Publications by authors named "Jedrzej Burakiewicz"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preserved thenar muscles in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 8;12(3):694-703. Epub 2021 May 8.

Duchenne Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: Clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) focus primarily on ambulant patients. Results cannot be extrapolated to later disease stages due to a decline in targeted muscle tissue. In non-ambulant DMD patients, hand function is relatively preserved and crucial for daily-life activities. We used quantitative MRI (qMRI) to establish whether the thenar muscles could be valuable to monitor treatment effects in non-ambulant DMD patients.

Methods: Seventeen non-ambulant DMD patients (range 10.2-24.1 years) and 13 healthy controls (range 9.5-25.4 years) underwent qMRI of the right hand at 3 T at baseline. Thenar fat fraction (FF), total volume (TV), and contractile volume (CV) were determined using 4-point Dixon, and T2 was determined using multiecho spin-echo. Clinical assessments at baseline (n = 17) and 12 months (n = 13) included pinch strength (kg), performance of the upper limb (PUL) 2.0, DMD upper limb patient reported outcome measure (PROM), and playing a video game for 10 min using a game controller. Group differences and correlations were assessed with non-parametric tests.

Results: Total volume was lower in patients compared with healthy controls (6.9 cm , 5.3-9.0 cm vs. 13.0 cm , 7.6-15.8 cm , P = 0.010). CV was also lower in patients (6.3 cm , 4.6-8.3 cm vs. 11.9 cm , 6.9-14.6 cm , P = 0.010). FF was slightly elevated (9.7%, 7.3-11.4% vs. 7.7%, 6.6-8.4%, P = 0.043), while T2 was higher (31.5 ms, 30.0-32.6 ms vs. 28.1 ms, 27.8-29.4 ms, P < 0.001). Pinch strength and PUL decreased over 12 months (2.857 kg, 2.137-4.010 to 2.243 kg, 1.930-3.339 kg, and 29 points, 20-36 to 23 points, 17-30, both P < 0.001), while PROM did not (49 points, 36-57 to 44 points, 30-54, P = 0.041). All patients were able to play for 10 min at baseline or follow-up, but some did not comply with the study procedures regarding this endpoint. Pinch strength correlated with TV and CV in patients (rho = 0.72 and rho = 0.68) and controls (both rho = 0.89). PUL correlated with TV, CV, and T2 (rho = 0.57, rho = 0.51, and rho = -0.59).

Conclusions: Low thenar FF, increased T2 , correlation of muscle size with strength and function, and the decrease in strength and function over 1 year indicate that the thenar muscles are a valuable and quantifiable target for therapy in later stages of DMD. Further studies are needed to relate these data to the loss of a clinically meaningful milestone.
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June 2021

The effect of mirabegron on energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue in healthy lean South Asian and Europid men.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 11 29;22(11):2032-2044. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Aim: To compare the effects of cold exposure and the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist mirabegron on plasma lipids, energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in South Asians versus Europids.

Materials And Methods: Ten lean Dutch South Asian (aged 18-30 years; body mass index [BMI] 18-25 kg/m ) and 10 age- and BMI-matched Europid men participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three interventions: short-term (~ 2 hours) cold exposure, mirabegron (200 mg one dose p.o.) and placebo. Before and after each intervention, we performed lipidomic analysis in serum, assessed resting energy expenditure (REE) and skin temperature, and measured BAT fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: In both ethnicities, cold exposure increased the levels of several serum lipid species, whereas mirabegron only increased free fatty acids. Cold exposure increased lipid oxidation in both ethnicities, while mirabegron increased lipid oxidation in Europids only. Cold exposure and mirabegron enhanced supraclavicular skin temperature in both ethnicities. Cold exposure decreased BAT fat fraction in both ethnicities. After the combination of data from both ethnicities, mirabegron decreased BAT fat fraction compared with placebo.

Conclusions: In South Asians and Europids, cold exposure and mirabegron induced beneficial metabolic effects. When combining both ethnicities, cold exposure and mirabegron increased REE and lipid oxidation, coinciding with a higher supraclavicular skin temperature and lower BAT fat fraction.
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November 2020

Liraglutide decreases energy expenditure and does not affect the fat fraction of supraclavicular brown adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 04 13;30(4):616-624. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Dept. Medicine, Div. Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden, the Netherlands; Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, LUMC, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Several studies have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues can affect resting energy expenditure, and preclinical studies suggest that they may activate brown adipose tissue (BAT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of treatment with liraglutide on energy metabolism and BAT fat fraction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods And Results: In a 26-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to treatment with liraglutide (1.8 mg/day) or placebo added to standard care. At baseline and after treatment for 4, 12 and 26 weeks, we assessed resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, at baseline and after 26 weeks, we determined the fat fraction in the supraclavicular BAT depot using chemical-shift water-fat MRI at 3T. Liraglutide reduced REE after 4 weeks, which persisted after 12 weeks and tended to be present after 26 weeks (week 26 vs baseline: liraglutide -52 ± 128 kcal/day; P = 0.071, placebo +44 ± 144 kcal/day; P = 0.153, between group P = 0.057). Treatment with liraglutide for 26 weeks did not decrease the fat fraction in supraclavicular BAT (-0.4 ± 1.7%; P = 0.447) compared to placebo (-0.4 ± 1.4%; P = 0.420; between group P = 0.911).

