Publications by authors named "Jeffrey Butterworth"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The impact of treatment with bile acid sequestrants on quality of life in patients with bile acid diarrhoea.

BMC Gastroenterol 2022 Jul 2;22(1):325. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton Road, Wolverhampton, WV10 0QP, UK.

Background: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) can be severely debilitating and negatively affect patients' quality of life (QoL). We carried out a multi-centre prospective study exploring QoL outcomes in patients with BAD after treatment with colesevelam.

Methods: Patients with or without a positive 23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan were recruited and categorised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group (CG), idiopathic BAD, post-cholecystectomy (PC) and post-terminal ileal resection for Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with a positive SeHCAT were treated with colesevelam and dosing was titrated to symptomatic response. Patients were reviewed at 4- and 8-weekly intervals and QoL was evaluated by EQ-5D-3L, SF-36, IBDQ-32 at each visit (where relevant). Patients with a negative SeHCAT (CG cohort) completed one set of questionnaires before being discharged from the study.

Results: 47 patients (BAD = 24, PC = 12, CD = 11) completed paired QoL questionnaires before and after treatment and 30 CG patients completed a baseline questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in IBDQ-32 mean scores before and after treatment in CD patients [134.6 (95%CI 112.5-156.6) and 158.4 (136.1-180.6), respectively (p = 0.007). Following treatment, BAD patients had significantly improved mean SF-36 scores in the "Role limitation due to physical health" dimension (p = 0.02) and in the overall mental component summary (p = 0.03). Prior to starting treatment, BAD patients had the lowest scores in the 'activity' dimension of the EQ-5D-3L (p = 0.04), which improved significantly after treatment (p = 0.002). Overall, the BAD and CD cohort showed improved mean scores with treatment in all components of the SF-36 and EQ-5D-3L, while the PC cohort showed a general decline in mean scores after treatment. 55% of patients clinically responded to treatment of which 41.7%, 58.3% and 81.8% responded from the BAD, PC and CD groups respectively. Correlations between those deemed as responders with improvements on the SF-36 and EQ-5D dimensions were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate improved QoL in the BAD and CD cohort with treatment. Further larger studies are recommended specifically investigating the PC cohort and whether patients may improve with newer treatments such as FXR agonists. Trial registration Ethical approval REC Ref: 16/LO/1325.
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July 2022

A single faecal bile acid stool test demonstrates potential efficacy in replacing SeHCAT testing for bile acid diarrhoea in selected patients.

Sci Rep 2022 05 18;12(1):8313. Epub 2022 May 18.

Clinical Chemistry, Black Country Pathology Services, The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, UK.

This study examines the validity of measuring faecal bile acids (FBA) in a single stool sample as a diagnostic tool for bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) by direct comparison to the selenium-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan. A prospective observational study was undertaken. Patients with chronic diarrhoea (> 6 weeks) being investigated for potential BAD with SeHCAT scan provided stool samples for measurement of FBA, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were characterised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group, post-cholecystectomy, idiopathic BAD and post-operative terminal ileal resected Crohn's disease. Stool samples were collected at baseline and 8-weeks post treatment to determine whether FBA measurement could be used to monitor therapeutic response. 113 patients had a stool sample to directly compare with their SeHCAT result. FBA concentrations (μmol/g) and interquartile ranges in patients in the control group (2.8; 1.6-4.2), BAD (3.6; 1.9-7.2) and post-cholecystectomy cohort 3.8 (2.3-6.8) were similar, but all were significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to the Crohn's disease cohort (11.8; 10.1-16.2). FBA concentrations in patients with SeHCAT retention of < 15% (4.95; 2.6-10.5) and < 5% (9.9; 4.8-15.4) were significantly higher than those with a SeHCAT retention > 15% (2.6; 1.6-4.2); (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity using FBA cut-off of 1.6 μmol/g (using ≤ 15% SeHCAT retention as diagnostic of BAD) were 90% and 25% respectively. A single random stool sample may have potential use in diagnosing severe BAD or BAD in Crohn's patients. Larger studies are now needed to confirm the potential efficacy of this test to accurately diagnose BAD in the absence of SeHCAT testing.
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May 2022

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in patients with IBD treated with infliximab.

Gut 2021 05 22;70(5):865-875. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Digestive Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objective: Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Design: Antibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4β7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020.

Results: Rates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2-5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2-76.1), p<0.0001).

Conclusions: Infliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN45176516.
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May 2021

Randomized Trial of Ciprofloxacin Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine Versus Budesonide in Active Crohn's Disease.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 08 17;66(8):2700-2711. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Henry Wellcome Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, University of Liverpool, Nuffield Building, Crown Street, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK.

Background: Increased mucosa-associated E. coli are present in Crohn's disease, but their role in pathogenesis is uncertain.

