Publications by authors named "Jeannette T Bensen"

105 Publications

Cross-ancestry GWAS meta-analysis identifies six breast cancer loci in African and European ancestry women.

Nat Commun 2021 07 7;12(1):4198. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Our study describes breast cancer risk loci using a cross-ancestry GWAS approach. We first identify variants that are associated with breast cancer at P < 0.05 from African ancestry GWAS meta-analysis (9241 cases and 10193 controls), then meta-analyze with European ancestry GWAS data (122977 cases and 105974 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The approach identifies four loci for overall breast cancer risk [1p13.3, 5q31.1, 15q24 (two independent signals), and 15q26.3] and two loci for estrogen receptor-negative disease (1q41 and 7q11.23) at genome-wide significance. Four of the index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lie within introns of genes (KCNK2, C5orf56, SCAMP2, and SIN3A) and the other index SNPs are located close to GSTM4, AMPD2, CASTOR2, and RP11-168G16.2. Here we present risk loci with consistent direction of associations in African and European descendants. The study suggests that replication across multiple ancestry populations can help improve the understanding of breast cancer genetics and identify causal variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24327-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263739PMC
July 2021

Performance of African-ancestry-specific polygenic hazard score varies according to local ancestry in 8q24.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: We previously developed an African-ancestry-specific polygenic hazard score (PHS46+African) that substantially improved prostate cancer risk stratification in men with African ancestry. The model consists of 46 SNPs identified in Europeans and 3 SNPs from 8q24 shown to improve model performance in Africans. Herein, we used principal component (PC) analysis to uncover subpopulations of men with African ancestry for whom the utility of PHS46+African may differ.

Materials And Methods: Genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Genetic variation in a window spanning 3 African-specific 8q24 SNPs was estimated using 93 PCs. A Cox proportional hazards framework was used to identify the pair of PCs most strongly associated with the performance of PHS46+African. A calibration factor (CF) was formulated using Cox coefficients to quantify the extent to which the performance of PHS46+African varies with PC.

Results: CF of PHS46+African was strongly associated with the first and twentieth PCs. Predicted CF ranged from 0.41 to 2.94, suggesting that PHS46+African may be up to 7 times more beneficial to some African men than others. The explained relative risk for PHS46+African varied from 3.6% to 9.9% for individuals with low and high CF values, respectively. By cross-referencing our data set with 1000 Genomes, we identified significant associations between continental and calibration groupings.

Conclusion: We identified PCs within 8q24 that were strongly associated with the performance of PHS46+African. Further research to improve the clinical utility of polygenic risk scores (or models) is needed to improve health outcomes for men of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00403-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluating the clinical utility of early exome sequencing in diverse pediatric outpatient populations in the North Carolina Clinical Genomic Evaluation of Next-generation Exome Sequencing (NCGENES) 2 study: a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jun 14;22(1):395. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box #7295, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7295, USA.

Background: Exome sequencing (ES) has probable utility for shortening the diagnostic odyssey of children with suspected genetic disorders. This report describes the design and methods of a study evaluating the potential of ES as a routine clinical tool for pediatric patients who have suspected genetic conditions and who are in the early stages of the diagnostic odyssey.

Methods: The North Carolina Clinical Genomic Evaluation by Next-generation Exome Sequencing (NCGENES) 2 study is an interdisciplinary, multi-site Phase III randomized controlled trial of two interventions: educational pre-visit preparation (PVP) and offer of first-line ES. In this full-factorial design, parent-child dyads are randomly assigned to one of four study arms (PVP + usual care, ES + usual care, PVP + ES + usual care, or usual care alone) in equal proportions. Participants are recruited from Pediatric Genetics or Neurology outpatient clinics in three North Carolina healthcare facilities. Eligible pediatric participants are < 16 years old and have a first visit to a participating clinic, a suspected genetic condition, and an eligible parent/guardian to attend the clinic visit and complete study measures. The study oversamples participants from underserved and under-represented populations. Participants assigned to the PVP arms receive an educational booklet and question prompt list before clinical interactions. Randomization to offer of first-line ES is revealed after a child's clinic visit. Parents complete measures at baseline, pre-clinic, post-clinic, and two follow-up timepoints. Study clinicians provide phenotypic data and complete measures after the clinic visit and after returning results. Reportable study-related research ES results are confirmed in a CLIA-certified clinical laboratory. Results are disclosed to the parent by the clinical team. A community consultation team contributed to the development of study materials and study implementation methods and remains engaged in the project.

Discussion: NCGENES 2 will contribute valuable knowledge concerning technical, clinical, psychosocial, and health economic issues associated with using early diagnostic ES to shorten the diagnostic odyssey of pediatric patients with likely genetic conditions. Results will inform efforts to engage diverse populations in genomic medicine research and generate evidence that can inform policy, practice, and future research related to the utility of first-line diagnostic ES in health care.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03548779 . Registered on June 07, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05341-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201439PMC
June 2021

Evaluating Polygenic Risk Scores for Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Sep;113(9):1168-1176

Department of Oncology, Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian, and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry.

