Publications by authors named "Jefferson Tweed"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Routine Neuroimaging: Understanding Brain Injury in Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Pediatric Critical Care, Pediatrix Medical Group, Orem, UT. Department of Population and Data Science, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Children's Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Objectives: This project aims to describe brain injuries on routine neuroimaging in a large single-center neonatal and pediatric cohort supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The study also aims to examine the association of these injuries with neurocognitive outcomes in survivors and identify laboratory findings associated with neurologic injury.

Design: Retrospective observational single-center cohort study.

Setting: Tertiary care PICU.

Patients: Pediatric patients with noncardiac indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation supported by venoarterial or venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with on-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation brain CT or postextracorporeal membrane oxygenation brain CT/MRI.

Interventions: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

Measurements And Main Results: Occurrence of brain injury on CT and MRI was reviewed; injuries were scored. Clinical and laboratory results associated with injury were identified. Survivor neurocognitive outcomes were obtained using the Pediatric Overall Performance Category scale and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scale. Of 132 imaged patients, 98 (74%) had radiological evidence of brain injury. Mean injury score was 6.5 (± 3.8). Head ultrasounds and clinician suspicion performed poorly in suspecting the presence of injury. Of 104 respondents to neurodevelopmental assessments, 61 (59%) had normal scores; 12.5%, 17%, and 11.5% had mild, moderate, or severe disability. A neuroimaging score greater than 10 was associated with an unfavorable outcome on the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (odds ratio, 3.4; p < 0.01) and Pediatric Overall Performance Category (odds ratio, 1.7; p < 0.05). Ischemic injury correlated with worse neurodevelopmental outcome. Preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation lactate, Vasoactive-Inotropic Scores, transaminitis, elevated bilirubin and creatinine levels, and thrombocytopenia were associated with injury occurrence.

Conclusions: Brain injury is frequent in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients, although the majority of survivors have favorable neurocognitive outcomes. More research is needed in order to understand the etiology of such injuries. Head ultrasound and clinician suspicion are not sensitive in detecting extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-related brain injuries. Protocolizing postextracorporeal membrane oxygenation imaging with brain MRI allows the identification of injuries and provision of timely neurocognitive intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005308DOI Listing
September 2021

Harnessing the Electronic Health Record and Computerized Provider Order Entry Data for Resource Management During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Development of a Decision Tree.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Oct 18;9(10):e32303. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in shortages of diagnostic tests, personal protective equipment, hospital beds, and other critical resources.

Objective: We sought to improve the management of scarce resources by leveraging electronic health record (EHR) functionality, computerized provider order entry, clinical decision support (CDS), and data analytics.

Methods: Due to the complex eligibility criteria for COVID-19 tests and the EHR implementation-related challenges of ordering these tests, care providers have faced obstacles in selecting the appropriate test modality. As test choice is dependent upon specific patient criteria, we built a decision tree within the EHR to automate the test selection process by using a branching series of questions that linked clinical criteria to the appropriate SARS-CoV-2 test and triggered an EHR flag for patients who met our institutional persons under investigation criteria.

Results: The percentage of tests that had to be canceled and reordered due to errors in selecting the correct testing modality was 3.8% (23/608) before CDS implementation and 1% (262/26,643) after CDS implementation (P<.001). Patients for whom multiple tests were ordered during a 24-hour period accounted for 0.8% (5/608) and 0.3% (76/26,643) of pre- and post-CDS implementation orders, respectively (P=.03). Nasopharyngeal molecular assay results were positive in 3.4% (826/24,170) of patients who were classified as asymptomatic and 10.9% (1421/13,074) of symptomatic patients (P<.001). Positive tests were more frequent among asymptomatic patients with a history of exposure to COVID-19 (36/283, 12.7%) than among asymptomatic patients without such a history (790/23,887, 3.3%; P<.001).

