Publications by authors named "Jeff S Heldt"

3 Publications

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Effects of varying sources of Cu, Zn, and Mn on mineral status and preferential intake of salt-based supplements by beef cows and calves and rainfall-induced metal loss.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 7;5(2):txab046. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Three studies were completed to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn source on preferential intake, trace mineral status, and rainfall-induced metal loss of salt-based mineral supplements. Mineral supplements were formulated to contain 2,500, 5,500, and 4,000 mg/kg of Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively. Supplements differed only by source of Cu, Zn, and Mn, which were hydroxychloride, organic, or sulfate sources. In Exp. 1, the three formulations were offered simultaneously for 18 wk to preweaned beef calves (four pastures; 17 calves per pasture) within separate containers inside covered cow-exclusion areas. Consumption averaged 21 ± 2.4 g/calf daily (sum of all three sources), with a greater ( < 0.001) percentage of the total intake coming from the hydroxychloride vs. organic or sulfate sources of Cu, Zn, and Mn. In Exp. 2, the same sulfate and hydroxychloride formulations were randomly assigned to pastures ( = 4 pastures per treatment) containing 18 to 20 cow-calf pairs/pasture. Treatments were offered for 20 wk within covered areas designed to assess cow and calf intake separately. At weaning, liver biopsies were collected from four cow-calf pairs/pasture ( = 16 cows and calves per treatment). Source of Cu, Zn, and Mn had no effect on voluntary mineral intake among calves ( 0.44) and cows ( 0.14). Calves consuming mineral containing hydroxychloride sources of Cu, Zn, and Mn tended ( 0.06) to have greater average daily gain over the 20-wk period compared with calves consuming sulfate sources of the same elements (1.09 vs. 1.06 kg/d; SEM = 0.013). Mineral status of cows and calves was not affected ( ≥ 0.17) by source of Cu, Zn, and Mn. In Exp. 3, each of the mineral formulations from Exp. 1 was exposed to a 10.2-cm precipitation event delivered in three equal 3.4-cm applications within a week. To accomplish this, 750 g of mineral was placed into Buchner funnels (177 cm) on 20- to 25-µm pore filter paper. Deionized water (pH adjusted to 5.6) was poured over the mineral. Total leaching losses of Cu, Zn, and Mn were less ( < 0.001) for formulations containing hydroxychloride vs. organic and sulfate sources. These results imply that, when offered a choice, calves preferentially consume mineral supplements formulated with hydroxychloride vs. sulfate or organic sources of Cu, Zn, and Mn. In addition, hydroxychloride sources of Cu, Zn, and Mn are less susceptible to rainfall-induced leaching losses compared with sulfate and organic sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txab046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140367PMC
April 2021

Effect of zinc source and concentration and chromium supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot steers1,2,3.

J Anim Sci 2019 Mar;97(3):1286-1295

Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Four hundred crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effects of supplemental Zn source and concentration, and dietary Cr on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet. Steers were blocked by initial BW within cattle source (3 sources) and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 5 treatments. Before the initiation of the experiment, trace mineral supplement sources were analyzed for Zn and Cr. Zinc and Cr concentrations of the Zn sources were used to balance all dietary treatments to obtain correct Zn and Cr experimental doses. Treatments were the addition of: 1) 90 mg Zn/kg DM from ZnSO4 and 0.25 mg Cr/kg DM from Cr propionate (90ZS+Cr); 2) 30 mg Zn/kg DM from Zn hydroxychloride and 0.25 mg Cr/kg DM from Cr propionate (30ZH+Cr); 3) 90 mg Zn/kg DM from Zn hydroxychloride and 0.25 mg Cr/kg DM from Cr propionate (90ZH+Cr); 4) 60 mg Zn/kg DM from ZnSO4 and 30 mg Zn/kg DM from Zn methionine (90ZSM); and 5) 90 mg Zn/kg DM from Zn hydroxychloride (90ZH). Steers were individually weighed on d-2 and on 2 consecutive days at the end of the experiment. Initial liver biopsies were obtained from all steers at processing. Equal numbers of pen replicates per treatment were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir on day 162, 176, and 211; individual carcass data and final liver samples were collected. Total finishing dietary Zn and Cr concentrations were 118.4, 58.2, 114.2, 123.0, and 108.2 mg Zn/kg DM and 0.740, 0.668, 0.763, 0.767, and 0.461 mg Cr/kg DM, for treatments 1 to 5, respectively. Data were analyzed statistically using preplanned single degree of freedom contrasts. Steers receiving 90ZH+Cr had greater final BW (P < 0.04) and ADG (P < 0.03) when compared with steers receiving 90ZH. Additionally, hot carcass weight was 8.5 kg greater (P < 0.03) for 90ZH+Cr compared with 90ZH supplemented steers. Steers receiving 90ZH+Cr had greater longissimus muscle area when compared with steers receiving 90ZSM. Dry matter intake, G:F, morbidity and mortality, and all other carcass measurements were similar across treatments. These data indicate that under the conditions of this experiment, Zn source and concentration had no impact on live performance, liver Zn and Cu concentrations, and carcass characteristics. Supplemental Cr in diets containing 90 mg of supplemental Zn/kg DM from ZH improved final BW, ADG, and hot carcass weights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396233PMC
March 2019
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