Publications by authors named "Jeanette Clewes"

6 Publications

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Assessment of endometrial and subendometrial blood flow in women undergoing frozen embryo transfer cycles.

Reprod Biomed Online 2014 Mar 22;28(3):343-51. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Nottingham University Research and Treatment Unit in Reproduction (NURTURE), Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:

This study evaluated whether 3D power Doppler (3DPD) indices from endometrium and subendometrium can identify increases in endometrial volume/vascularity induced by exogenous oestradiol and subsequent introduction of progestogens in women undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Oral oestradiol was administered at increasing doses after down-regulation to prepare the endometrium and progestogens were used for luteal support. 3DPD data sets were acquired at down-regulation, on days 5, 10 and 15 of oestradiol administration and at the time of FET. Endometrial thickness was measured using the multiplanar method and endometrial volume and blood flow from the endometrium and subendometrium were estimated using virtual organ computer-aided analysis and shell-imaging. This study evaluated 45 women at least once: 19 achieved clinical pregnancy (CP); 21 were evaluated at down-regulation (eight CP), 26 at day 5 (10 CP), 31 at day 10 (12 CP), 31 at day 15 (13 CP) and 16 at FET (seven CP). Changes were observed in all parameters between the examinations; however, differences between women who achieved CP and those who did not were not significant. 3DPD angiography is not a sufficiently sensitive tool to predict the outcome of FET. We evaluate whether 3D ultrasound using power Doppler (3DPD) indices from endometrium and subendometrium can identify predictable increases in endometrial volume and vascularity induced by serial increments in exogenous oestradiol and the subsequent introduction of progestogens in women undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) using hormone replacement therapy to prepare the endometrium. Oral oestradiol was administered at increasing doses after down-regulation to prepare the endometrium and progestogens were used for luteal support. 3DPD data sets of the uterus were acquired at down-regulation, on days 5, 10, and 15 of oestradiol administration, and at the time of FET. Endometrial thickness was measured. Endometrial volume and blood flow from the endometrium and subendometrium were measured using virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) and shell imaging. This study evaluated 45 women at least once: 19 achieved clinical pregnancy (CP); 21 were evaluated at down-regulation (eight CP), 26 at day 5 (10 CP), 31 at day 10 (12 CP), 31 at day 15 (13 CP) and 16 at FET (seven CP). Changes were observed in all the parameters between the examinations; however, differences between women who achieved CP and those who did not were not significant, suggesting that quantitative 3D power Doppler angiography is not a sufficiently sensitive tool to predict the outcome of FET treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2013.11.004DOI Listing
March 2014

The interovarian variation in three-dimensional ultrasound markers of ovarian reserve in women undergoing baseline investigation for subfertility.

Fertil Steril 2011 Feb 25;95(2):667-72. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Division of Human Development, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Objective: To evaluate differences in the three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound markers of ovarian reserve between the ovaries within an individual undergoing investigation for subfertility.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: University-based assisted conception unit.

Patient(s): Two hundred seventy women undergoing baseline early follicular phase ultrasound as an investigation for subfertility.

Intervention(s): Three-dimensional ultrasound scan in early follicular phase between days 2 and 5 of the menstrual cycle.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Variations in 3D ultrasound markers of ovarian reserve between the two ovaries within same individual.

Result(s): Two hundred fifteen subjects were analyzed for ovarian volume and antral follicle count, and 205 subjects for 3D power Doppler indices. Significant differences were noted (median, range) in the number of antral follicles measuring >6.0 mm and ovarian volume. Significant correlation was noted between the two ovaries in antral follicles measuring 6.0 mm or less, ovarian volume, and 3D power Doppler indices. On stratifying the antral follicles according to size using sonography-based automated volume calculation with postprocessing, maximum variation was seen in follicles measuring more than 6.0 mm as measured using limits of agreement.

Conclusion(s): There are significant differences in the antral follicles measuring >6.0 mm and ovarian volume, as measured using 3D ultrasound, that require consideration when comparing the two ovaries within an individual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.09.031DOI Listing
February 2011

A novel technique for the semi-automated measurement of embryo volume: an intraobserver reliability study.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2010 May 9;36(5):719-25. Epub 2010 Apr 9.

Nottingham University Research & Treatment Unit in Reproduction (NURTURE), Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK.

The aim was to assess intraobserver reliability of a new semi-automated technique of embryo volumetry. Power calculations suggested 46 subjects with viable, singleton pregnancies were required for reliability analysis. Crown rump length (CRL) of each embryo was analyzed using 2-D and a 3-D dataset acquired using transvaginal ultrasound. Virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) was used to calculate volume of gestation sac (GSV) and yolk sac (YSV) and SonoAVC (sonography-based automated volume count) was used to quantify fluid volume (FV). Embryo volume was calculated by subtracting FV and YSV from GSV. Each dataset was measured twice. Reliability was assessed using Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Fifty-two datasets were analyzed. Median embryo volume was 1.8 cm(3) (0.1 to 8.1 cm(3)); median gestational age 7 + 4 weeks; median CRL 13 mm (2 to 29 mm). Mean difference of embryo volume measurements was 0.1cm(3) (limits of agreement [LOA] -0.3 to 0.4 cm(3)); multiples of mean (MoM) 0.38; mean difference of CRL measurements 0.3 mm (LOA -1.4 to 2.0 mm), MoM = 0.26. ICC for embryo volume was 0.999 (95%CI 0.998 to 0.999), confirming excellent intraobserver agreement. ICC for CRL was 0.996 (95%CI 0.991 to 0.998). Regression analysis showed good correlation between embryo volume and CRL (R(2) = 0.60). The new semi-automated 3-D technique provides reliable measures of embryo volume. Further work is required to assess the validity of this technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.03.006DOI Listing
May 2010

