Publications by authors named "Jeffrey J Baust"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Smooth muscle cell CYB5R3 preserves cardiac and vascular function under chronic hypoxic stress.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Sep 15;162:72-80. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Heart, Lung, Blood and Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America; Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America; Center for Microvascular Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Chronic hypoxia is a major driver of cardiovascular complications, including heart failure. The nitric oxide (NO) - soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) - cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway is integral to vascular tone maintenance. Specifically, NO binds its receptor sGC within vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) in its reduced heme (Fe) form to increase intracellular cGMP production, activate protein kinase G (PKG) signaling, and induce vessel relaxation. Under chronic hypoxia, oxidative stress drives oxidation of sGC heme (Fe→Fe), rendering it NO-insensitive. We previously showed that cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3) in SMC is a sGC reductase important for maintaining NO-dependent vasodilation and conferring resilience to systemic hypertension and sickle cell disease-associated pulmonary hypertension. To test whether CYB5R3 may be protective in the context of chronic hypoxia, we subjected SMC-specific CYB5R3 knockout mice (SMC CYB5R3 KO) to 3 weeks hypoxia and assessed vascular and cardiac function using echocardiography, pressure volume loops and wire myography. Hypoxic stress caused 1) biventricular hypertrophy in both WT and SMC CYB5R3 KO, but to a larger degree in KO mice, 2) blunted vasodilation to NO-dependent activation of sGC in coronary and pulmonary arteries of KO mice, and 3) decreased, albeit still normal, cardiac function in KO mice. Overall, these data indicate that SMC CYB5R3 deficiency potentiates bilateral ventricular hypertrophy and blunts NO-dependent vasodilation under chronic hypoxia conditions. This implicates that SMC CYB5R3 KO mice post 3-week hypoxia have early stages of cardiac remodeling and functional changes that could foretell significantly impaired cardiac function with longer exposure to hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2021.09.005DOI Listing
September 2021

Metabolic Syndrome Mediates ROS-miR-193b-NFYA-Dependent Downregulation of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase and Contributes to Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Circulation 2021 Aug 23;144(8):615-637. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Pittsburgh Heart, Lung and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute (T.S., L.W., C.E.-D., S.A.H., E.R.R., M.R.D., J.J.B., Y.T., M.R., S.S., C.S.H., D.G., D.A.G., E.A.G., S.Y.C., A.C.S., C.F.M., M.T.G.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA.

Background: Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction have metabolic syndrome and develop exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH). Increases in pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction portend a poor prognosis; this phenotype is referred to as combined precapillary and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (CpcPH). Therapeutic trials for EIPH and CpcPH have been disappointing, suggesting the need for strategies that target upstream mechanisms of disease. This work reports novel rat EIPH models and mechanisms of pulmonary vascular dysfunction centered around the transcriptional repression of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) enzyme in pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells.

Methods: We used obese ZSF-1 leptin-receptor knockout rats (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction model), obese ZSF-1 rats treated with SU5416 to stimulate resting pulmonary hypertension (obese+sugen, CpcPH model), and lean ZSF-1 rats (controls). Right and left ventricular hemodynamics were evaluated using implanted catheters during treadmill exercise. PA function was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and myography. Overexpression of nuclear factor Y α subunit (NFYA), a transcriptional enhancer of sGC β1 subunit (sGCβ1), was performed by PA delivery of adeno-associated virus 6. Treatment groups received the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin in drinking water. PA smooth muscle cells from rats and humans were cultured with palmitic acid, glucose, and insulin to induce metabolic stress.

Results: Obese rats showed normal resting right ventricular systolic pressures, which significantly increased during exercise, modeling EIPH. Obese+sugen rats showed anatomic PA remodeling and developed elevated right ventricular systolic pressure at rest, which was exacerbated with exercise, modeling CpcPH. Myography and magnetic resonance imaging during dobutamine challenge revealed PA functional impairment of both obese groups. PAs of obese rats produced reactive oxygen species and decreased sGCβ1 expression. Mechanistically, cultured PA smooth muscle cells from obese rats and humans with diabetes or treated with palmitic acid, glucose, and insulin showed increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which enhanced miR-193b-dependent RNA degradation of nuclear factor Y α subunit (NFYA), resulting in decreased sGCβ1-cGMP signaling. Forced NYFA expression by adeno-associated virus 6 delivery increased sGCβ1 levels and improved exercise pulmonary hypertension in obese+sugen rats. Treatment of obese+sugen rats with empagliflozin improved metabolic syndrome, reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and miR-193b levels, restored NFYA/sGC activity, and prevented EIPH.