Conclusions: The leveraging of EHRs and our CDS algorithm resulted in a decreased incidence of order entry errors and the appropriate flagging of persons under investigation. These interventions optimized reagent and personal protective equipment usage. Data regarding symptoms and COVID-19 exposure status that were collected by using the decision tree correlated with the likelihood of positive test results, suggesting that clinicians appropriately used the questions in the decision tree algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/32303DOI Listing
October 2021

Delayed Diagnosis of Injury in Pediatric Trauma Patients at a Level I Trauma Center.

J Emerg Med 2021 May 22;60(5):583-590. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Pediatric Emergency Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Background: Trauma care per Advanced Trauma Life Support addresses immediate threats to life. Occasionally, delays in injury diagnosis occur. Delayed diagnosis of injury (DDI) is a common quality indicator in trauma care, and pediatric DDI data are sparse.

Objective: Our aim was to describe the DDI rate in a severely injured pediatric trauma population and identify any factors associated with DDI in the pediatric population.

Methods: A prospective cohort of trauma activations in 0- to 16-year-old patients admitted to a pediatric level I trauma center over 12 months with injuries prospectively recorded were followed during admission to identify DDI.

Results: A total of 170 trauma activations were enrolled. Twelve patients had type I DDI (7.1%), 15 patients had type II DDI (8.8%), and 5 patients had both type I and type II DDI (2.9%). DDI patients had twice as many injuries and higher Injury Severity Scores (ISS) as non-DDI patients. DDI patients were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, longer hospital stay, and ventilator support. Controlling for age and ISS in multivariate analysis, the number of injuries found and requiring a ventilator were significantly associated with DDI.

Conclusions: This prospective study found a type I DDI rate of 7.1% and a type II DDI rate of 8.8% in the pediatric population. DDI patients had a greater number of injuries, higher ISS, higher rate of ICU admission, and were more likely to require mechanical ventilation. This study adds prospective data to the pediatric DDI literature, increases provider awareness of pediatric DDI, and lays the foundation for future study and quality improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2020.12.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Neural Networks to Predict Radiographic Brain Injury in Pediatric Patients Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 22;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Children's Health Dallas, Dallas, TX 75201, USA.

Brain injury is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for pediatric patients treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). Our objective was to utilize neural networks to predict radiographic evidence of brain injury in pediatric ECMO-supported patients and identify specific variables that can be explored for future research. Data from 174 ECMO-supported patients were collected up to 24 h prior to, and for the duration of, the ECMO course. Thirty-five variables were collected, including physiological data, markers of end-organ perfusion, acid-base homeostasis, vasoactive infusions, markers of coagulation, and ECMO-machine factors. The primary outcome was the presence of radiologic evidence of moderate to severe brain injury as established by brain CT or MRI. This information was analyzed by a neural network, and results were compared to a logistic regression model as well as clinician judgement. The neural network model was able to predict brain injury with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.76, 73% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. Logistic regression had 62% sensitivity and 61% specificity. Clinician judgment had 39% sensitivity and 69% specificity. Sequential feature group masking demonstrated a relatively greater contribution of physiological data and minor contribution of coagulation factors to the model's performance. These findings lay the foundation for further areas of research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565544PMC
August 2020

Cerebral Hemodynamic Profile in Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Brain Injury Acquired During Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 10;21(10):879-885

Children's Health in Dallas, Dallas, TX.

Objectives: To describe the cerebral hemodynamic profiles associated with ischemic and hemorrhagic brain injury during neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Design: A retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Tertiary PICU.

Patients: Forty-seven neonatal and pediatric patients (0-15 yr of age) placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from January 2014 to December 2018.

Measurements And Main Results: Continuous monitoring of mean arterial pressure and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation was conducted through entire extracorporeal membrane oxygenation run. Wavelet analysis was performed to assess changes in cerebral autoregulation and to derive pressure-dependent autoregulation curves based on the mean arterial pressure and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation data. Patients were classified into three brain injury groups: no-injury, ischemic injury, and hemorrhagic injury based on neuroimaging results. No-injury patients (n = 23) had minimal variability in the autoregulation curve over a broad range of blood pressure. Ischemic injury (n = 16) was more common than hemorrhagic injury (n = 8), and the former was associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Ischemic group showed significant abnormalities in cerebral autoregulation in the lower blood pressure range, suggesting pressure-dependent cerebral perfusion. Hemorrhagic group had highest average blood pressure as well as the lowest cerebral tissue oxygenation saturation, suggesting elevated cerebral vascular resistance. Mean heparin dose during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was lower in both ischemic and hemorrhagic groups compared with the no-injury group.

