Publications by authors named "Jeeyong Lee"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Integrin αvβ3-Akt signalling plays a role in radioresistance of melanoma.

Exp Dermatol 2020 06 4;29(6):562-569. Epub 2020 May 4.

Division of Radiation Biomedical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea.

Melanoma is a deadly type of skin cancer that is particularly difficult to treat owing to its resistance to radiation therapy. Here, we attempted to determine the key proteins responsible for melanoma radioresistance, with the aim of improving disease response to radiation therapy. Two melanoma cell lines, SK-Mel5 and SK-Mel28, with different radiosensitivities were analysed via RNA-Seq (Quant-Seq) and target proteins with higher abundance in the more radioresistant cell line, SK-Mel28, identified. Among these proteins, integrin αvβ3, a well-known molecule in cell adhesion, was selected for analysis. Treatment of SK-Mel28 cells with cilengitide, an integrin αvβ3 inhibitor, as well as γ-irradiation resulted in more significant cell death than γ-irradiation alone. In addition, Akt, a downstream signal transducer of integrin αvβ3, showed high basic activation in SK-Mel28 and was significantly decreased upon co-treatment with cilengitide and γ-irradiation. MK-2206, an Akt inhibitor, exerted similar effects on the SK-Mel28 cell line following γ-irradiation. Our results collectively demonstrate that the integrin αvβ3-Akt signalling pathway contributes to radioresistance in SK-Mel28 cells, which may be manipulated to improve therapeutic options for melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.14102DOI Listing
June 2020

Imatinib mesylate elicits extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation and enhances the survival of γ-irradiated epithelial cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 12 3;506(4):939-943. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Division of Radiation Biomedical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, 01812, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Imatinib mesylate, commercially known as Gleevec/Glivec, is the first targeted anticancer drug that inhibits activity of the tyrosine kinases, c-ABL, c-KIT, and PDGFR. A number of studies have shown that treatment with imatinib mesylate elicits extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation, which, in turn, has been shown to confer radioresistance. Here, we investigated whether treatment with imatinib mesylate protects skin-derived epithelial cells, including normal keratinocytes, immortalized HaCaT and A431 cancer cell lines, from the effects of γ-radiation. ERK activation was detected 30 min after imatinib mesylate treatment in all three cell lines. In cells exposed to γ-irradiation in the presence of imatinib mesylate, this activation of ERK was associated with a reduction in radiation-induced apoptosis and enhanced cell survival. Similar effects of imatinib mesylate treatment were observed following γ-irradiation of a three-dimensional human skin culture system that reproduces a fully differentiated epithelium. Collectively, our findings provide the evidence of a protective effect of imatinib mesylate against the effects of γ-irradiation on epithelial-derived cells, regardless of their malignancy status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.10.095DOI Listing
December 2018

Distal-less homeobox 3, a negative regulator of myogenesis, is downregulated by microRNA-133.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Sep 11. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Distal-less homeobox 3 (Dlx3), a member of the Dlx family of homeobox proteins, is a transcriptional activator of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) during osteogenic differentiation. It has been demonstrated that forced expression of Runx2 induces an osteogenic program and ectopic calcification in muscles. Therefore, it would be reasonable to predict that Dlx3 also affects myogenic differentiation. The relationship between Dlx3 and myogenesis, however, remains poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, the role and regulation of Dlx3 during myogenic differentiation were investigated. Expression level of Dlx3 was downregulated in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), mouse MSCs, and C2C12 cells cultured in myogenic medium. Dlx3 level was inversely correlated with myogenic differentiation 1 and the muscle-specific microRNA, microRNA-133 (miR-133). The expression level of Runx2 was closely regulated by Dlx3 even under myogenic conditions. Overexpression of Dlx3 markedly downregulated expression levels of myogenic transcription factors and myotube formation in C2C12 cells, whereas Dlx3 knockdown enhanced myogenic differentiation. The Dlx3 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) has two potential binding sites for miR-133. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that Dlx3 is a direct target of miR-133a and miR-133b, and that the two target sites are redundantly active. Taken together, these results suggest that Dlx3 is a negative regulator of myogenic differentiation and that miR-133a and miR-133b enhance myogenic differentiation, partly through inhibition of Dlx3 expression via direct targeting of the Dlx3 3'-UTR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27533DOI Listing
September 2018

Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) upregulates activin A and activates the Smad signaling pathway in melanomas.