Aims: To assess efficacy and safety of an antibiotic/hydroxychloroquine combination effective against E. coli inside macrophages.

Methods: Adults with moderately active disease (CDAI > 220-450 plus C reactive protein ≥ 5 mg/l and/or fecal calprotectin > 250 μg/g) were randomized to receive (open-label) oral budesonide (Entocort CR 9 mg/day 8 weeks, 6 mg/day 2 weeks, 3 mg/day 2 weeks) or oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg bd, doxycycline 100 mg bd, hydroxychloroquine 200 mg tds for 4 weeks, followed by doxycycline 100 mg bd and hydroxychloroquine 200 mg tds for 20 weeks. Primary endpoints were remission (CDAI ≤ 150) at 10 weeks, remission maintained to 24 weeks, and remission maintained to 52 weeks. Patients not responding (CDAI fall by > 70) by 10 weeks were invited to crossover onto the alternative therapy.

Results: Fifty-nine patients were recruited across 8 sites. Including crossover, 39 patients received antibiotics/hydroxychloroquine and 39 received budesonide. At 10 weeks, 24 weeks, and 52 weeks on initial therapy, only 2/27, 2/27, and 1/27 were in remission on antibiotics/hydroxychloroquine compared with 8/32, 1/32, and 1/32 on budesonide (P = 0.092 at 10 weeks). Withdrawals by 10 weeks due to adverse events were seen in 15 receiving antibiotics/hydroxychloroquine and 6 budesonide. Results including crossover were more promising with 9/24 patients receiving antibiotics/hydroxychloroquine per protocol in remission by 24 weeks. No correlation was seen between response to antibiotics/hydroxychloroquine and ASCA/OmpC antibody status or disease location.

Conclusion: Overall results with this antibiotic/hydroxychloroquine combination were unimpressive, but long-term remission is seen in some patients and justifies further study.
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August 2021

Practice pattern variability in the management of acute severe colitis: a UK provider survey.

Frontline Gastroenterol 2020 17;11(4):272-279. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UK.

Introduction: Lack of comparative trial data on dosing regimens of infliximab in patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) failing intravenous corticosteroids has resulted in variability of rescue regimes in ASUC with potential impact on clinical outcomes. We aimed to evaluate practice variability and physician perspectives in decision-making with rescue therapy.

Methodology: An internet-based survey of members of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) section of the British Society of Gastroenterology was conducted. The survey evaluated provider characteristics and general practice in the setting of ASUC, followed by a vignette with linked questions.

Results: The response rate of the survey was 31% (209/682 IBD section members). 134 (78%) reported they would use standard infliximab dose (5 mg/kg) while 37 (22%) favoured a higher front-loading dose of 10 mg/kg citing low albumin, high C-reactive protein as their reason for their preference. IBD specialists chose the higher front-loading dose more often compared with other gastroenterologists (p=0.01) In the specific case vignette, accelerated induction (AI) was favoured by 51% of the respondents while 25% used the standard induction regime and 19% favoured colectomy. IBD specialists more often favoured AI compared with other gastroenterologists (p=0.03) with the main reason being presence of predictors of low infliximab levels (74%). The reasons cited for favouring standard induction (n=57) included lack of evidence for AI (18), their usual practice (11), unlicensed regime (7), and safety concerns (4).

Conclusions: There are significant variations in practice in the use of infliximab rescue therapies with an urgent need for development of care pathways to standardise practice.
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August 2019

Infliximab induction regimens in steroid-refractory acute severe colitis: a multicentre retrospective cohort study with propensity score analysis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 09;50(6):675-683

Cambridge, UK.

Background: Accelerated induction regimens of infliximab have been proposed to improve response rates in patients with steroid-refractory acute severe colitis.

Aim: To determine the differences in outcome for acute severe ulcerative colitis between accelerated and standard-dose infliximab METHODS: We collected data on hospitalised patients receiving differing regimens of rescue therapy for steroid-refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis. Our primary outcome was 30-day colectomy rate. Secondary outcomes were colectomy within index admission, and at 90 days and 12 months. We used propensity score analysis with optimal calliper matching using high risk covariates defined a priori to reduce potential provider selection bias.

Results: We included 131 patients receiving infliximab rescue therapy; 102 received standard induction and 29 received accelerated induction. In the unmatched cohort, there was no difference by type of induction in the 30-day colectomy rates (18% vs 20%, P = .45), colectomy during index admission (13% vs 20%, P = .26) or overall colectomy (20% vs 24%, P = .38). In the propensity score-matched cohort of 52 patients, 30-day colectomy (57% vs 27%, P = .048) and index admission colectomy (53% vs 23%, P = .045) rates were higher in those receiving standard induction compared to accelerated induction but there was no difference in overall colectomy rates (57% vs 31%, P = .09). There was no significant difference in length of stay or in complication and infection rates.