Methods: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9241 case subjects and 10 193 control subjects. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category.

Results: For overall BC, the odds ratio per SD of the 313-variant PRS (PRS313) was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.31), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.571 (95% CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared with women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38-fold to 1.72-fold). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction.

Conclusion: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared with that reported in European, Asian, and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418423PMC
September 2021

Differential Associations of SLCO Transporters with Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness between African Americans and European Americans.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 05 22;30(5):990-999. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Urology, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, New York.

Background: Androgen receptor signaling is crucial to prostate cancer aggressiveness. Members of the solute carrier family of the organic anion transporting peptides (SLCO) are potential regulators of androgen availability in prostate tissue. It remains unknown whether genetic variations in SLCOs contribute to the differences in prostate cancer aggressiveness in African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA).

Methods: SNPs in 11 SLCO members were selected, with addition of 139 potentially functional SNPs and 128 ancestry informative markers. A total of 1,045 SNPs were genotyped and analyzed in 993 AAs and 1,057 EAs from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. Expression and cellular localization of SLCOs were examined using qRT-PCR, IHC, and RNA hybridization in independent sets of prostate cancer cases.

Results: Significant associations with prostate cancer characteristics were found for SNPs in and . The associations differed by race ( < 0.05). SNPs in were associated with reduced tumor aggressiveness and low Gleason score in AAs; whereas, SNPs in were associated with high clinical stage in EAs. In prostate tissue, SLCO2A1 and SLCO5A1 were the most expressed SLCOs at the mRNA level and were expressed predominantly in prostate endothelial and epithelial cells at the protein level, respectively.

Conclusions: SLCO2A1 and SLCO5A1 play important but different roles in prostate cancer aggressiveness in AAs versus EAs.

Impact: The finding calls for consideration of racial differences in biomarker studies of prostate cancer and for investigations on functions of SLCO2A1 and SLCO5A1 in prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102354PMC
May 2021

Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction.

Nat Genet 2021 01 4;53(1):65-75. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00748-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148035PMC
January 2021

Understanding the Relationship between Environmental Arsenic and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness among African-American and European-American Men in North Carolina.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 12;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA.

High-level exposure to arsenic, a known carcinogen and endocrine disruptor, is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) mortality. Whether low-level exposure is associated with PCa aggressiveness remains unknown. We examined the association between urinary arsenic and PCa aggressiveness among men in North Carolina. This cross-sectional study included 463 African-American and 491 European-American men with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma. PCa aggressiveness was defined as low aggressive (Gleason score < 7, stage = cT1-cT2, and PSA < 10 ng/mL) versus intermediate/high aggressive (all other cases). Total arsenic and arsenical species (inorganic arsenic (iAs + iAs), arsenobetaine, monomethyl arsenic, and dimethyl arsenic)) and specific gravity were measured in spot urine samples obtained an average of 23.7 weeks after diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the covariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCa aggressiveness in association with arsenic tertiles/quantiles overall and by race. The highest (vs. lowest) tertile of total arsenic was associated with PCa aggressiveness ORs of 1.77 (95% CI = 1.05-2.98) among European-American men, and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.57-1.56) among African-American men ( = 0.04). In contrast, total arsenic and arsenical species were not associated with PCa aggressiveness in unstratified models. Low-level arsenic exposure may be associated with PCa aggressiveness among European-Americans, but not among African-Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697081PMC
November 2020

Identification of Plasma Glycosphingolipids as Potential Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa) Status.

Biomolecules 2020 09 30;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common male cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in United States men. Controversy continues over the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for distinguishing aggressive from indolent PCa. There is a critical need for more specific and sensitive biomarkers to detect and distinguish low- versus high-risk PCa cases. Discovery metabolomics were performed utilizing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) on plasma samples from 159 men with treatment naïve prostate cancer participating in the North Carolina-Louisiana PCa Project to determine if there were metabolites associated with aggressive PCa. Thirty-five identifiable plasma small molecules were associated with PCa aggressiveness, 15 of which were sphingolipids; nine common molecules were present in both African-American and European-American men. The molecules most associated with PCa aggressiveness were glycosphingolipids; levels of trihexosylceramide and tetrahexosylceramide were most closely associated with high-aggressive PCa. The Cancer Genome Atlas was queried to determine gene alterations within glycosphingolipid metabolism that are associated with PCa and other cancers. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the metabolism of glycosphingolipids were altered in 12% of PCa and >30% of lung, uterine, and ovarian cancers. These data suggest that the identified plasma (glyco)sphingolipids should be further validated for their association with aggressive PCa, suggesting that specific sphingolipids may be included in a diagnostic signature for PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10101393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600119PMC
September 2020

Genetic variants in anti-Müllerian hormone-related genes and breast cancer risk: results from the AMBER consortium.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan 22;185(2):469-478. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2104F McGavran-Greenberg Hall, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7435, USA.