J Dermatol Sci 2018 Apr 21;90(1):13-20. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Division of Basic Radiation Bioscience, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, 01812, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an enzyme that regulates gene expression, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and modulation of various pathways. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) can modulate these pathways by hyper-acetylating target proteins, thereby acting as cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

Objective: One of HDACis, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been found to regulate the Smad signaling pathway, by an as yet unclear mechanism. This study therefore investigated the mechanism by which SAHA regulates Smad signaling in the melanoma cell line SK-Mel-5.

Methods: Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assays and fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. The activation of Smad signaling pathway was assessed by western blots analysis. The transcriptions of target genes were checked by RT-PCR and dual luciferase assay.

Results: Treatment with SAHA inhibited the proliferation of SK-Mel-5 cells, enhanced the phosphorylation of R-Smad, and up-regulated p21 protein. Surprisingly, R-Smad was also activated by conditioned medium from SAHA-treated SK-Mel-5 cells. An analysis of the conditioned medium showed that activin A was responsible for the activation of R-Smad. SAHA treatment enhanced the level of activin A mRNA, increasing the level of activin A in the secretome. The activity of the SAHA-treated secretome could be eliminated by pre-incubation with antibody to activin A. In addition, activin A supplemented medium could mimic the effect of the SAHA-treated secretome.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that the anti-cancer function of SAHA is mediated, at least in part, by the upregulation of activin A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2017.12.011DOI Listing
April 2018

A secretome analysis reveals that PPARα is upregulated by fractionated-dose γ-irradiation in three-dimensional keratinocyte cultures.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Jan 12;482(2):270-276. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Division of Basic Radiation Bioscience, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Studies have shown that γ-irradiation induces various biological responses, including oxidative stress and apoptosis, as well as cellular repair and immune system responses. However, most such studies have been performed using traditional two-dimensional cell culture systems, which are limited in their ability to faithfully represent in vivo conditions. A three-dimensional (3D) environment composed of properly interconnected and differentiated cells that allow communication and cooperation among cells via secreted molecules would be expected to more accurately reflect cellular responses. Here, we investigated γ-irradiation-induced changes in the secretome of 3D-cultured keratinocytes. An analysis of keratinocyte secretome profiles following fractionated-dose γ-irradiation revealed changes in genes involved in cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and the immune system. Notably, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) was upregulated in response to fractionated-dose γ-irradiation. This upregulation was associated with an increase in the transcription of known PPARα target genes in secretome, including angiopoietin-like protein 4, dermokine and kallikrein-related peptide 12, which were differentially regulated by fractionated-dose γ-irradiation. Collectively, our data imply a mechanism linking γ-irradiation and secretome changes, and suggest that these changes could play a significant role in the coordinated cellular responses to harmful ionizing radiation, such as those associated with radiation therapy. This extension of our understanding of γ-irradiation-induced secretome changes has the potential to improve radiation therapy strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.11.053DOI Listing
January 2017

TGF-β1 accelerates the DNA damage response in epithelial cells via Smad signaling.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 08 26;476(4):420-425. Epub 2016 May 26.

Division of Basic Radiation Bioscience, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul, 01812, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) regulates the DNA-damage response (DDR) upon irradiation, and we previously reported that TGF-β1 induced DNA ligase IV (Lig4) expression and enhanced the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway in irradiated cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on the irradiation-induced DDRs of A431 and HaCaT cells. Cells were pretreated with or without TGF-β1 and irradiated. At 30 min post-irradiation, DDRs were detected by immunoblotting of phospho-ATM, phospho-Chk2, and the presence of histone foci (γH2AX). The levels of all three factors were similar right after irradiation regardless of TGF-β1 pretreatment. However, they soon thereafter exhibited downregulation in TGF-β1-pretreated cells, indicating the acceleration of the DDR. Treatment with a TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor (SB431542) or transfections with siRNAs against Smad2/3 or DNA ligase IV (Lig4) reversed this acceleration of the DDR. Furthermore, the frequency of irradiation-induced apoptosis was decreased by TGF-β1 pretreatment in vivo, but this effect was abrogated by SB431542. These results collectively suggest that TGF-β1 could enhance cell survival by accelerating the DDR via Smad signaling and Lig4 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.05.136DOI Listing
August 2016

Heat Shock Protein 90 Regulates Subcellular Localization of Smads in Mv1Lu Cells.