Conclusions: This study outlines distinct differences in underlying cerebral hemodynamics associated with ischemic and hemorrhagic brain injury acquired during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Real-time monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics in patients acquiring brain injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can help optimize their management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002438DOI Listing
October 2020

Air Guns: A Contemporary Review of Injuries at Six Pediatric Level I Trauma Centers.

J Surg Res 2020 04 26;248:1-6. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Surgery Department, Children's Medical Center, The Flagship of Children's HealthSM, Dallas, Texas.

Background: Studies spanning the last three decades demonstrated the injury causing capability of air gun (AG) projectiles. Recent studies have suggested the impact and incidence of these injuries may be declining because of edcational efforts. We hypothesize that injuries in the pediatric population resulting from AGs remain a significant health concern.

Methods: A retrospective review (1/1/2007 to 12/31/2016), of AG-injured children < 19 years old, was performed across six level I Pediatric Trauma Centers, part of the ATOMAC research consortium. AG injuries were defined as injuries sustained by ball-bearing or pellet air-powered guns. Paint ball and soft foam AGs were excluded. Following institutional review board approval, patients were identified by ICD code from the trauma registry. Included were demographic data, injury severity scores, length of stay (LOS), outcome at discharge, and overall cost of admission. Descriptive statistics and parametric tests were employed.

Results: A total of 499 patients sustained injuries. Mean age 9.5 (±4.0) y; 81% of victims were male; all survived to hospital discharge. 30% (n = 151) required operative intervention. Hospital LOS was 2.3 (±2.2) d; with mean cost of $23,756 (±$34,441). Injury severity score mean of 3.7 (±4.6) on admission. Over 40% of the injuries to the head/thorax that were severe (AIS ≥ 3) required operative intervention (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: AG injuries to the head or thorax seen at trauma centers were likely to require operative management. While no fatalities occurred, the cost was substantial. This study demonstrates pediatric injuries resulting from AG projectiles remain a significant health concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.11.002DOI Listing
April 2020

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients: A Pilot Study.

ASAIO J 2020 04;66(4):447-453

From the Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.

In this pilot study, we evaluated the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonatal and pediatric patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and aimed to identify the role of post-ECMO magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ-3) screening tool. Thirteen were evaluated during their visit at the neurodevelopmental clinic and 16 were interviewed via phone. We also reviewed the post-ECMO MRI brain of these patients and scored the severity of their injury based on the neuroimaging findings. In our cohort of 29 patients, 10 patients (34%) had developmental delay. Of those with developmental delay, 80% were newborns. Sixty-seven percent of patients with developmental delay had moderate to severe MRI abnormalities as compared with only 18% with no developmental deficits (p = 0.03). The younger the age at the time of placement on ECMO, the higher the chances of impaired neurodevelopmental outcome. Long-term follow-up of patients who have survived ECMO, with standardized neuropsychologic testing and post-ECMO imaging, should become the standard of care to improve long-term outcomes. Significant abnormalities on brain MRIs done before discharge correlated with developmental delay on follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000001035DOI Listing
April 2020

Massive transfusion in pediatric trauma: An ATOMAC perspective.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Feb 5;54(2):345-349. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Children's Medical Center, the flagship of Children's Health(SM), 1935 Medical District Dr, Dallas, TX, USA 75235.

Background/purpose: Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) are considered valuable in pediatric trauma. Important questions regarding the survival benefit and optimal blood component ratio remain unknown.

Methods: The study time frame was January 2007 through December 2013 five Level I Pediatric Trauma Centers reviewed all trauma activations involving children ≤18 years of age. Included were patients who either had the institutional MTP or received >20 mL/kg or > 2 units packed red blood cells (PRBCs).