Conclusion: In a propensity score-matched cohort, steroid-refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis patients, short-term, but not long-term, colectomy rates appear to be lower in those receiving an accelerated induction regimen.
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September 2019

A bitter pill.

Gut 2010 Apr;59(4):451, 507

Department of Gastroenterology, Sandwell General Hospital, West Bromwich, UK.

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April 2010

Gallstones mimicking malignancy.

Gastrointest Endosc 2009 Apr;69(4):951-2; discussion 952

Department of Gastroenterology, Princess Royal Hospital, Telford, UK.

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April 2009

The emerging role of the liver in iron metabolism.

Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;100(1):201-6

Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK.

Iron is essential in health and well-being and its dysregulation is a common theme in disease. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology underlying hemochromatosis and anemia has provided insight into the complex mechanisms implicated in iron metabolism. The proximal small bowel is the major site of iron absorption and, it is becoming increasingly clear that the regulation of this process involves the liver and, in particular, the hepatic antimicrobial peptide hepcidin. A number of studies have shown hepcidin to have an inhibitory function at the level of small bowel iron absorption, although its exact site of action remains to be elucidated. Clearly, identifying the target of hepcidin is of importance and is likely to lead to the development of therapeutic agents in the treatment of iron disorders.
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January 2005

Factors relating to compliance with a gluten-free diet in patients with coeliac disease: comparison of white Caucasian and South Asian patients.

Clin Nutr 2004 Oct;23(5):1127-34

Gastroenterology Unit, City Hospital, Dudley Road, Birmingham, B18 7QH, England, UK.

Background & Aims: To identify factors relating to compliance with a gluten-free diet amongst white Caucasian and South Asians with coeliac disease.

Methods: Cross-sectional survey, with case note review of 130 adult patients with coeliac disease (90 white Caucasian and 40 South Asians).

Results: 87 (66.9%) of the 130 questionnaires were returned; whites: 73.3%, South Asians: 52.5% (P = 0.02). White Caucasians' assessment of their own strictness to the gluten-free diet correlated with small bowel histological recovery (OR 10.00, 95% CI 3.2-33.06) and negative endomysial antibodies (OR 34.94, CI 6.58-185.40). This was not seen in the South Asian patients. Amongst the white coeliacs, factors correlating with compliance with a gluten-free diet were: Coeliac Society membership, understanding food labelling, obtaining sufficient gluten-free products, explanation by a physician, and regular dietetic follow-up. These factors were not identified amongst the South Asians, who were less likely to attend dietetic clinics, join the Coeliac Society and be satisfied with information provided by doctors and dieticians.

Conclusions: In contrast to the South Asians, factors were identified which related to compliance with a gluten-free diet amongst white Caucasian coeliac patients. This study has shown that the treatment approach to ethnic minorities with coeliac disease must be improved.
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October 2004

The role of hemochromatosis susceptibility gene mutations in protecting against iron deficiency in celiac disease.

Gastroenterology 2002 Aug;123(2):444-9

Gastroenterology Unit, City Hospital, Birmingham, England.

Background & Aims: Celiac disease and hereditary hemochromatosis are common HLA-defined conditions in northwestern Europe. We sought to determine whether there is a genetic relationship between the 2 diseases and if hemochromatosis susceptibility gene (HFE) mutations are protective against iron deficiency in celiac disease.

Methods: Polymerase chain reaction amplification using sequence-specific primers capable of identifying the 2 HFE gene mutations (H63D and C282Y) and the HLA class I and II alleles was used to type 145 white patients with celiac disease and 187 matched controls. Hemoglobin and fasting serum iron levels in celiac patients were measured at diagnosis.

Results: HFE gene mutations, H63D or C282Y, were identified in 70 celiac patients (48.3%) and 61 controls (32.6%) (P = 0.004). The C282Y mutation was associated with HLA-A*03 and B*07 alleles in controls and with A*01, A*03, B*08, and DRB1*0301 alleles in celiac patients; the H63D mutation was associated with HLA-A*25 and DRB1*03 alleles in controls and A*29 and DRB1*03 alleles in celiac patients. At diagnosis, celiac patients with the C282Y mutation had higher mean hemoglobin and fasting serum iron levels compared with the HFE wild type (P = 0.0002 and 0.006, respectively). This was not observed with the H63D mutation.

Conclusions: In celiac disease, HFE gene mutations are common and are in linkage disequilibrium with different HLA alleles compared with controls. A disease-specific haplotype that carries C282Y and DQB1*02 is suggested. We propose that HFE gene mutations provide a survival advantage by ameliorating the iron deficiency seen in celiac patients.
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August 2002