Timing of oocyte maturation and egg collection during controlled ovarian stimulation: a randomized controlled trial evaluating manual and automated measurements of follicle diameter.

Fertil Steril 2010 Jun 1;94(1):184-8. Epub 2009 Apr 1.

Nottingham University Research and Treatment Unit in Reproduction, Division of Human Development, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a new automated technique of follicle measurement (Sono automated volume calculation [SonoAVC]) on the timing of oocyte maturation and subsequent oocyte retrieval.

Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Setting: University-based Assisted Conception Unit.

Patient(s): Seventy-two women undergoing their first cycle of assisted reproduction treatment.

Intervention(s): The timing of final follicle maturation and oocyte retrieval based on follicle tracking with use of either conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound or SonoAVC.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The number of mature oocytes retrieved and clinical pregnancy rate.

Result(s): The number of the mature oocytes collected (10.70 +/- 6.08 vs. 11.43 +/- 6.17), the number of fertilized oocytes (7.27 +/- 4.78 vs. 7.97 +/- 5.25), and the clinical pregnancy rates (42% vs. 43%) were similar with both 2D ultrasound and SonoAVC methods.

Conclusion(s): Automated follicle tracking using SonoAVC identifies a comparable number of follicles to real-time 2D ultrasound in this preliminary study. Timing final follicle maturation and egg retrieval on the basis of these automated measures does not appear to improve the clinical outcome of assisted reproduction treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.02.063DOI Listing
June 2010

Establishing the intercycle variability of three-dimensional ultrasonographic predictors of ovarian reserve.

Fertil Steril 2008 Dec 14;90(6):2126-32. Epub 2008 Jan 14.

Academic Division of Reproductive Medicine and Surgery, Nottingham University Research and Treatment Unit, School of Human Development, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Objective: To estimate the intercycle variability of antral follicle counts (AFCs) and ovarian volume, as measured by using three-dimensional ultrasound, and to compare these to the variation in basal FSH levels.

Design: Prospective study.

Setting: University-based assisted conception unit.

Patient(s): One hundred women undergoing two cycles of assisted reproductive technology.

Intervention(s): Transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound assessment and venepuncture in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, immediately before assisted reproductive technology.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Intercycle variability of AFC, ovarian volume, and basal FSH.

Result(s): The limits of agreement between cycles were +4.03 and -3.71 for AFC, +2.67 and -3.03 cm(3) for ovarian volume, and +4.36 and -4.52 IU/L for FSH levels. The AFC showed the least degree of variation, with a range of 0.48 times its own mean, in contrast to corresponding values of 0.73 and 1.29 for ovarian volume and basal FSH levels, respectively. The intraobserver variability for AFC and ovarian volume and the intraassay variability for FSH were 0.37, 0.17, and 0.42 times the mean of those respective variables.

Conclusion(s): The AFC demonstrates a lower intercycle variability than do ovarian volume and basal FSH level. The observed intercycle variability of the AFC may primarily be caused by observer variability, and the true biological variation may be minimal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.10.028DOI Listing
December 2008

Defining endometrial growth during the menstrual cycle with three-dimensional ultrasound.

BJOG 2004 Sep;111(9):944-9

School of Human Development, University of Nottingham, Queens Medical Centre, East Block, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK.

Objective: To define the changes in endometrial morphometry that occur during the normal menstrual cycle and to examine the discriminatory power of volumetric analysis over conventional two-dimensional measurements in quantifying the effect of compounding factors on endometrial growth.

Design: The design was that of a longitudinal observational study. Subjects were seen on an alternate-day basis until ovulation and then every four days until the next menstrual period.

Setting: A University teaching hospital.

Population: Thirty women with regular cycles and acceptable "normal", menstrual patterns.

Methods: Three-dimensional ultrasound data were acquired and subsequently analysed by a single observer.

Main Outcome Measures: Endometrial thickness and volume.

Results: Both endometrial volume and thickness increased significantly during the follicular phase (P < 0.001), reaching a plateau around the time of ovulation and remaining relatively stable throughout the luteal phase. These changes in endometrial thickness and volume were highly correlated (R(2)= 0.767; P < 0.001). Parity was associated with a significantly greater endometrial volume than nulliparity (4.159 vs 2.234 cm(3); P < 0.05).

Conclusions: This study has defined the relative and absolute changes in endometrial growth, both in terms of thickness and volume, throughout the normal menstrual cycle. These data provide a reference for future three-dimensional studies investigating menstrual disorders, pathophysiological change and subfertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00214.xDOI Listing
September 2004