Results: 110/202 qualified for inclusion. Median age was 5.9 years (3.0-11.4). 73% survived to discharge; median hospitalization was 10 (3.1-22.8) days. Survival did not vary by arrival hemoglobin (Hgb), gender or age. Partial prothrombin time (PTT), INR, GCS and injury severity score (ISS) significantly differed for nonsurvivors (all p < 0.05). Logistic regression found increased mortality (OR 3.08 (1.10-8.57), 95% CI; p = 0.031) per unit increase over a 1:1 ratio of pRBC:FFP.

Conclusion: In pediatric trauma pRBC:FFP ratio of 1:1 was associated with the highest survival of severely injured children receiving massive transfusion. Ratios 2:1 or ≥3:1 were associated with significantly increased risk of death. These data support a higher proportion of plasma products for pediatric trauma patients requiring massive transfusion.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2018.10.040DOI Listing
February 2019

Prehospital Airway Management Examined at Two Pediatric Emergency Centers.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2018 Oct;33(5):532-538

1Trauma Services,Children's Health,Dallas,TexasUSA.

IntroductionRoutine advanced airway usage by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) has had conflicting reports of being the secure airway of choice in pediatric patients.Hypothesis/ProblemThe primary objective was to describe a pediatric cohort requiring airway management upon their arrival directly from the scene to two pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). A secondary objective included assessing for associations in EMS airway management and patient outcomes.

Methods: Retrospective data from the health record were reviewed, including EMS reports, for all arrivals less than 18 years old to two PEDs who required airway support between May 2015 and July 2016. The EMS management was classified as basic (oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP], or bag-valve-mask [BVM]) or advanced (supraglottic or endotracheal intubation [ETI]) based on EMS documentation. Outcomes included oxygenation as documented by receiving PED and hospital mortality.

Results: In total, 104 patients with an average age 5.9 (SD=5.1) years and median EMS Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of nine (IQR 3-14) were enrolled. Basic management was utilized in 70% of patients (passive: n=49; CPAP: n=2; BVM: n=22). Advanced management was utilized in 30% of patients (supraglottic: n=4; ETI: n=27). Proper ETI placement was achieved in 48% of attempted patients, with 41% of patients undergoing multiple attempts. Inadequate oxygenation occurred in 18% of patients, including four percent of ETI attempts, nine percent of BVM patients, and 32% of passively managed patients. Adjusted for EMS GCS, medical patients undergoing advanced airway management experienced higher risk of mortality (risk-ratio [RR] 2.98; 95% CI, 1.18-7.56; P=.021).

Conclusion: With exception to instances where ETI is clearly indicated, BVM management is effective in pediatric patients who required airway support, with ETI providing no definitive protective factors. Most of the patients who exhibited inadequate oxygenation upon arrival to the PED received only passive oxygenation by EMS. TweedJ, GeorgeT, GreenwellC, VinsonL. Prehospital airway management examined at two pediatric emergency centers. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):532-538.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X18000882DOI Listing
October 2018

Coagulation Profile Is Not a Predictor of Acute Cerebrovascular Events in Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients.

ASAIO J 2017 Nov/Dec;63(6):793-801

From the *Department of Pediatrics, Critical Care Division, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; †Department of Pediatrics, Hematology-Oncology Division, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; ‡Department of Pediatrics, Critical Care Division, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas; §Department of Pediatrics, Neurology Division, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; and ¶Trauma Services Children's Health Dallas, Dallas, Texas.

