Publications by authors named "Jean-Pierre Dedet"

65 Publications

Presence of Atypical Form in Algeria.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Mar 14;11(1):139-146. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Laboratoire d'Eco-Epidémiologie Parasitaire et Génétique des Populations, Institut Pasteur d'Algérie, Algeria.

Background: and are two phlebotomine sand fly species morphologically similar and differing in males only by the shape of the copulatory valves which are bifurcated in , tip long and tapered in .

Methods: A count of the median coxite setae was carried out on 208 specimens from the collections of Dedet and of Parrot, identified previously as and on 38 male sand flies captured during the year 2012-2013, in order to seek the presence of atypical form.

Results: The analysis revealed the presence of 33/246 (13%) atypical previously confused with species and whose distribution is mainly located in the semi-arid and arid bioclimatic regions.

Conclusion: This study proved for the first time the presence of atypical form of in Algeria.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629296PMC
March 2017

The Montpellier Leishmania Collection, from a Laboratory Collection to a Biological Resource Center: A 39-Year-Long Story.

Biopreserv Biobank 2016 Dec 5;14(6):470-479. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montpellier-National Reference Centre for Leishmaniases-Unit MIVEGEC (CNRS 5290/IRD 224/University of Montpellier)-Academic Hospital Center (C.H.U.) of Montpellier , Montpellier, France .

We report the development of a laboratory collection of Leishmania that was initiated in 1975 and, after 39 years, has become an international Biological Resource Center (BRC-Leish, Montpellier, France, BioBank No. BB-0033-00052), which includes 6353 strains belonging to 36 Leishmania taxa. This is a retrospective analysis of the technical and organizational changes that have been adopted over time to take into account the technological advances and related modifications in the collection management and quality system. The technical improvements concerned the culture and cryopreservation techniques, strain identification by isoenzymatic and molecular techniques, data computerization and quality management to meet the changes in international standards, and in the cryogenic and microbiological safety procedures. The BRC is working toward obtaining the NF-S 96-900 certification in the coming years. Our long-term expertise in Leishmania storage and typing and collection maintenance should encourage field epidemiologists and clinical practitioners in endemic countries to secure their own strain collection with the help of the French BRC-Leish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bio.2015.0101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5180084PMC
December 2016

Comparison of Leishmania killicki (syn. L. tropica) and Leishmania tropica Population Structure in Maghreb by Microsatellite Typing.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Dec 8;9(12):e0004204. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Centre National de Référence des Leishmanioses, Département de Parasitologie-Mycologie, CHRU de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Leishmania (L.) killicki (syn. L. tropica), which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Maghreb, was recently described in this region and identified as a subpopulation of L. tropica. The present genetic analysis was conducted to explore the spatio-temporal distribution of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) and its transmission dynamics. To better understand the evolution of this parasite, its population structure was then compared with that of L. tropica populations from Morocco. In total 198 samples including 85 L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) (from Tunisia, Algeria and Libya) and 113 L. tropica specimens (all from Morocco) were tested. Theses samples were composed of 168 Leishmania strains isolated from human skin lesions, 27 DNA samples from human skin lesion biopsies, two DNA samples from Ctenodactylus gundi bone marrow and one DNA sample from a Phlebotomus sergenti female. The sample was analyzed by using MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) and MultiLocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) approaches. Analysis of the MLMT data support the hypothesis that L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) belongs to the L. tropica complex, despite its strong genetic differentiation, and that it emerged from this taxon by a founder effect. Moreover, it revealed a strong structuring in L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) between Tunisia and Algeria and within the different Tunisian regions, suggesting low dispersion of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) in space and time. Comparison of the L. tropica (exclusively from Morocco) and L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) population structures revealed distinct genetic organizations, reflecting different epidemiological cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4672892PMC
December 2015

Epidemiological characteristics of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Settat, Morocco.

Acta Trop 2015 Oct 21;150:116-21. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

National Reference Laboratory of Leishmaniasis, National Institute of Hygiene, Rabat, Morocco.

A new emerging focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL) caused by Leishmania tropica was identified within the province of Settat. This study was performed in order to analyze the reasons of the extension of CL in this area, and to describe the clinico-epidemiological characteristic of this emerging focus during 2007-2012. A total of 553 suspected cases of CL were diagnosed in laboratory of Settat, controlled and confirmed in reference national laboratory of leishmaniasis in Rabat. Leishmania parasite is found in 356 cases. Most of them (33.89%) were recorded in localities of Ouled Ghalem (110 cases) and Laamarcha (102 cases) of El Borouj sector. The lesions were typically small, dry and mostly located on the face and extremities. Majority of infection (25%) was recorded among children under 11 years old, and female (72%). Strains of L. tropica were identified by PCR ITS1 from positive slides and zymodeme MON-102 was typed using isoenzyme technique on starch gel electrophoresis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.07.020DOI Listing
October 2015

Characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni n.sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the Parasite Responsible for Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dominican Republic.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 Sep 6;93(3):552-8. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Parasitology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; French National Reference Centre on Leishmaniasis, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France; Biology Department, BioSciences Institute, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; Tropical Medicine Nucleus, Pará Federal University, Brazil; School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, England

Leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late Bryce Walton, from Dominican Republic (DR) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSu rDNA), and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the MLSA results showed that the Dominican Republic parasites were distinct from other described Leishmania species. This new species belongs to the mexicana complex, which is distributed in central and parts of northern South America. It is suggested that the parasites uniqueness from other members of the mexicana complex is related to it being isolated on an island for millions of years. If Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni fails to adapt to some imported mammal, such as the house rat, it will be the only Leishmania to be classified as an endangered species. The excessive destruction of habitats on Hispaniola threatens the survival of its vectors and presumed natural reservoirs, such as the rodent hutias and the small insectivorous mammal solenodon. The concept of Leishmania species is discussed in the light of recent evaluations on criteria for defining bacterial species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4559697PMC
September 2015

Erratum to: Frequency of MDR 1-related p-gp overexpression in Greek Leishmania isolates.

Parasitol Res 2015 Sep;114(9):3565

Center of Anatomy, Institute II, Laboratory for Medical and Molecular Parasitology, Medical School, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4572-2DOI Listing
September 2015

Evolutionary history of Leishmania killicki (synonymous Leishmania tropica) and taxonomic implications.

Parasit Vectors 2015 Apr 1;8:198. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Département de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Centre National de Référence des Leishmanioses, CHRU de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, France, 39 avenue Charles FLAHAULT, 34295, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Background: The taxonomic status of Leishmania (L.) killicki, a parasite that causes chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis, is not well defined yet. Indeed, some researchers suggested that this taxon could be included in the L. tropica complex, whereas others considered it as a distinct phylogenetic complex. To try to solve this taxonomic issue we carried out a detailed study on the evolutionary history of L. killicki relative to L. tropica.

Methods: Thirty-five L. killicki and 25 L. tropica strains isolated from humans and originating from several countries were characterized using the MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) and the MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) approaches.

Results: The results of the genetic and phylogenetic analyses strongly support the hypothesis that L. killicki belongs to the L. tropica complex. Our data suggest that L. killicki emerged from a single founder event and that it evolved independently from L. tropica. However, they do not validate the hypothesis that L. killicki is a distinct complex. Therefore, we suggest naming this taxon L. killicki (synonymous L. tropica) until further epidemiological and phylogenetic studies justify the L. killicki denomination.

Conclusions: This study provides taxonomic and phylogenetic information on L. killicki and improves our knowledge on the evolutionary history of this taxon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0821-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4387592PMC
April 2015

Comments on Leishmania major in Gorilla Feces.

J Infect Dis 2015 Aug 3;212(3):505-6. Epub 2015 Mar 3.

National Reference Center for Leishmaniases, University Hospital Centre of Montpellier Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Faculty of Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv129DOI Listing
August 2015

Leishmania (Leishmania) martiniquensis n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), description of the parasite responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Martinique Island (French West Indies).

Parasite 2014 14;21:12. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Université Montpellier 1 et CHRU de Montpellier, Centre National de référence des leishmanioses, UMR « MIVEGEC » (CNRS 5290, IRD 224, UM1, UM2), Département de Parasitologie-Mycologie (Professeur Patrick Bastien), 39 avenue Charles Flahault, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

The parasite responsible for autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis in Martinique island (French West Indies) was first isolated in 1995; its taxonomical position was established only in 2002, but it remained unnamed. In the present paper, the authors name this parasite Leishmania (Leishmania) martiniquensis Desbois, Pratlong & Dedet n. sp. and describe the type strain of this taxon, including its biological characteristics, biochemical and molecular identification, and pathogenicity. This parasite, clearly distinct from all other Euleishmania, and placed at the base of the Leishmania phylogenetic tree, is included in the subgenus Leishmania.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2014011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3952653PMC
January 2015

Frequency of MDR1-related p-gp overexpression in Greek Leishmania isolates.

Parasitol Res 2014 Mar 7;113(3):1225-32. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Center of Anatomy, Institute II, Laboratory for Medical and Molecular Parasitology, Medical School, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany,

In this work, we investigated Greek Leishmania isolates (n = 70) for their individual MDR1-gene-related p-gp (belonging to the ABC-B subfamily of permeases) expression levels by means of flow cytometric analysis of Rhodamine 123 extrusion kinetics. Of all used isolates, 5.71% express this drug-extruding ABC-transporter at alarming levels and are distributed widely over the country. Some 33% of all examined isolates originated on the island of Crete though none of the strains showed vastly elevated p-gp extrusion activity, indicating a reasonable implementation of anti-leishmanial compounds in this part of the country. Compared to isolates obtained from canine tissue, human Leishmania isolates were superior both in size and in subcellular differentiation in flow cytometry. Furthermore, a specific t test confirmed verapamil hydrochloride to be a highly potent p-gp reversal agent with p < 0.0001. In a second test series, the loading of Leishmania with Rhodamine 123 was moreover reduced when occurring under influence of verapamil hydrochloride, a known p-gp reversal agent, indicating an ATP-dependant influx of the fluorescent dye and therewith the drug itself. In a final, third experiment series, it was shown that Sb(V) does not act upon the promastigote form of Leishmania.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-3761-8DOI Listing
March 2014

Will the introduction of Leishmania tropica MON-58, in the island of Crete, lead to the settlement and spread of this rare zymodeme?

