Publications by authors named "Jeff Caplan"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Synaptic vesicle fusion is modulated through feedback inhibition by dopamine auto-receptors.

Synapse 2020 01 23;74(1):e22131. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware.

Mechanisms of synaptic vesicular fusion and neurotransmitter clearance are highly controlled processes whose finely-tuned regulation is critical for neural function. This modulation has been suggested to involve pre-synaptic auto-receptors; however, their underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. Previous studies with the well-defined C. elegans nervous system have used functional imaging to implicate acid sensing ion channels (ASIC-1) to describe synaptic vesicle fusion dynamics within its eight dopaminergic neurons. Implementing a similar imaging approach with a pH-sensitive fluorescent reporter and fluorescence resonance after photobleaching (FRAP), we analyzed dynamic imaging data collected from individual synaptic termini in live animals. We present evidence that constitutive fusion of neurotransmitter vesicles on dopaminergic synaptic termini is modulated through DOP-2 auto-receptors via a negative feedback loop. Integrating our previous results showing the role of ASIC-1 in a positive feedback loop, we also put forth an updated model for synaptic vesicle fusion in which, along with DAT-1 and ASIC-1, the dopamine auto-receptor DOP-2 lies at a modulatory hub at dopaminergic synapses. Our findings are of potential broader significance as similar mechanisms are likely to be used by auto-receptors for other small molecule neurotransmitters across species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336876PMC
January 2020

Optimization of the HyPer sensor for robust real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide in the rice blast fungus.

Mol Plant Pathol 2017 02 9;18(2):298-307. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and breakdown have been studied in detail in plant-pathogenic fungi, including the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae; however, the examination of the dynamic process of ROS production in real time has proven to be challenging. We resynthesized an existing ROS sensor, called HyPer, to exhibit optimized codon bias for fungi, specifically Neurospora crassa, and used a combination of microscopy and plate reader assays to determine whether this construct could detect changes in fungal ROS during the plant infection process. Using confocal microscopy, we were able to visualize fluctuating ROS levels during the formation of an appressorium on an artificial hydrophobic surface, as well as during infection on host leaves. Using the plate reader, we were able to ascertain measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H O ) levels in conidia as detected by the MoHyPer sensor. Overall, by the optimization of codon usage for N. crassa and related fungal genomes, the MoHyPer sensor can be used as a robust, dynamic and powerful tool to both monitor and quantify H O dynamics in real time during important stages of the plant infection process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6638257PMC
February 2017