We performed a retrospective matched case-control study evaluating whether the traditional coagulation profile predicts cerebrovascular events in children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a 71 bed intensive care unit at a tertiary children's hospital. Between 2009 and 2014, 241 neonates and children were initiated on ECMO. The cumulative 5 year incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and infarct was 9.2% and 7.9%, respectively. Thirty-six cases were individually matched 1:1 with control subjects based on age, primary diagnosis, ECMO type, cannulation site, and the presence of pre-ECMO coagulopathy. In-hospital mortality was higher among the cases compared with control subjects (78 vs. 22%, p < 0.01). The median laboratory values that assisted with heparin anticoagulation monitoring (activated clotting time, partial thromboplastin time, and antifactor Xa) and the laboratory data that assisted with blood product administration (platelet count, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, and d-dimer) during the 24 and 72 hour periods before the cerebrovascular event did not show any significant difference between the hemorrhage group and their controls or between the infarct group and their controls. The traditional coagulation profile did not predict acute cerebrovascular events in our cohort. Other markers of neurologic injury on ECMO are yet to be elucidated. Prospective studies to determine better predictors of cerebrovascular complications in pediatric ECMO patients are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000000571DOI Listing
May 2018

State-level geographic variation in prompt access to care for children after motor vehicle crashes.

J Surg Res 2017 09 8;217:75-83.e1. Epub 2017 May 8.

Department of Trauma Services, Children's Medical Center of Dallas, Part of Children's Health(SM), Dallas, Texas; Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Background: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a principal cause of death in children; fatal MVCs and pediatric trauma resources vary by state. We sought to examine state-level variability in and predictors of prompt access to care for children in MVCs.

Materials And Methods: Using the 2010-2014 Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we identified passengers aged <15 y involved in fatal MVCs (crashes on US public roads with ≥1 death, adult or pediatric, within 30 d). We included children requiring transport for medical care from the crash scene with documented time of hospital arrival. Our primary outcome was transport time to first hospital, defined as >1 or ≤1 h. We used multivariable logistic regression to establish state-level variability in the percentage of children with transport time >1 h, adjusting for injury severity (no injury, possible injury, suspected minor injury, suspected severe injury, fatal injury, and unknown severity), mode of transport (emergency medical services [EMS] air, EMS ground, and non-EMS), and rural roads.

Results: We identified 18,116 children involved in fatal MVCs from 2010 to 2014; 10,407 (57%) required transport for medical care. Median transport time was 1 h (interquartile range: [1, 1]; range: [0, 23]). The percent of children with transport time >1 h varied significantly by state, from 0% in several states to 69% in New Mexico. Children with no injuries identified at the scene and crashes on rural roads were more likely to have transport times >1 h.

Conclusions: Transport times for children after fatal MVCs varied substantially across states. These results may inform state-level pediatric trauma response planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2017.04.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5603370PMC
September 2017

Factors Associated with Pediatric Mortality from Motor Vehicle Crashes in the United States: A State-Based Analysis.

J Pediatr 2017 08 25;187:295-302.e3. Epub 2017 May 25.

Children's Medical Center of Dallas, Part of Children's Health(SM), Dallas, TX; Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Objective: To examine geographic variation in motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related pediatric mortality and identify state-level predictors of mortality.

Study Design: Using the 2010-2014 Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we identified passengers <15 years of age involved in fatal MVCs, defined as crashes on US public roads with ≥1 death (adult or pediatric) within 30 days. We assessed passenger, driver, vehicle, crash, and state policy characteristics as factors potentially associated with MVC-related pediatric mortality. Our outcomes were age-adjusted, MVC-related mortality rate per 100 000 children and percentage of children who died of those in fatal MVCs. Unit of analysis was US state. We used multivariable linear regression to define state characteristics associated with higher levels of each outcome.

Results: Of 18 116 children in fatal MVCs, 15.9% died. The age-adjusted, MVC-related mortality rate per 100 000 children varied from 0.25 in Massachusetts to 3.23 in Mississippi (mean national rate of 0.94). Predictors of greater age-adjusted, MVC-related mortality rate per 100 000 children included greater percentage of children who were unrestrained or inappropriately restrained (P < .001) and greater percentage of crashes on rural roads (P = .016). Additionally, greater percentages of children died in states without red light camera legislation (P < .001). For 10% absolute improvement in appropriate child restraint use nationally, our risk-adjusted model predicted >1100 pediatric deaths averted over 5 years.

Conclusions: MVC-related pediatric mortality varied by state and was associated with restraint nonuse or misuse, rural roads, vehicle type, and red light camera policy. Revising state regulations and improving enforcement around these factors may prevent substantial pediatric mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.04.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558848PMC
August 2017

An International Survey on Ventilator Practices Among Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Centers.