Conclusions: In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and CpcPH models, metabolic syndrome contributes to pulmonary vascular dysfunction and EIPH through enhanced reactive oxygen species and miR-193b expression, which downregulates NFYA-dependent sGCβ1 expression. Adeno-associated virus-mediated NFYA overexpression and SGLT2 inhibition restore NFYA-sGCβ1-cGMP signaling and ameliorate EIPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.053889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384699PMC
August 2021

Xanthine Oxidase Drives Hemolysis and Vascular Malfunction in Sickle Cell Disease.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 02 3;41(2):769-782. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology (H.M.S., D.A.V., A.C.S.), University of Pittsburgh, PA.

Objective: Chronic hemolysis is a hallmark of sickle cell disease (SCD) and a driver of vasculopathy; however, the mechanisms contributing to hemolysis remain incompletely understood. Although XO (xanthine oxidase) activity has been shown to be elevated in SCD, its role remains unknown. XO binds endothelium and generates oxidants as a byproduct of hypoxanthine and xanthine catabolism. We hypothesized that XO inhibition decreases oxidant production leading to less hemolysis. Approach and Results: Wild-type mice were bone marrow transplanted with control (AA) or sickle (SS) Townes bone marrow. After 12 weeks, mice were treated with 10 mg/kg per day of febuxostat (Uloric), Food and Drug Administration-approved XO inhibitor, for 10 weeks. Hematologic analysis demonstrated increased hematocrit, cellular hemoglobin, and red blood cells, with no change in reticulocyte percentage. Significant decreases in cell-free hemoglobin and increases in haptoglobin suggest XO inhibition decreased hemolysis. Myographic studies demonstrated improved pulmonary vascular dilation and blunted constriction, indicating improved pulmonary vasoreactivity, whereas pulmonary pressure and cardiac function were unaffected. The role of hepatic XO in SCD was evaluated by bone marrow transplanting hepatocyte-specific XO knockout mice with SS Townes bone marrow. However, hepatocyte-specific XO knockout, which results in >50% diminution in circulating XO, did not affect hemolysis levels or vascular function, suggesting hepatocyte-derived elevation of circulating XO is not the driver of hemolysis in SCD.

Conclusions: Ten weeks of febuxostat treatment significantly decreased hemolysis and improved pulmonary vasoreactivity in a mouse model of SCD. Although hepatic XO accounts for >50% of circulating XO, it is not the source of XO driving hemolysis in SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.315081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185582PMC
February 2021

Treatment With Treprostinil and Metformin Normalizes Hyperglycemia and Improves Cardiac Function in Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 06 9;40(6):1543-1558. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Occupational Medicine (G.H., A.F., T.C., Y.B., R.F.M., Y.-C.L.), Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis.

Objective: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left heart disease (group 2), especially in the setting of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is the most common cause of PH worldwide; however, at present, there is no proven effective therapy available for its treatment. PH-HFpEF is associated with insulin resistance and features of metabolic syndrome. The stable prostacyclin analog, treprostinil, is an effective and widely used Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. While the effect of treprostinil on metabolic syndrome is unknown, a recent study suggests that the prostacyclin analog beraprost can improve glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of treprostinil in the treatment of metabolic syndrome-associated PH-HFpEF. Approach and Results: Treprostinil treatment was given to mice with mild metabolic syndrome-associated PH-HFpEF induced by high-fat diet and to SU5416/obese ZSF1 rats, a model created by the treatment of rats with a more profound metabolic syndrome due to double leptin receptor defect (obese ZSF1) with a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor blocker SU5416. In high-fat diet-exposed mice, chronic treatment with treprostinil reduced hyperglycemia and pulmonary hypertension. In SU5416/Obese ZSF1 rats, treprostinil improved hyperglycemia with similar efficacy to that of metformin (a first-line drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus); the glucose-lowering effect of treprostinil was further potentiated by the combined treatment with metformin. Early treatment with treprostinil in SU5416/Obese ZSF1 rats lowered pulmonary pressures, and a late treatment with treprostinil together with metformin improved pulmonary artery acceleration time to ejection time ratio and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion with AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activation in skeletal muscle and the right ventricle.