Purpose: Circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are positively associated with time to menopause and breast cancer risk. We examined breast cancer associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AMH gene or its receptor genes, ACVR1 and AMHR2, among African American women.

Methods: In the AMBER consortium, we tested 65 candidate SNPs, and 1130 total variants, in or near AMH, ACVR1, and AMHR2 and breast cancer risk. Overall, 3649 cases and 4230 controls contributed to analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were calculated using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: After correction for multiple comparisons (false-discovery rate of 5%), there were no statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Without correction for multiple testing, four candidate SNPs in ACVR1 and one near AMH were associated with breast cancer risk. In ACVR1, rs13395576[C] was associated with lower breast cancer risk overall (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72, 0.97) and for ER+ disease (OR 0.75; CI 0.62, 0.89) (p < 0.05). Rs1220110[A] and rs1220134[T] each had ORs of 0.89-0.90 for postmenopausal and ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.03). Conversely, rs1682130[T] was associated with higher risk of ER+ breast cancer (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04, 1.32). Near AMH, rs6510652[T] had ORs of 0.85-0.90 for breast cancer overall and after menopause (p ≤ 0.02).

Conclusions: The present results, from a large study of African American women, provide limited support for an association between AMH-related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and require replication in other studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05944-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867570PMC
January 2021

African-specific improvement of a polygenic hazard score for age at diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 01 24;148(1):99-105. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

UMR Inserm 1134 Biologie Intégrée du Globule Rouge, INSERM/Université Paris Diderot-Université Sorbonne Paris Cité/INTS/Université des Antilles, Paris, France.

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135907PMC
January 2021

A Germline Variant at 8q24 Contributes to Familial Clustering of Prostate Cancer in Men of African Ancestry.

Eur Urol 2020 09 12;78(3):316-320. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Surgery, Center for Prostate Disease Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.04.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805560PMC
September 2020

A CD24-p53 axis contributes to African American prostate cancer disparities.

Prostate 2020 05 13;80(8):609-618. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Genetics and O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: Using a functional analysis of prostate cancer cells, we found a CD24-dependent inactivation of mutant p53, but the clinical significance of this observation remained uncertain. Here, we validated these results with samples of human prostate cancer and explored the role of a CD24-p53 axis in racial disparities of prostate cancer.

Methods: Samples of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate cancer from 141 European Americans (EAs) and 147 African Americans (AAs) in two independent sample cohorts were assessed for protein expression of CD24, mutant p53, mouse double minute 2 human homolog (MDM2), and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (ARF) using immunohistochemical analyses. All samples were analyzed for TP53 and TP53 .

Results: CD24, mutant p53, MDM2, and ARF proteins were expressed in 55%, 24%, 39%, and 68% of prostate cancer samples, respectively. CD24 and mutant p53 were present more frequently in late-stage and metastatic prostate cancer. The presence of CD24 was associated with a greater than fourfold risk of metastasis, which included lymph node and distant metastases. H score analysis showed positive correlations of CD24 expression with mutant p53 (r = .308, P < .001) and MDM2 (r = .227, P = .004). There was a negative correlation for CD24 with ARF (r = -.280, P < .001). A racial disparity was evident for CD24 (AAs/EAs: 64% vs 47%; P = .004) but not for mutant p53 (AA/EA: 28% vs 21%; P = .152). In 32 CD24 /mutant p53 cases, a TP53 mutation was found in five cases, but no TP53 mutation was found.

Conclusion: The CD24-p53 axis may contribute to aggressive and metastatic prostate cancers, especially those of AAs. This observation enhances understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and its associated racial disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176538PMC
May 2020

Tea consumption and breast cancer risk in a cohort of women with family history of breast cancer.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 4;147(3):876-886. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Laboratory studies have observed chemopreventive effects of black and green tea on breast cancer development, but few epidemiologic studies have identified such effects. We investigated the association between tea consumption and breast cancer risk using data from 45,744 U.S. and Puerto Rican women participating in the Sister Study. Frequency and serving size of black and green tea consumption were measured at cohort enrollment. Breast cancer diagnoses were reported during follow-up and confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further investigated potential variation according to estrogen receptor (ER) status, menopausal status and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 81.6 and 56.0% of women drank black or green tea, respectively. A total of 2,809 breast cancer cases were identified in the cohort. The multivariable model suggested an inverse association between black (≥5 vs. 0 cups/week: HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78, 1.00, p-trend = 0.08) and green tea (≥5 vs. 0 cups/week: HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.70, 0.95, p-trend < 0.01) consumption and breast cancer risk. We did not observe differences by ER characteristics, menopausal status or BMI. In conclusion, our study suggests drinking at least five cups of green or black tea per week may be associated with decreased breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283004PMC
August 2020

Prevalence and predictors of probable depression in prostate cancer survivors.

Cancer 2019 10 27;125(19):3418-3427. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: The early diagnosis and treatment of depression are cancer care priorities. These priorities are critical for prostate cancer survivors because men rarely seek mental health care. However, little is known about the epidemiology of depression in this patient population. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of probable depression in prostate cancer survivors.