J Cell Biochem 2016 Jan;117(1):230-8

Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea.

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) regulates the stability of various proteins and plays an essential role in cellular homeostasis. Many client proteins of HSP90 are involved in cell growth, survival, and migration; processes that are generally accepted as participants in tumorigenesis. HSP90 is also up-regulated in certain tumors. Indeed, the inhibition of HSP90 is known to be effective in cancer treatment. Recently, studies showed that HSP90 regulates transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-induced transcription by increasing the stability of the TGF-β receptor. TGF-β signaling also has been implicated in cancer, suggesting the possibility that TGF-β1 and HSP90 function cooperatively during the cancer cell progression. Here in this paper, we investigated the role of HSP90 in TGF-β1-stimulated Mv1Lu cells. Treatment of Mv1Lu cells with the HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17AAG), or transfection with truncated HSP90 (ΔHSP90) significantly reduced TGF-β1-induced cell migration. Pretreatment with 17AAG or transfection with ΔHSP90 also reduced the levels of phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3. In addition, the HSP90 inhibition interfered the nuclear localization of Smads induced by constitutively active Smad2 (S2EE) or Smad3 (S3EE). We also found that the HSP90 inhibition decreased the protein level of importin-β1 which is known to regulate R-Smad nuclear translocation. These data clearly demonstrate a novel function of HSP90; HSP90 modulates TGF-β signaling by regulating Smads localization. Overall, our data could provide a detailed mechanism linking HSP90 and TGF-β signaling. The extension of our understanding of HSP90 would offer a better strategy for treating cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.25269DOI Listing
January 2016

TGFβ1 protects cells from γ-IR by enhancing the activity of the NHEJ repair pathway.

Mol Cancer Res 2015 Feb 15;13(2):319-29. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea.

Unlabelled: Several groups have reported that TGFβ1 regulates cellular responses to γ-irradiation; however, the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, the role of TGFβ1 in cellular responses to γ-irradiation was investigated in detail. The data indicate that TGFβ1 pretreatment decreased the aftermath of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage in a SMAD-dependent manner. To determine the underlying mechanism for these effects, the extent of IR-induced DNA repair activity in the presence or absence of TGFβ1 was examined. Studies reveal that TGFβ1 upregulated DNA ligase IV (Lig4), augmented IR-induced nuclear retention of the DNA ligase, and enhanced nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair activity. In addition, knockdown of Lig4 reduced the TGFβ1-induced protection against IR. Overall, these data indicate that TGFβ1 facilitates the NHEJ repair process upon γ-irradiation and thereby enhances long-term survival.

Implications: These findings provide new insight and a possible approach to controlling genotoxic stress by the TGFβ signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-14-0098-TDOI Listing
February 2015

Alteration in cellular acetylcholine influences dauer formation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

BMB Rep 2014 Feb;47(2):80-5

Yonsei Proteome Research Center, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, World Class University Program, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea; Department of Biochemistry and Department of Integrated Omics for Biomedical Science, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, World Class University Program, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea.

Altered acetylcholine (Ach) homeostasis is associated with loss of viability in flies, developmental defects in mice, and cognitive deficits in human. Here, we assessed the importance of Ach in Caenorhabditis elegans development, focusing on the role of Ach during dauer formation. We found that dauer formation was disturbed in choline acetyltransferase (cha-1) and acetylcholinesterase (ace) mutants defective in Ach biosynthesis and degradation, respectively. When examined the potential role of G-proteins in dauer formation, goa-1 and egl-30 mutant worms, expressing mutated versions of mammalian G(o) and G(q) homolog, respectively, showed some abnormalities in dauer formation. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we also found that dauer larvae had lower Ach content than did reproductively grown larvae. In addition, a proteomic analysis of acetylcholinesterase mutant worms, which have excessive levels of Ach, showed differential expression of metabolic genes. Collectively, these results indicate that alterations in Ach release may influence dauer formation in C. elegans.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163904PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/bmbrep.2014.47.2.100DOI Listing
February 2014

TGF-β signaling plays an important role in resisting γ-irradiation.

Exp Cell Res 2013 Feb 19;319(4):466-73. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea.