Conclusions: Our data suggest a potential use of treprostinil as an early treatment for mild metabolic syndrome-associated PH-HFpEF and that combined treatment with treprostinil and metformin may improve hyperglycemia and cardiac function in a more severe disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.313883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255946PMC
June 2020

Smooth muscle cytochrome b5 reductase 3 deficiency accelerates pulmonary hypertension development in sickle cell mice.

Blood Adv 2019 12;3(23):4104-4116

Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, Blood and Vascular Medicine Institute, Department of Medicine.

Pulmonary and systemic vasculopathies are significant risk factors for early morbidity and death in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). An underlying mechanism of SCD vasculopathy is vascular smooth muscle (VSM) nitric oxide (NO) resistance, which is mediated by NO scavenging reactions with plasma hemoglobin (Hb) and reactive oxygen species that can oxidize soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the NO receptor. Prior studies show that cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3), known as methemoglobin reductase in erythrocytes, functions in VSM as an sGC heme iron reductase critical for reducing and sensitizing sGC to NO and generating cyclic guanosine monophosphate for vasodilation. Therefore, we hypothesized that VSM CYB5R3 deficiency accelerates development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in SCD. Bone marrow transplant was used to create SCD chimeric mice with background smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific tamoxifen-inducible Cyb5r3 knockout (SMC R3 KO) and wild-type (WT) control. Three weeks after completing tamoxifen treatment, we observed 60% knockdown of pulmonary arterial SMC CYB5R3, 5 to 6 mm Hg elevated right-ventricular (RV) maximum systolic pressure (RVmaxSP) and biventricular hypertrophy in SS chimeras with SMC R3 KO (SS/R3KD) relative to WT (SS/R3WT). RV contractility, heart rate, hematological parameters, and cell-free Hb were similar between groups. When identically generated SS/R3 chimeras were studied 12 weeks after completing tamoxifen treatment, RVmaxSP in SS/R3KD had not increased further, but RV hypertrophy relative to SS/R3WT persisted. These are the first studies to establish involvement of SMC CYB5R3 in SCD-associated development of PH, which can exist in mice by 5 weeks of SMC CYB5R3 protein deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963246PMC
December 2019

Vascular TSP1-CD47 signaling promotes sickle cell-associated arterial vasculopathy and pulmonary hypertension in mice.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2019 06 20;316(6):L1150-L1164. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Heart, Lung, Blood, and Vascular Medicine Institute and Division of Hematology/Oncology, UPMC Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a leading cause of death in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Hemolysis and oxidative stress contribute to SCD-associated PH. We have reported that the protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is elevated in the plasma of patients with SCD and, by interacting with its receptor CD47, limits vasodilation of distal pulmonary arteries ex vivo. We hypothesized that the TSP1-CD47 interaction may promote PH in SCD. We found that TSP1 and CD47 are upregulated in the lungs of Berkeley (BERK) sickling (Sickle) mice and patients with SCD-associated PH. We then generated chimeric animals by transplanting BERK bone marrow into C57BL/6J ( = 24) and CD47 knockout (CD47KO, = 27) mice. Right ventricular (RV) pressure was lower in fully engrafted Sickle-to-CD47KO than Sickle-to-C57BL/6J chimeras, as shown by the reduced maximum RV pressure ( = 0.013) and mean pulmonary artery pressure ( = 0.020). The afterload of the sickle-to-CD47KO chimeras was also lower, as shown by the diminished pulmonary vascular resistance ( = 0.024) and RV effective arterial elastance ( = 0.052). On myography, aortic segments from Sickle-to-CD47KO chimeras showed improved relaxation to acetylcholine. We hypothesized that, in SCD, TSP1-CD47 signaling promotes PH, in part, by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In human pulmonary artery endothelial cells, treatment with TSP1 stimulated ROS generation, which was abrogated by CD47 blockade. Explanted lungs of CD47KO chimeras had less vascular congestion and a smaller oxidative footprint. Our results show that genetic absence of CD47 ameliorates SCD-associated PH, which may be due to decreased ROS levels. Modulation of TSP1-CD47 may provide a new molecular approach to the treatment of SCD-associated PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00302.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6620668PMC
June 2019

A phenotype of increased sleepiness in a mouse model of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208540. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America.

