. As with RNF212, dosage sensitivity for HEI10 indicates that it is a limiting factor for crossing over. We suggest that SUMO and ubiquitin have antagonistic roles during meiotic recombination that are balanced to effect differential stabilization of recombination factors at crossover and non-crossover sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356240PMC
February 2014

ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing.

Genes Dev 2013 Jul;27(13):1484-94

Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom;

In mammals, homologs that fail to synapse during meiosis are transcriptionally inactivated. This process, meiotic silencing, drives inactivation of the heterologous XY bivalent in male germ cells (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]) and is thought to act as a meiotic surveillance mechanism. The checkpoint protein ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) localizes to unsynapsed chromosomes, but its role in the initiation and maintenance of meiotic silencing is unknown. Here we show that ATR has multiple roles in silencing. ATR first regulates HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain protein HORMAD1/2 phosphorylation and localization of breast cancer I (BRCA1) and ATR cofactors ATR-interacting peptide (ATRIP)/topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) at unsynapsed axes. Later, it acts as an adaptor, transducing signaling at unsynapsed axes into surrounding chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation. Using a novel genetic strategy in which MSCI is used to silence a chosen gene in pachytene, we show that ATR depletion does not disrupt the maintenance of silencing and that silencing comprises two phases: The first is dynamic and reversible, and the second is stable and irreversible. Our work identifies a role for ATR in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and presents a new technique for ablating gene function in the germline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.219477.113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3713429PMC
July 2013

Meiotic DNA double-strand breaks and chromosome asynapsis in mice are monitored by distinct HORMAD2-independent and -dependent mechanisms.

Genes Dev 2012 May;26(9):958-73

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden 01307, Germany.

Meiotic crossover formation involves the repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and synaptonemal complex (SC) formation. Completion of these processes must precede the meiotic divisions in order to avoid chromosome abnormalities in gametes. Enduring key questions in meiosis have been how meiotic progression and crossover formation are coordinated, whether inappropriate asynapsis is monitored, and whether asynapsis elicits prophase arrest via mechanisms that are distinct from the surveillance of unrepaired DNA DSBs. We disrupted the meiosis-specific mouse HORMAD2 (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2 domain 2) protein, which preferentially associates with unsynapsed chromosome axes. We show that HORMAD2 is required for the accumulation of the checkpoint kinase ATR along unsynapsed axes, but not at DNA DSBs or on DNA DSB-associated chromatin loops. Consistent with the hypothesis that ATR activity on chromatin plays important roles in the quality control of meiotic prophase, HORMAD2 is required for the elimination of the asynaptic Spo11(-/-), but not the asynaptic and DSB repair-defective Dmc1(-/-) oocytes. Our observations strongly suggest that HORMAD2-dependent recruitment of ATR to unsynapsed chromosome axes constitutes a mechanism for the surveillance of asynapsis. Thus, we provide convincing evidence for the existence of a distinct asynapsis surveillance mechanism that safeguards the ploidy of the mammalian germline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.187559.112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347793PMC
May 2012

Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

Curr Biol 2010 Nov;20(22):R962-3

Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2010.09.041DOI Listing
November 2010
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