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) regulates various biological processes, including differentiation, bone remodeling and angiogenesis, and is particularly important as a regulator of homeostasis and cell growth in normal tissue. Interestingly, some studies have reported that TGF-β1 induces apoptosis through induction of specific genes, whereas others suggest that TGF-β1 inhibits apoptosis and facilitates cell survival. Resolving these discrepancies, which may reflect differences in cellular context, is an important research priority. Here, using the parental mink lung epithelial cell line, Mv1Lu, and its derivatives, R1B and DR26, lacking TGF-β receptors, we investigated the involvement of TGF-β signaling in the effects of γ-irradiation. We found that canonical TGF-β signaling played an important role in protecting cells from γ-irradiation. Introduction of functional TGF-β receptors or constitutively active Smads into R1B and DR26 cell lines reduced DNA fragmentation, Caspase-3 cleavage and γ-H2AX foci formation in γ-irradiated cells. Notably, we also found that de novo protein synthesis was required for the radio-resistant effects of TGF-β1. Our data thus indicate that TGF-β1 protected against γ-irradiation, decreasing DNA damage and reducing apoptosis, and thereby enhanced cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2012.12.008DOI Listing
February 2013

Methods for evaluating the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer state: standard dauer-formation assay using synthetic daumones and proteomic analysis of O-GlcNAc modifications.

Methods Cell Biol 2011 ;106:445-60

Yonsei Proteome Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Science, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, World Class University Program, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

The dauer state is a non-feeding, alternative L3 state characterized by a number of distinctive metabolic and morphological changes. There are many naturally occurring dauer-inducing pheromones, termed daumones, that have been suggested by some to exhibit differences in dauer-inducing activity. Here, we have established a standard dauer-formation assay that uses synthetic daumones 1, 2, and 3, the three major daumones. To analyze the proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans in the dauer state, we focused on O-GlcNAc modification, a cytosolic modification of proteins that is known to interact either competitively or synergistically with protein phosphorylation. Protein O-GlcNAc modification is an important biological process in cells that can ensure the timely response to extracellular stimuli, such as daumone, and maintain cellular homeostasis. Establishing a standard method for assaying dauer formation using different synthetic daumones, and using differences in O-GlcNAcylated proteins during the dauer state to analyze the dauer proteome will lead to a better understanding of dauer biology of C. elegans in the context of animal longevity and adaptation under harsh environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-544172-8.00016-5DOI Listing
March 2012

Regulation of Dauer formation by O-GlcNAcylation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

J Biol Chem 2010 Jan 23;285(5):2930-9. Epub 2009 Nov 23.

Yonsei Proteome Research Center, World Class University Program, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea.

Modification of proteins at serine or threonine residues with N-acetylglucosamine, termed O-GlcNAcylation, plays an important role in most eukaryotic cells. To understand the molecular mechanism by which O-GlcNAcylation regulates the entry of Caenorhabditis elegans into the non-aging dauer state, we performed proteomic studies using two mutant strains: the O-GlcNAc transferase-deficient ogt-1(ok430) strain and the O-GlcNAcase-defective oga-1(ok1207) strain. In the presence of the dauer pheromone daumone, ogt-1 showed suppression of dauer formation, whereas oga-1 exhibited enhancement of dauer formation. Consistent with these findings, treatment of wild-type N2 worms with low concentrations of daumone and the O-GlcNAcase inhibitor O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) enhanced dauer formation, which was dependent on intact O-GlcNAcylation metabolism. We also found that the treatment of daumone enhanced O-GlcNAcylation in vivo. Seven proteins, identified by coupled two-dimensional electrophoresis/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) analysis, were differentially expressed in oga-1(ok1207) worms compared with wild-type N2 worms. The identities of these proteins suggest that O- GlcNAcylation influences stress resistance, protein folding, and mitochondrial function. Using O-GlcNAc labeling with fluorescent dye combined with two-dimensional electrophoresis/LC-MS analysis, we also identified five proteins that were differentially O-GlcNAcylated during dauer formation. Analysis of these candidate O-GlcNAcylated proteins suggests that O-GlcNAcylation may regulate cytoskeleton modifications and protein turnover during dauer formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.022665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823417PMC
January 2010

SRC-1 mediates UNC-5 signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Mol Cell Biol 2005 Aug;25(15):6485-95

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 5450 Medical Science I Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0606, USA.