The relationship between cardiovascular disease and abnormalities in sleep architecture is complex and bi-directional. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) often confounds human studies examining sleep in the setting of heart failure, and the independent impact of isolated right or left heart failure on sleep is difficult to assess. We utilized an animal model of right heart failure using pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice to examine the causal effect of right heart failure on sleep architecture. Four weeks after PAB or sham (control) surgery, sleep was measured by polysomnography for 48 hours and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy confirmed prior to sacrifice. PAB resulted in right ventricular hypertrophy based on a 30% increase in the Fulton Index (p < 0.01). After PAB, mice spent significantly more time in NREM sleep compared to the control group over a 24 hour period (53.5 ± 1.5% vs. 46.6 ± 1.4%; p < 0.01) and exhibited an inability to both cycle into REM sleep and decrease delta density across the light/sleep period. Our results support a phenotype of impaired sleep cycling and increased 'sleepiness' in a mouse model of RV dysfunction.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208540PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286175PMC
May 2019

Nitric Oxide-Independent Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activation Improves Vascular Function and Cardiac Remodeling in Sickle Cell Disease.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 05;58(5):636-647

2 Heart, Lung, Blood, and Vascular Medicine Institute, Department of Medicine.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with intravascular hemolysis and oxidative inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) signaling. BAY 54-6544 is a small-molecule activator of oxidized soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which, unlike endogenous NO and the sGC stimulator, BAY 41-8543, preferentially binds and activates heme-free, NO-insensitive sGC to restore enzymatic cGMP production. We tested orally delivered sGC activator, BAY 54-6544 (17 mg/kg/d), sGC stimulator, BAY 41-8543, sildenafil, and placebo for 4-12 weeks in the Berkeley transgenic mouse model of SCD (BERK-SCD) and their hemizygous (Hemi) littermate controls (BERK-Hemi). Right ventricular (RV) maximum systolic pressure (RVmaxSP) was measured using micro right-heart catheterization. RV hypertrophy (RVH) was determined using Fulton's index and RV corrected weight (ratio of RV to tibia). Pulmonary artery vasoreactivity was tested for endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel relaxation. Right-heart catheterization revealed higher RVmaxSP and RVH in BERK-SCD versus BERK-Hemi, which worsened with age. Treatment with the sGC activator more effectively lowered RVmaxSP and RVH, with 90-day treatment delivering superior results, when compared with other treatments and placebo groups. In myography experiments, acetylcholine-induced (endothelium-dependent) and sodium-nitroprusside-induced (endothelium-independent NO donor) relaxation of the pulmonary artery harvested from placebo-treated BERK-SCD was impaired relative to BERK-Hemi but improved after therapy with sGC activator. By contrast, no significant effect for sGC stimulator or sildenafil was observed in BERK-SCD. These findings suggest that sGC is oxidized in the pulmonary arteries of transgenic SCD mice, leading to blunted responses to NO, and that the sGC activator, BAY 54-6544, may represent a novel therapy for SCD-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension and cardiac remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2017-0292OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5946331PMC
May 2018

Development of a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome, Pulmonary Hypertension, and Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2017 04;56(4):497-505