Methods: The data were from a population-based cohort of North Carolinian prostate cancer survivors who were enrolled from 2004 to 2007 in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (n = 1031) and were prospectively followed annually from 2008 to 2011 in the Health Care Access and Prostate Cancer Treatment in North Carolina study (n = 805). Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate an indicator of probable depression (Short Form 12 mental composite score ≤48.9; measured at enrollment and during the annual follow-up) as a function of individual-level characteristics within the longitudinal data set.

Results: The prevalence of probable depression fell from 38% in the year of the cancer diagnosis to 20% 6 to 7 years later. Risk factors for probable depression throughout the study were African American race, unemployment, low annual income, younger age, recency of cancer diagnosis, past depression, comorbidities, treatment decisional regret, and nonadherence to exercise recommendations.

Conclusions: Depression is a major challenge for prostate cancer survivors, particularly in the first 5 years after the cancer diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an association between treatment decisional regret and probable depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465428PMC
October 2019

Patterns and predictors of self-reported clinical diagnosis and treatment for depression in prostate cancer survivors.

Cancer Med 2019 07 20;8(8):3648-3658. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: Appropriate depression care is a cancer-care priority. However, many cancer survivors live with undiagnosed and untreated depression. Prostate cancer survivors may be particularly vulnerable, but little is known about their access to depression care. The goal of this study was to describe patterns and predictors of clinical diagnosis and treatment of depression in prostate cancer survivors.

Methods: Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate indicators of self-reported clinical diagnosis and treatment depression as a function of individual-level characteristics within a longitudinal dataset. The data were from a population-based cohort of North Carolinian prostate cancer survivors who were enrolled from 2004 to 2007 on the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (N = 1,031), and prospectively followed annually from 2008 to 2011 on the Health Care Access and Prostate Cancer Treatment in North Carolina (N = 805).

Results: The average rate of self-reported clinical diagnosis of depression was 44% (95% CI: 39%-49%), which declined from 60% to 40% between prostate cancer diagnosis and 5-7 years later. Factors associated with lower odds of self-reported clinical diagnosis of depression include African-American race, employment, age at enrollment, low education, infrequent primary care visits, and living with a prostate cancer diagnosis for more than 2 years. The average rate of self-reported depression treatment was 62% (95% CI: 55%-69%). Factors associated with lower odds of self-reported depression treatment included employment and living with a prostate cancer diagnosis for 2 or more years.

Conclusion: Prostate cancer survivors experience barriers when in need of depression care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6639178PMC
July 2019

Association among plasma 1,25(OH) D, ratio of 1,25(OH) D to 25(OH)D, and prostate cancer aggressiveness.

Prostate 2019 07 11;79(10):1117-1124. Epub 2019 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, New York.

Background: African-American (AA) men tend to present with more aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score >7) than European-American (EA) men. Vitamin D and its metabolites are implicated in prostate cancer biology with vitamin D deficiency, indicated by its metabolite levels in serum or plasma, usually observed in AA men.

Objective: To determine if 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH) D] plasma levels in AA and EA prostate cancer patients alter the risk of having aggressive prostate cancer.

Design: Research subjects from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (AA n = 435 and EA n = 532) were included. Plasma metabolites 1,25(OH) D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] were measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrophotometry. Research subjects were classified into low (Gleason sum < 7, stage T1-T2, and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 9 ng/mL) or high (Gleason sum > 8 or Gleason sum = 7 with 4 + 3, or PSA > 20 ng/mL, or Gleason sum = 7 and stage T3-T4) aggressive disease.

Results: Research subjects in the second and third tertiles of plasma levels of 1, 25(OH) D had lower odds of high aggressive prostate cancer (AA [OR : 0.66, 95%CI: 0.39-1.12; OR : 0.83, 95%CI: 0.49-1.41] and EA [OR : 0.68, 95%CI: 0.41-1.11; OR : 0.67, 95%CI: 0.40-1.11]) compared with the first tertile, though confidence intervals included the null. Greater 1,25(OH) D/25(OH)D molar ratios were associated with lower odds of high aggressive prostate cancer more evidently in AA (OR : 0.45, CI: 0.24-0.82) than in EA (OR : 0.64, CI: 0.35-1.17) research subjects.

Conclusions: The 1,25(OH) D/25(OH)D molar ratio was associated with decreased risk of high aggressive prostate cancer in AA men, and possibly in EA men. Further studies analyzing vitamin D polymorphisms, vitamin D binding protein levels, and prostatic levels of these metabolites may be useful. These studies may provide a better understanding of the vitamin D pathway and its biological role underlying health disparities in prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593756PMC
July 2019

Tea consumption and oxidative stress: a cross-sectional analysis of 889 premenopausal women from the Sister Study.