Conclusion: Treatment with liraglutide decreases REE in the first 12 weeks and tends to decrease this after 26 weeks without affecting the fat fraction in the supraclavicular BAT depot. These findings suggest reduction in energy intake rather than an increase in REE to contribute to the liraglutide-induced weight loss.

Trial Registry Number: NCT01761318.
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April 2020

Human Brown Adipose Tissue Estimated With Magnetic Resonance Imaging Undergoes Changes in Composition After Cold Exposure: An MRI Study in Healthy Volunteers.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 9;10:898. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Radiology, C.J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to evaluate brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Reports on the extent and direction of cold-induced changes in MRI fat fraction and estimated BAT volume vary between studies. Here, we aimed to explore the effect of different fat fraction threshold ranges on outcomes measured by MRI. Moreover, we aimed to investigate the effect of cold exposure on estimated BAT mass and energy content. The effects of cold exposure at different fat fraction thresholding levels were analyzed in the supraclavicular adipose depot of nine adult males. MRI data were reconstructed, co-registered and analyzed in two ways. First, we analyzed cold-induced changes in fat fraction, T2* relaxation time, volume, mass, and energy of the entire supraclavicular adipose depot at different fat fraction threshold levels. As a control, we assessed fat fraction differences of deltoid subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Second, a local analysis was performed to study changes in fat fraction and T2* on a voxel-level. Thermoneutral and post-cooling data were compared using paired-sample -tests ( < 0.05). Global analysis unveiled that the largest cold-induced change in fat fraction occurred within a thermoneutral fat fraction range of 30-100% (-3.5 ± 1.9%), without changing the estimated BAT volume. However, the largest cold-induced changes in estimated BAT volume were observed when applying a thermoneutral fat fraction range of 70-100% (-3.8 ± 2.6%). No changes were observed for the deltoid SAT fat fractions. Tissue energy content was reduced from 126 ± 33 to 121 ± 30 kcal, when using a 30-100% fat fraction range, and also depended on different fat fraction thresholds. Voxel-wise analysis showed that while cold exposure changed the fat fraction across nearly all thermoneutral fat fractions, decreases were most pronounced at high thermoneutral fat fractions. Cold-induced changes in fat fraction occurred over the entire range of thermoneutral fat fractions, and were especially found in lipid-rich regions of the supraclavicular adipose depot. Due to the variability in response between lipid-rich and lipid-poor regions, care should be taken when applying fat fraction thresholds for MRI BAT analysis.
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January 2020

Twelve weeks of exenatide treatment increases [F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by brown adipose tissue without affecting oxidative resting energy expenditure in nondiabetic males.

Metabolism 2020 05 23;106:154167. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Aims/hypothesis: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) improves energy metabolism by combusting glucose and lipids into heat. Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) within the central nervous system activates BAT in mice. Moreover, in patients with type 2 diabetes, GLP-1R agonism lowers body weight and improves glucose and lipid levels, possibly involving BAT activation. Interestingly, people from South Asian descent are prone to develop cardiometabolic disease. We studied the effect of GLP-1R agonism on BAT in humans, specifically in South Asians and Europids without obesity or type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Twelve Dutch South Asian and 12 age- and BMI-matched Europid nondiabetic men received 12 weeks extended-release exenatide (Bydureon) in this single-arm prospective study. Before and after treatment, BAT was visualized by a cold-induced [F]FDG-PET/CT scan and a thermoneutral MRI scan, and resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate oxidation, body composition and fasting plasma glucose and serum lipids were determined. Appetite was rated using a visual analogue scale.

Results: Since the effect of exenatide on metabolic parameters did not evidently differ between ethnicities, data of all participants were pooled. Exenatide decreased body weight (-1.5 ± 0.4 kg, p < 0.01), without affecting REE or substrate oxidation, and transiently decreased appetite ratings during the first weeks. Exenatide also lowered triglycerides (-15%, p < 0.05) and total cholesterol (-5%, p < 0.05), and tended to lower glucose levels. Notably, exenatide increased BAT metabolic volume (+28%, p < 0.05) and mean standardized uptake value (+11%, p < 0.05) ([F]FDG-PET/CT), without affecting supraclavicular adipose tissue fat fraction (MRI).

Conclusions/interpretation: We show for the first time that GLP-1R agonism increases [F]FDG uptake by BAT in South Asian and Europid men without obesity or type 2 diabetes.

Trial Registry: NCT03002675.
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May 2020

Multi-center evaluation of stability and reproducibility of quantitative MRI measures in healthy calf muscles.