ASAIO J 2017 Nov/Dec;63(6):787-792

From the *Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; †Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas; ‡Children's Medical Center at Dallas part of Children's Health (SM), Dallas, Texas; §Department of Accounting, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas; and ¶Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas.

Although the optimal ventilation strategy is unknown for patients placed on extracorporeal support, there are increasing reports of extubation being used. Our objective was to describe the change in ventilation strategies and use of tracheostomy and bronchoscopy practices among extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers across the world. A descriptive, cross-sectional 22 item survey of neonatal, pediatric, and adult ECMO centers was used to evaluate ventilator strategies, extubation, bronchoscopy, and tracheostomy practices. Extubation practices are increasing among all types of ECMO centers, representing 27% of all patients in pediatric centers, 41% of all patients in mixed centers, and 52% of all patients in adult centers. The most common mode of ventilation during ECMO is pressure control. There is a trend toward increased use of bilevel ventilation particularly for lung recruitment. Additionally, there is a trend toward increase in performance of bronchoscopy (pediatrics: 69%, mixed centers: 81%, adults: 76%) and tracheostomy. Among the centers performing tracheostomies, 45% reported the percutaneous method (pediatric: 31%, mixed: 46%, adult: 57%), 19% reported the open method (pediatric: 9%, mixed: 27%, adult: 24%), and 10% reported using both types of tracheostomies (pediatric: 2%, mixed: 8%, adult: 16%). Our study shows that ECMO centers are extubating their patients, performing tracheostomies and bronchoscopies on their patients more than in the previous years. There remains significant variation in ECMO ventilator strategies and management internationally. Future studies are needed to correlate these changes in practices to outcome benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000000575DOI Listing
May 2018

Caring for Kids: Bridging Gaps in Pediatric Emergency Care Through Community Education and Outreach.

Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2017 Jun 18;29(2):143-155. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Children's Health(SM) Children's Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The Pediatric Emergency Services Network (PESN) was developed to provide ongoing continuing education on pediatric guidelines and pediatric emergency care to rural and nonpediatric hospitals, physicians, nurses, and emergency personnel. A survey was developed and given to participants attending PESN educational events to determine the perceived benefit and application to practice of the PESN outreach program. Overall, 91% of participants surveyed reported agreement that PESN educational events were beneficial to their clinical practice, provided them with new knowledge, and made them more knowledgeable about pediatric emergency care. Education and outreach programs can be beneficial to health care workers' educational needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnc.2017.01.002DOI Listing
June 2017

Pre-ECMO coagulopathy does not increase the occurrence of hemorrhage during extracorporeal support.

Int J Artif Organs 2017 May 20;40(5):250-255. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

 Department of Pediatrics, Hematology-Oncology Division, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX - USA.

Introduction And Methods: Observational retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between precannulation coagulopathy and the occurrence of hemorrhage during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonatal and pediatric patients at a tertiary children's hospital.

Results: Of 241 patients supported with ECMO between January 2009 and December 2014, 175 (72.6%) had precannulation coagulation laboratory data and were included in the study. Of the eligible patients, 84 (48%) were identified as coagulopathic and 91 (52%) were noncoagulopathic. In the coagulopathic group, sepsis (27.3%) was the most common diagnosis leading to ECMO. Over half of the patients in both groups (55.9% of the coagulopathic and 52.7% of the noncoagulopathic group) developed hemorrhagic complications during ECMO support. The most frequent bleeding sites for both groups were the cannulation site (24%), the chest tube site (17%), and intracranial (10%). Pre-ECMO coagulopathy was not associated with higher incidence of hemorrhage during extracorporeal support (p = 0.76).

Conclusions: Pre-ECMO coagulopathy was frequent in our cohort but did not increase the occurrence of hemorrhage during extracorporeal support. Although the identification of factors associated with hemorrhage is key to safely managing ECMO anticoagulation, the implication of precannulation coagulopathy seems to be minimal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/ijao.5000577DOI Listing
May 2017
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