Br J Nutr 2019 Mar 24;121(5):582-590. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

In experimental and clinical studies, green or black tea consumption has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. However, these studies involved high levels of tea consumption and may not reflect patterns in the general population. Here, we examined the association between black or green tea consumption and oxidative stress in a cross-sectional study of 889 premenopausal US women aged 35-54 years. Tea consumption was measured using the Block-98 FFQ. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (F2-IsoP) and 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP-M) were used as biomarkers of oxidative stress. These compounds were measured by MS and normalised to creatinine. Linear regression was used to calculate the geometric mean differences (GMD) and 95% CI for log-transformed urinary F2-IsoP or 15-F2t-IsoP-M in relation to black or green tea consumption. We further examined whether adjusting for caffeine impacted associations between tea and oxidative stress. Geometric means of urinary F2-IsoP and 15-F2t-IsoP-M were 1·44 (95% CI 1·39, 1·49) and 0·71 (95% CI 0·69, 0·73) ng/mg creatinine, respectively. Overall, green tea consumption was not associated with urinary F2-IsoP or 15-F2t-IsoP-M. High-level black tea consumption (≥5 cups/week compared with 0) was associated with higher 15-F2t-IsoP-M concentrations (adjusted GMD=0·10, 95 % CI 0·02-0.19) but not F2-IsoP. Adjusting for caffeine nullified the association between black tea and 15-F2t-IsoP-M. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that dietary tea consumption is inversely associated with oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114518003732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586547PMC
March 2019

Frailty and health-related quality of life in older women with breast cancer.

Support Care Cancer 2019 Jul 27;27(7):2693-2698. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Purpose: In older women, breast cancer and its treatment can have profound impact on their physical, mental, and social health, especially in frail patients. This study evaluated the association between frailty and long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older women undergoing breast cancer treatment.

Methods: Using the Carolina Senior Registry (CSR), participants with breast cancer were contacted to complete a follow-up HRQOL questionnaire (median 4 years). Baseline Geriatric Assessment (GA) variables were used to calculate the Carolina Frailty Index (CFI) and categorize participants as robust, pre-frail, or frail. Outcomes included HRQOL domains of physical function, social roles, fatigue, depression, anxiety, pain, and sleep disturbance assessed using PROMIS® instruments. Regression modeling compared outcomes between frailty groups using adjusted mean differences (AMD).

Results: Of 190 eligible patients, 63 completed follow-up HRQOL survey. Mean age was 70 years (range 65-86) and 91% were white. Based on the CFI, 49 (78%) patients were robust, 11 (18%) pre-frail, and 3 (5%) frail. After controlling for age and cancer stage, patients identified as pre-frail/frail reported worse physical function (AMD - 9.2, p < 0.001) and social roles (AMD - 7.2, p = 0.002) and more fatigue (AMD 7.6, p = 0.008), depression (AMD 5.6, p = 0.004), and sleep disturbance (AMD 6.9, p = 0.008) compared to robust patients at follow-up.

Conclusions: Frailty in older women with breast cancer was associated with worse long-term HRQOL outcomes. Further research is needed to develop interventions for frail patients at-risk for reduced HRQOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-018-4558-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536366PMC
July 2019

Financial Toxicity in Adults With Cancer: Adverse Outcomes and Noncompliance.

J Oncol Pract 2018 Oct 24:JOP1800120. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Atrium Health, Charlotte; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Purpose:: Because of the escalating cost of cancer care coupled with high insurance deductibles, premiums, and uninsured populations, patients with cancer are affected by treatment-related financial harm, known as financial toxicity. The purpose of this study was to describe individuals reporting financial toxicity and to identify rates of and reasons for affordability-related treatment noncompliance.

Methods:: From May 2010 to November 2015, adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with cancer were identified from a Health Registry/Cancer Survivorship Cohort. Financial toxicity was defined as agreement with the phrase "You have to pay for more medical care than you can afford" from the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18. Logistic regression and Fisher exact tests were used to compare groups.

Results:: Of 1,988 participants, 524 (26%) reported financial toxicity. Patients reporting financial toxicity were more likely age 65 years or younger, female, nonwhite, non-English speaking, not married, less educated, and to have received a diagnosis more recently (all P < .001). Participants with financial toxicity were more likely to report noncompliance with medication, owing to inability to afford prescription drugs (relative risk [RR], 3.55; 95% CI, 2.53 to 4.98), and reported forgoing mental health care (RR, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.04 to 7.45), doctor's visits (RR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.97 to 4.51), and medical tests (RR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.34). The most endorsed reasons for delayed care were not having insurance coverage and being unable to afford household expenses.

Conclusion:: More than 25% of adults with cancer reported financial toxicity that was associated with an increased risk for medical noncompliance. Financial toxicity remains a major issue in cancer care, and efforts are needed to ensure patients experiencing high levels of financial toxicity are able to access recommended care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JOP.18.00120DOI Listing
October 2018

Mononuclear phagocyte system function and nanoparticle pharmacology in obese and normal weight ovarian and endometrial cancer patients.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2019 01 16;83(1):61-70. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 120 Mason Farm Road, Suite 1013, CB 7361, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7361, USA.