NMR Biomed 2019 09 17;32(9):e4119. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Radiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate temporal stability, multi-center reproducibility and the influence of covariates on a multimodal MR protocol for quantitative muscle imaging and to facilitate its use as a standardized protocol for evaluation of pathology in skeletal muscle. Quantitative T2, quantitative diffusion and four-point Dixon acquisitions of the calf muscles of both legs were repeated within one hour. Sixty-five healthy volunteers (31 females) were included in one of eight 3-T MR systems. Five traveling subjects were examined in six MR scanners. Average values over all slices of water-T2 relaxation time, proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and diffusion metrics were determined for seven muscles. Temporal stability was tested with repeated measured ANOVA and two-way random intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Multi-center reproducibility of traveling volunteers was assessed by a two-way mixed ICC. The factors age, body mass index, gender and muscle were tested for covariance. ICCs of temporal stability were between 0.963 and 0.999 for all parameters. Water-T2 relaxation decreased significantly (P < 10 ) within one hour by ~ 1 ms. Multi-center reproducibility showed ICCs within 0.879-0.917 with the lowest ICC for mean diffusivity. Different muscles showed the highest covariance, explaining 20-40% of variance for observed parameters. Standardized acquisition and processing of quantitative muscle MRI data resulted in high comparability among centers. The imaging protocol exhibited high temporal stability over one hour except for water T2 relaxation times. These results show that data pooling is feasible and enables assembling data from patients with neuromuscular diseases, paving the way towards larger studies of rare muscle disorders.
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September 2019

Quantifying fat replacement of muscle by quantitative MRI in muscular dystrophy.

J Neurol 2017 Oct 1;264(10):2053-2067. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

The muscular dystrophies are rare orphan diseases, characterized by progressive muscle weakness: the most common and well known is Duchenne muscular dystrophy which affects young boys and progresses quickly during childhood. However, over 70 distinct variants have been identified to date, with different rates of progression, implications for morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. There are presently no curative therapies for these diseases, but a range of potential therapies are presently reaching the stage of multi-centre, multi-national first-in-man clinical trials. There is a need for sensitive, objective end-points to assess the efficacy of the proposed therapies. Present clinical measurements are often too dependent on patient effort or motivation, and lack sensitivity to small changes, or are invasive. Quantitative MRI to measure the fat replacement of skeletal muscle by either chemical shift imaging methods (Dixon or IDEAL) or spectroscopy has been demonstrated to provide such a sensitive, objective end-point in a number of studies. This review considers the importance of the outcome measures, discusses the considerations required to make robust measurements and appropriate quality assurance measures, and draws together the existing literature for cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort studies using these methods in muscular dystrophy.
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October 2017

Improved olefinic fat suppression in skeletal muscle DTI using a magnitude-based dixon method.

Magn Reson Med 2018 Jan 5;79(1):152-159. Epub 2017 Mar 5.

C.J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To develop a method of suppressing the multi-resonance fat signal in diffusion-weighted imaging of skeletal muscle. This is particularly important when imaging patients with muscular dystrophies, a group of diseases which cause gradual replacement of muscle tissue by fat.

Theory And Methods: The signal from the olefinic fat peak at 5.3 ppm can significantly confound diffusion-tensor imaging measurements. Dixon olefinic fat suppression (DOFS), a magnitude-based chemical-shift-based method of suppressing the olefinic peak, is proposed. It is verified in vivo by performing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based quantification in the lower leg of seven healthy volunteers, and compared to two previously described fat-suppression techniques in regions with and without fat contamination.

Results: In the region without fat contamination, DOFS produces similar results to existing techniques, whereas in muscle contaminated by subcutaneous fat signal moved due to the chemical shift artefact, it consistently showed significantly higher (P = 0.018) mean diffusivity (MD). Because fat presence lowers MD, this suggests improved fat suppression.

Conclusion: DOFS offers superior fat suppression and enhances quantitative measurements in the muscle in the presence of fat. DOFS is an alternative to spectral olefinic fat suppression. Magn Reson Med 79:152-159, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
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January 2018

Water-fat separation in diffusion-weighted EPI using an IDEAL approach with image navigator.

Magn Reson Med 2015 Mar 10;73(3):964-72. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Echo planar-based diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) requires robust suppression of fat signal. Fat suppression techniques such as inversion recovery or spectrally selective excitation with subsequent gradient spoiling can extend scan time or perform suboptimally in the presence of strong main field inhomogeneities. Chemical shift-encoded water-fat separation using iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) is robust in areas of main field inhomogeneity but requires accurate phase information, which can be distorted by patient motion during diffusion-weighting gradients. A method is proposed to overcome this with the use of image navigators.

Theory And Methods: A spin echo planar imaging (SE-EPI) diffusion-weighted sequence was modified to incorporate IDEAL acquisition in combination with an image navigator to correct for patient motion-induced phase effects. Images were acquired in phantoms and in healthy volunteers in brain, pelvic, and abdominal regions.

Results: Without navigator, diffusion-weighted IDEAL created artifacts in areas of motion. These were removed when the two-dimensional navigator was used to correct the phase, resulting in correct water-fat separation.

Conclusion: DW-EPI with IDEAL and an integrated image navigator allows for robust water and fat separation in different body areas and are a time-efficient alternative to standard fat-suppression techniques in DW-MRI.
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March 2015