The secreted molecule unc-6/netrin is important for guiding axon projections and cell migrations. unc-5 and unc-40/DCC are identified as receptors for unc-6/netrin. The downstream factors of unc-6 receptors are beginning to be elucidated, and some key factors have been identified in various organisms. Here, we showed that SRC-1 interacts with the cytosolic domain of UNC-5 through its SH2 domain. This interaction also requires the intact kinase activity of SRC-1. Downregulation of src-1 by RNA interference decreases the biological processes initiated by the UNC-5 protein and decreases UNC-5 tyrosine phosphorylation. We also generated a chimeric protein consisting of the extracellular domain and transmembrane domain of UNC-5 and an intracellular domain of SRC-1. This fusion protein is able to partially rescue mutant phenotypes caused by unc-5 but not unc-6, unc-40, and unc-34. Our results support a model in which SRC-1 is required for UNC-5-induced axon repulsion and gonad migration signaling pathways and in which localizing SRC-1 activity to UNC-5 is crucial for proper signal transduction in response to unc-6/netrin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.25.15.6485-6495.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1190325PMC
August 2005

Expression and phenotype analysis of the nephrocystin-1 and nephrocystin-4 homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2005 Mar 19;16(3):676-87. Epub 2005 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, 8220C MSRB III, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0646, USA.

Nephronophthisis (NPHP), an autosomal-recessive cystic kidney disease, is the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage renal failure in children. NPHP types 1 and 4 are caused by mutations in NPHP1 and NPHP4, encoding the proteins nephrocystin-1 and nephrocystin-4, respectively. Nephrocystin-1 and nephrocystin-4 are expressed in primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. NPHP1 and NPHP4 are highly conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, this species does not have a kidney but an excretory system that consists of an excretory cell, an excretory gland cell, a duct cell, and a pore cell. Therefore, cell type-specific expression pattern and function of the nephrocystin homologs in C. elegans were of interest. Expression of green fluorescence protein fusion constructs that contain the C. elegans promoter regions for nph-1 and nph-4 was not found in the excretory system but in ciliated sensory neurons of the head (amphid neurons) and the tail in hermaphrodites (phasmid neurons) and males (sensory ray neurons). As the knockout phenotype for the PKD homologs lov-1 and pkd-2 shows impaired male mating behavior, RNAi knockdown animals were analyzed for this phenotype. A similar phenotype was found in the nph-1 and nph-4 RNAi knockdown animals compared with the lov-1 and pkd-2 knockout phenotype. Thus, it is suggested that renal cyst-causing genes may be part of a shared functional module, highly conserved in evolution. The NPHP homologs may be necessary for initial assembly of the cilium, whereas the polycystic kidney disease homologs may function as sensory transducers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2003121025DOI Listing
March 2005

Mapping netrin receptor binding reveals domains of Unc5 regulating its tyrosine phosphorylation.

J Neurosci 2004 Dec;24(48):10826-34

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

Netrin and its receptors Unc5 and deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) regulate axon guidance and cell migration. We defined domains involved in the interactions between netrin-1, DCC, and Unc5c. We show that Unc5 requires both Ig domains to interact with netrin. DCC binds through the fourth fibronectin type III domain, whereas netrin binds through multiple domains to both receptors. We examined the functional consequences of removing the netrin binding and nonbinding domains from Unc5 in vitro and in vivo. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, removal of the netrin binding second Ig domain causes an increase in basal tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas removal of the netrin nonbinding thrombospondin domains decreases tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, experiments in Caenorhabditis elegans indicate that both netrin binding and nonbinding domains are necessary for phenotypic rescue of an unc-5 loss of function mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3715-04.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6730211PMC
December 2004

Activation of FAK and Src are receptor-proximal events required for netrin signaling.

Nat Neurosci 2004 Nov 17;7(11):1213-21. Epub 2004 Oct 17.

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

The axon guidance cue netrin is importantly involved in neuronal development. DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) is a functional receptor for netrin and mediates axon outgrowth and the steering response. Here we show that different regions of the intracellular domain of DCC directly interacted with the tyrosine kinases Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Netrin activated both FAK and Src and stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of DCC. Inhibition of Src family kinases reduced DCC tyrosine phosphorylation and blocked both axon attraction and outgrowth of neurons in response to netrin. Mutation of the tyrosine phosphorylation residue in DCC abolished its function of mediating netrin-induced axon attraction. On the basis of our observations, we suggest a model in which DCC functions as a kinase-coupled receptor, and FAK and Src act immediately downstream of DCC in netrin signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn1329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2373267PMC
November 2004