Purpose: Obesity may alter mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) function and the pharmacology and efficacy of nanoparticles therapies, such as PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). We aimed to evaluate the relationships between hormone and chemokine mediators of MPS function and the pharmacokinetic (PK) exposure of PLD in obese and normal weight patients with ovarian and endometrial cancer.

Methods: Hormone and chemokine mediators in obese and normal weight ovarian and endometrial cancer patients were measured. A separate pharmacology study was performed that evaluated the relationship between serum hormone concentrations, MPS function, and PK disposition of PLD in refractory ovarian cancer patients.

Results: Univariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between serum estradiol and body mass index (OR 8.64, 95% CI 2.67-28.0, p < 0.001). Estrone and testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with MPS function (ρ = 0.57 and 0.53, p = 0.14 and 0.18, respectively) and inversely correlated with PLD PK exposure (ρ = - 0.75 and - 0.76, respectively, p = 0.02 for both).

Conclusions: Higher MPS function resulting in reduced PLD exposure is a potential mechanism for reduced efficacy of PLD and other nanoparticles observed in obese patients with cancer. PK simulations suggest higher doses of PLD are required in obese patients to achieve similar exposures as standard dosing in normal weight patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-018-3702-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370499PMC
January 2019

Dietary patterns based on the Mediterranean diet and DASH diet are inversely associated with high aggressive prostate cancer in PCaP.

Ann Epidemiol 2019 01 5;29:16-22.e1. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Electronic address:

Background: Several foods and nutrients have been linked to the development of prostate cancer, but the association between healthy dietary patterns and prostate cancer aggressiveness is less studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the Mediterranean diet (MED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet scores and prostate cancer aggressiveness by race.

Methods: Data from the population-based, case-only North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) were used to examine the association between diet quality, measured by MED and DASH scores, and prostate cancer aggressiveness in 1899 African American (AA) and European American (EA) research subjects. Dietary intake was assessed using a modified National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for high versus low-intermediate aggressive prostate cancer.

Results: Higher MED scores were inversely associated with high aggressive prostate cancer overall (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.95 for high versus low scores); results were similar for AA and EA men. A weaker inverse association between DASH scores and prostate cancer aggressiveness was found (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.06).

Conclusions: Higher diet quality, as represented by a Mediterranean-style diet or DASH diet, may reduce the odds of high aggressive prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2018.08.012DOI Listing
January 2019

The association of metformin use with prostate cancer aggressiveness among Black Americans and White Americans in a population-based study.

Cancer Causes Control 2018 Nov 28;29(11):1143-1150. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 135 Dauer Drive, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Purpose: Metformin has been associated with a reduced incidence of prostate cancer and improved prostate cancer outcomes. However, whether race modifies the association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness remains uncertain. The association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness was examined separately in Black Americans (Blacks) and White Americans (Whites).

Methods: The study population consisted of 305 Black and 195 White research participants with incident prostate cancer and self-reported diabetes from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. High-aggressive prostate cancer was defined using a composite measure of Gleason sum, prostate-specific antigen, and clinical stage. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between metformin use and high-aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis, separately among Whites and Blacks, with adjustment for age, screening history, site, education, insurance, and body mass index.

Results: Metformin use was associated positively with high-aggressive prostate cancer in Blacks (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.05, 3.83). By contrast, a weak inverse association between metformin use and high-aggressive prostate cancer was found in Whites (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.34, 1.85).

Conclusions: The association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness may be modified by race.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-018-1087-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275149PMC
November 2018

The Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research Consortium: Integrating Genomic Sequencing in Diverse and Medically Underserved Populations.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 09;103(3):319-327

Department of Biomedical Research, John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA.

The Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research (CSER) consortium, now in its second funding cycle, is investigating the effectiveness of integrating genomic (exome or genome) sequencing into the clinical care of diverse and medically underserved individuals in a variety of healthcare settings and disease states. The consortium comprises a coordinating center, six funded extramural clinical projects, and an ongoing National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project. Collectively, these projects aim to enroll and sequence over 6,100 participants in four years. At least 60% of participants will be of non-European ancestry or from underserved settings, with the goal of diversifying the populations that are providing an evidence base for genomic medicine. Five of the six clinical projects are enrolling pediatric patients with various phenotypes. One of these five projects is also enrolling couples whose fetus has a structural anomaly, and the sixth project is enrolling adults at risk for hereditary cancer. The ongoing NHGRI intramural project has enrolled primarily healthy adults. Goals of the consortium include assessing the clinical utility of genomic sequencing, exploring medical follow up and cascade testing of relatives, and evaluating patient-provider-laboratory level interactions that influence the use of this technology. The findings from the CSER consortium will offer patients, healthcare systems, and policymakers a clearer understanding of the opportunities and challenges of providing genomic medicine in diverse populations and settings, and contribute evidence toward developing best practices for the delivery of clinically useful and cost-effective genomic sequencing in diverse healthcare settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128306PMC
September 2018

Modelling attrition and nonparticipation in a longitudinal study of prostate cancer.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2018 06 20;18(1):60. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

LSUHSC, School of Public Health, Health Policy and Systems Management Program, New Orleans, USA.