1 Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, Blood, and Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF; World Health Organization Group II) secondary to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is the most frequent cause of PH. It is an increasingly recognized clinical complication of the metabolic syndrome. To date, no effective treatment has been identified, and no genetically modifiable mouse model is available for advancing our understanding for PH-HFpEF. To develop a mouse model of PH-HFpEF, we exposed 36 mouse strains to 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD), followed by systematic evaluation of right ventricular (RV) and LV pressure-volume analysis. The HFD induces obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, as well as PH, in susceptible strains. We observed that certain mouse strains, such as AKR/J, NON/shiLtJ, and WSB/EiJ, developed hemodynamic signs of PH-HFpEF. Of the strains that develop PH-HFpEF, we selected AKR/J for further model validation, as it is known to be prone to HFD-induced metabolic syndrome and had low variability in hemodynamics. HFD-treated AKR/J mice demonstrate reproducibly higher RV systolic pressure compared with mice fed with regular diet, along with increased LV end-diastolic pressure, both RV and LV hypertrophy, glucose intolerance, and elevated HbA1c levels. Time course assessments showed that HFD significantly increased body weight, RV systolic pressure, LV end-diastolic pressure, biventricular hypertrophy, and HbA1c throughout the treatment period. Moreover, we also identified and validated 129S1/SvlmJ as a resistant mouse strain to HFD-induced PH-HFpEF. These studies validate an HFD/AKR/J mouse model of PH-HFpEF, which may offer a new avenue for testing potential mechanisms and treatments for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2016-0177OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5449511PMC
April 2017

Mouse Genome-Wide Association Study of Preclinical Group II Pulmonary Hypertension Identifies Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2017 04;56(4):488-496

1 Department of Medicine.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with features of obesity and metabolic syndrome that translate to the induction of PH by chronic high-fat diet (HFD) in some inbred mouse strains. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify candidate genes associated with susceptibility to HFD-induced PH. Mice from 36 inbred and wild-derived strains were fed with regular diet or HFD for 20 weeks beginning at 6-12 weeks of age, after which right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) end-systolic pressure (ESP) and maximum pressure (MaxP) were measured by cardiac catheterization. We tested for association of RV MaxP and RV ESP and identified genomic regions enriched with nominal associations to both of these phenotypes. We excluded genomic regions if they were also associated with LV MaxP, LV ESP, or body weight. Genes within significant regions were scored based on the shortest-path betweenness centrality, a measure of network connectivity, of their human orthologs in a gene interaction network of human PH-related genes. WSB/EiJ, NON/ShiLtJ, and AKR/J mice had the largest increases in RV MaxP after high-fat feeding. Network-based scoring of GWAS candidates identified epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) as having the highest shortest-path betweenness centrality of GWAS candidates. Expression studies of lung homogenate showed that EGFR expression is increased in the AKR/J strain, which developed a significant increase in RV MaxP after high-fat feeding as compared with C57BL/6J, which did not. Our combined GWAS and network-based approach adds evidence for a role for Egfr in murine PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2016-0176OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5449510PMC
April 2017

Testosterone-dependent sex differences in red blood cell hemolysis in storage, stress, and disease.

Transfusion 2016 Oct 9;56(10):2571-2583. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, Blood, and Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis represents an intrinsic mechanism for human vascular disease. Intravascular hemolysis releases hemoglobin and other metabolites that inhibit nitric oxide signaling and drive oxidative and inflammatory stress. Although these pathways are important in disease pathogenesis, genetic and population modifiers of hemolysis, including sex, have not been established.

Study Design And Methods: We studied sex differences in storage or stress-induced hemolysis in RBC units from the United States and Canada in 22 inbred mouse strains and in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) using measures of hemolysis in 315 patients who had homozygous SS hemoglobin from the Walk-PHASST cohort. A mouse model also was used to evaluate posttransfusion recovery of stored RBCs, and gonadectomy was used to determine the mechanisms related to sex hormones.

Results: An analysis of predisposition to hemolysis based on sex revealed that male RBCs consistently exhibit increased susceptibility to hemolysis compared with females in response to routine cold storage, under osmotic or oxidative stress, after transfusion in mice, and in patients with SCD. The sex difference is intrinsic to the RBC and is not mediated by plasmatic factors or female sex hormones. Importantly, orchiectomy in mice improves RBC storage stability and posttransfusion recovery, whereas testosterone repletion therapy exacerbates hemolytic response to osmotic or oxidative stress.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that testosterone increases susceptibility to hemolysis across human diseases, suggesting that male sex may modulate clinical outcomes in blood storage and SCD and establishing a role for donor genetic variables in the viability of stored RBCs and in human hemolytic diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065383PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.13745DOI Listing
October 2016

Mechanisms underlying resistance of pancreatic islets from ALR/Lt mice to cytokine-induced destruction.