Background: Attrition occurs when a participant fails to respond to one or more study waves. The accumulation of attrition over several waves can lower the sample size and power and create a final sample that could differ in characteristics than those who drop out. The main reason to conduct a longitudinal study is to analyze repeated measures; research subjects who drop out cannot be replaced easily. Our group recently investigated factors affecting nonparticipation (refusal) in the first wave of a population-based study of prostate cancer. In this study we assess factors affecting attrition in the second wave of the same study. We compare factors affecting nonparticipation in the second wave to the ones affecting nonparticipation in the first wave.

Methods: Information available on participants in the first wave was used to model attrition. Different sources of attrition were investigated separately. The overall and race-stratified factors affecting attrition were assessed. Kaplan-Meier survival curve estimates were calculated to assess the impact of follow-up time on participation.

Results: High cancer aggressiveness was the main predictor of attrition due to death or frailty. Higher Charlson Comorbidity Index increased the odds of attrition due to death or frailty only in African Americans (AAs). Young age at diagnosis for AAs and low income for European Americans (EAs) were predictors for attrition due to lost to follow-up. High cancer aggressiveness for AAs, low income for EAs, and lower patient provider communication scores for EAs were predictors for attrition due to refusal. These predictors of nonparticipation were not the same as those in wave 1. For short follow-up time, the participation probability of EAs was higher than that of AAs.

Conclusions: Predictors of attrition can vary depending on the attrition source. Examining overall attrition (combining all sources of attrition under one category) instead of distinguishing among its different sources should be avoided. The factors affecting attrition in one wave can be different in a later wave and should be studied separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0518-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011525PMC
June 2018

A survey of microRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci in a case-control, population-based study of African-American women.

Breast Cancer Res 2018 06 5;20(1):45. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and influence cancer. Primary transcripts of miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) are poorly annotated and little is known about the role of germline variation in miRNA genes and breast cancer (BC). We sought to identify germline miRNA variants associated with BC risk and tumor subtype among African-American (AA) women.

Methods: Under the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium, genotyping and imputed data from four studies on BC in AA women were combined into a final dataset containing 224,188 miRNA gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 8350 women: 3663 cases and 4687 controls. The primary miRNA sequence was identified for 566 miRNA genes expressed in Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Tier 1 cell types and human pancreatic islets. Association analysis was conducted using logistic regression for BC status overall and by tumor subtype.

Results: A novel BC signal was localized to an 8.6-kb region of 17q25.3 by four SNPs (rs9913477, rs1428882938, rs28585511, and rs7502931) and remained statistically significant after multiple test correction (odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26-1.65; p = 3.15 × 10; false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.03). These SNPs reside in a genomic location that includes both the predicted primary transcript of the noncoding miRNA gene MIR3065 and the first intron of the gene for brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAIAP2). Furthermore, miRNA-associated SNPs on chromosomes 1p32.3, 5q32, and 3p25.1 were the strongest signals for hormone receptor, luminal versus basal-like, and HER2 enrichment status, respectively. A second phase of genotyping (1397 BC cases, 2418 controls) that included two SNPs in the 8.6-kb region was used for validation and meta-analysis. While neither rs4969239 nor rs9913477 was validated, when meta-analyzed with the original dataset their association with BC remained directionally consistent (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.16-1.44 (p = 4.18 × 10) and OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.17-1.51 (p = 1.6 × 10), respectively).

Conclusion: Germline genetic variation indicates that MIR3065 may play an important role in BC development and heterogeneity among AA women. Further investigation to determine the potential functional effects of these SNPs is warranted. This study contributes to our understanding of BC risk in AA women and highlights the complexity in evaluating variation in gene-dense regions of the human genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-018-0964-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989404PMC
June 2018

Calcium, magnesium, and whole-milk intakes and high-aggressive prostate cancer in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP).

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 05;107(5):799-807

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Calcium and dairy product intakes have been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. An imbalance in concentrations of calcium and magnesium has been associated with multiple chronic diseases, although few studies have examined the relation with prostate cancer aggressiveness.

Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the association between dietary intakes of calcium and magnesium, the calcium-to-magnesium ratio (Ca:Mg), and dairy products and prostate cancer aggressiveness.

Design: Dietary intake was assessed with the use of an interviewer-administered modified National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire in 996 African American and 1064 European American men with a recent histologically confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). High-aggressive disease was defined as Gleason sum ≥8, or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 ng/mL, or Gleason score ≥7 and clinical stage T3-T4. The comparison group was all other prostate cancer cases. Logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for high-aggressive prostate cancer by tertile of diet and supplement exposures.

Results: There was a positive association across tertiles of dietary Ca:Mg intake, with odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer in the upper tertiles as follows-OR for tertile 2 compared with tertile 1: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.88); OR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 1.46 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.02). When stratified by race, the positive association was more pronounced in African American men (OR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 2: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.53). Men who reported the highest daily consumption of whole-fat milk had a 74% increased odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer compared with non-whole-fat milk drinkers, which was attenuated after adjustment for potential mediating factors, such as saturated fat and Ca:Mg intake.

Conclusions: Among both African American and European American men diagnosed with prostate cancer, a higher Ca:Mg and whole-milk intake were associated with higher odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03289130.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy037DOI Listing
May 2018

Statin use, high cholesterol and prostate cancer progression; results from HCaP-NC.

Prostate 2018 08 1;78(11):857-864. Epub 2018 May 1.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: Statin use is associated with lower advanced prostate cancer risk and reduced prostate cancer-specific mortality, but prior studies were conducted mainly in white men. We examined the effect of statin use on risk of prostate cancer progression in a population-based, minority-enriched cohort.

Methods: We used data from prostate cancer cases (45% African American) diagnosed between 2004 and 2007 who participated in the Health Care Access and Prostate Cancer Treatment in North Carolina cohort (HCaP-NC). We abstracted statin use at diagnosis. Men reported if they had ever been diagnosed with high cholesterol. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine associations between statin use and risk of prostate cancer progression (biochemical recurrence or secondary treatment), overall and by race. In secondary analysis, we examined the association between high cholesterol and risk of progression, overall, and by statin use.

Results: Of 669 men, 244 (36%) were statin users at diagnosis. During 3.8 years median follow-up, 138 men experienced prostate cancer progression. There was no association between statin use and risk of progression, either overall (HR 1.03; 95%CI 0.72-1.46) or stratified by race. High cholesterol was inversely associated with risk of progression, particularly among statin users (HR 0.43; 95%CI 0.20-0.94; p-interaction = 0.22) and in men with higher perceived access to care (HR 0.57; 95%CI 0.36-0.90; p-interaction = 0.03). Study limitations included a relatively small sample size, short follow-up, and lack of data regarding post diagnosis statin use.

Conclusions: Statin use at diagnosis was not associated with prostate cancer progression in the population-based, minority-enriched HCaP-NC. Greater healthcare engagement, including actively controlling serum cholesterol, may be linked to better prostate cancer-specific outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23644DOI Listing
August 2018

Frailty and Comorbidities Among Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Examination of a Hospital-Based Survivorship Cohort.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2018 06 23;7(3):374-383. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

2 The Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Purpose: Cancer survivors are at increased risk for the early development of age-related chronic medical conditions compared with peers without a history of cancer; however, little is known regarding the burden of these conditions among survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers. In response, we sought to determine the prevalence of specific comorbidities and frailty among AYAs (15-39 years old at diagnosis) enrolled in a cancer survivorship cohort.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey of a tertiary medical center-based cancer survivorship cohort, we determined the prevalence of specific comorbidities and frailty using the survey-based FRAIL assessment. In separate models adjusting for age, we estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) for the associations between patient characteristics and (1) any comorbidity and (2) frailty or prefrailty using log-binomial models.

Results: We identified 271 AYA cancer survivors, most of whom were 30-39 years old at survey (57%). A majority of survivors (n = 163, 60%) reported having at least one comorbidity with the most common being depression (28%), anxiety (27%), asthma (17%), high cholesterol (15%), and hypertension (15%). Of the 184 AYA survivors at least 1 year from cancer diagnosis, 19 (10%) were classified as frail and 39 (21%) as prefrail. Survivors who were smokers (PR 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.56); obese (PR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.10-2.55); uninsured (PR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.63-4.59); or who reported comorbid depression or anxiety (PR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.51-3.67) were more likely to be frail or prefrail.

Conclusions: The prevalence of frailty and comorbidities is high among AYA cancer survivors suggestive of accelerated aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jayao.2017.0103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5994155PMC
June 2018

Social Relationships, Inflammation, and Cancer Survival.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2018 05 23;27(5):541-549. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Social stressors, such as social relationship deficits, have been increasingly linked to chronic disease outcomes, including cancer. However, critical gaps exist in our understanding of the nature and strength of such links, as well as the underlying biological mechanisms relating social relationships to cancer progression and survival. Utilizing novel questionnaire and biomarker data from the UNC Health Registry/Cancer Survivorship Cohort, this study examines the associations between diverse measures of social support and mortality risk among individuals with cancer ( = 1,004). We further assess the role of multiple serum markers of inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), IL6, TNFα, and VEGF, as potential mediators in the social relationship-cancer link. The findings revealed that one's appraisal of their social support was associated with cancer mortality, such that individuals reporting higher levels of social support satisfaction had lower mortality risk than individuals reporting lower levels of satisfaction. The amount of support received, on the other hand, was not predictive of cancer survival. We further found evidence that inflammatory processes may undergird the link between social support satisfaction and mortality among individuals with cancer, with individuals reporting higher levels of social support satisfaction having lower levels of CRP, IL6, and TNFα. These results provide new knowledge of the biosocial processes producing population disparities in cancer outcomes. Our study offers new insights for intervention efforts aimed at promoting social connectedness as a means for improving cancer survival. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-0836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932225PMC
May 2018
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