J Immunol 2005 Jul;175(2):1248-56

Diabetes Institute, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3460 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15221, USA.

Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes combine in ALR/Lt mice to produce systemically elevated defenses against free radical damage, rendering these mice resistant to immune-mediated pancreatic islet destruction. We analyzed the mechanism whereby isolated islets from ALR mice resisted proinflammatory stress mediated by combined cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) in vitro. Such damage entails both superoxide and NO radical generation, as well as peroxynitrite, resulting from their combination. In contrast to islets from other mouse strains, ALR islets expressed constitutively higher glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Following incubation with combined cytokines, islets from control strains produced significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide and NO than islets from ALR mice. Nitrotyrosine was generated in NOD and C3H/HeJ islets but not by ALR islets. Western blot analysis showed that combined cytokines up-regulated the NF-kappaB inducible NO synthase in NOD-Rag and C3H/HeJ islets but not in ALR islets. This inability of cytokine-treated ALR islets to up-regulate inducible NO synthase and produce NO correlated both with reduced kinetics of IkappaB degradation and with markedly suppressed NF-kappaB p65 nuclear translocation. Hence, ALR/Lt islets resist cytokine-induced diabetogenic stress through enhanced dissipation and/or suppressed formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, impaired IkappaB degradation, and blunted NF-kappaB activation. Nitrotyrosylation of beta cell proteins may generate neoantigens; therefore, resistance of ALR islets to nitrotyrosine formation may, in part, explain why ALR mice are resistant to type 1 diabetes when reconstituted with a NOD immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.175.2.1248DOI Listing
July 2005

Effect of hemorrhagic shock on gut barrier function and expression of stress-related genes in normal and gnotobiotic mice.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002 Nov;283(5):R1263-74

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA.

We sought to determine whether gut-derived microbial factors influence the hepatic or intestinal inflammatory response to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R). Conventional and gnotobiotic mice contaminated with a defined microbiota without gram-negative bacteria were subjected to either a sham procedure or HS/R. Tissue samples were obtained 4 h later for assessing ileal mucosal permeability to FITC dextran and hepatic and ileal mucosal steady-state IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and TNF mRNA levels. Whereas HS/R significantly increased ileal mucosal permeability in conventional mice, this effect was not apparent in gnotobiotic animals. HS/R markedly increased hepatic mRNA levels for several proinflammatory genes in both conventional and gnotobiotic mice. HS/R increased ileal mucosal IL-6 and COX-2 mRNA expression in conventional but not gnotobiotic mice. If gnotobiotic mice were contaminated with Escherichia coli C25, HS/R increased ileal mucosal permeability and upregulated expression of IL-6 and COX-2. These data support the view that the hepatic inflammatory response to HS/R is largely independent of the presence of potentially pathogenic gram-negative bacteria colonizing the gut, whereas the local mucosal response to HS/R is profoundly influenced by the microbial ecology within the lumen during and shortly after the period of hemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00278.2002DOI Listing
November 2002

Ethyl pyruvate modulates inflammatory gene expression in mice subjected to hemorrhagic shock.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002 Jul;283(1):G212-21

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.

Administration of pyruvate, an effective scavenger of reactive oxygen species, has been shown to be salutary in numerous models of redox-mediated tissue or organ injury. Pyruvate, however, is unstable in solution and, hence, is not attractive for development as a therapeutic agent. Herein, ethyl pyruvate, which is thought to be more stable than the parent compound, was formulated in a calcium-containing balanced salt solution [Ringer ethyl pyruvate solution (REPS)] and evaluated in a murine model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R). Resuscitation with REPS instead of Ringer lactate solution (RLS) significantly improved survival at 24 h and abrogated bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes and the development of increased ileal mucosal permeability to FITC-labeled dextran (4,000 Da) at 4 h. Mice treated with REPS instead of RLS also had lower circulating levels of alanine aminotransferase at 4 h. Treatment with REPS instead of RLS decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in liver and colonic mucosa after HS/R and also decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor, cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin-6 mRNA in liver, ileal mucosa, and/or colonic mucosa. These data support the view that resuscitation with REPS modulates the inflammatory response and decreases hepatocellular and gut mucosal injury in mice subjected to HS/R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00022.2002DOI Listing
July 2002
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