Acta Trop 2014 Apr 24;132:125-30. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

Laboratory of Clinical Bacteriology, Parasitology, Zoonoses and Geographical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece. Electronic address:

The rare zymodeme, Leishmania tropica MON-58, was isolated from a young Afghan refugee with a facial cutaneous lesion who had come to live in Crete early 2008. The same zymodeme variant was isolated from a local dog that had never travelled outside the island, with symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis, which stayed in the area where the patient worked during the summer months. This is the first record of L. tropica in a host, other than human, in Greece and another example of introduction of a vector borne pathogen in a focus where local vector/s can sustain it, with the risk of initiation of new transmission cycle/s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.01.003DOI Listing
April 2014

Leishmaniases in Maghreb: an endemic neglected disease.

Acta Trop 2014 Apr 8;132:80-93. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

Centre National de Référence des Leishmania, UMR MIVEGEC (CNRS 5290-IRD 224-UM1 et UM2), Département de Parasitologie-Mycologie, CHRU de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 1, 39 avenue Charles FLAHAULT, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Maghreb is known to be one of the most endemic areas of leishmaniases where both visceral and cutaneous forms are reported. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is older and has a higher prevalence than visceral one (VL). It is caused by four taxa (Leishmania (L.) major, L. infantum, L. tropica and L. killicki) which are responsible for a large clinical spectrum of lesions. Most transmission cycles of these taxa are known and many phlebotomine sandflies vectors and reservoir hosts are identified. The zoonotic transmission is well established for L. major. However, for L. infantum and L. killicki it needs more investigations to be proven. Regarding L. tropica, studies suggest it to be of both zoonotic and anthroponotic types. The isoenzymatic characterization of these four taxa showed a large enzymatic polymorphism varying from two zymodemes for L. major to 10 zymodemes for L. tropica. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is widely distributed and covers all bioclimatic stages with the coexistence of more than one taxon in the same foci. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second form of leishmaniases in Maghreb. Only L. infantum is known to cause this disease. The transmission cycle of this parasite is zoonotic but still not well known. The isoenzymatic identification of L. infantum causing VL showed the presence of six zymodemes. Geographically, VL is distributed in all bioclimatic stages of Maghreb countries. Despite all the previous studies realized on leishmaniases in Maghreb, they are still considered as neglected diseases because of the rarity or the absence of efficient control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.12.018DOI Listing
April 2014

Genetic diversity and structure in Leishmania infantum populations from southeastern Europe revealed by microsatellite analysis.

Parasit Vectors 2013 Dec 5;6:342. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vasilissis Sofias Avenus, 11521, Athens, Greece.

Background: The dynamic re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in south Europe and the northward shift to Leishmania-free European countries are well-documented. However, the epidemiology of VL due to Leishmania infantum in southeastern (SE) Europe and the Balkans is inadequately examined. Herein, we aim to re-evaluate and compare the population structure of L. infantum in SE and southwestern (SW) Europe.

Methods: Leishmania strains collected from humans and canines in Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and Croatia, were characterized by the K26-PCR assay and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and MLM Types were analyzed by model- and distance- based algorithms to infer the population structure of 128 L. infantum strains.

Results: L. infantum MON-1 was found predominant in SE Europe, whilst 16.8% of strains were MON-98. Distinct genetic populations revealed clear differentiation between SE and SW European strains. Interestingly, Cypriot canine isolates were genetically isolated and formed a monophyletic group, suggesting the constitution of a clonal MON-1 population circulating among dogs. In contrast, two highly heterogeneous populations enclosed all MON-1 and MON-98 strains from the other SE European countries. Structure sub-clustering, phylogenetic and Splitstree analysis also revealed two distinct Croatian subpopulations. A mosaic of evolutionary effects resulted in consecutive sub-structuring, which indicated substantial differentiation and gene flow among strains of both zymodemes.

Conclusions: This is the first population genetic study of L. infantum in SE Europe and the Balkans. Our findings demonstrate the differentiation between SE and SW European strains; revealing the partition of Croatian strains between these populations and the genetic isolation of Cypriot strains. This mirrors the geographic position of Croatia located in central Europe and the natural isolation of the island of Cyprus. We have analysed the largest number of MON-98 strains so far. Our results indicate extensive gene flow, recombination and no differentiation between MON-1 and MON-98 zymodemes. No correlation either to host specificity or place and year of strain isolation was identified. Our findings may be associated with intensive host migration and common eco-epidemiological characteristics in these countries and give valuable insight into the dynamics of VL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4029556PMC
December 2013

[Epidemiology of autochthonous leishmaniases in France].

Presse Med 2013 Nov 22;42(11):1469-81. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Université Montpellier-1, CHRU de Montpellier, centre national de référence des leishmanioses, département de parasitologie-mycologie, UMR « MIVEGEC » (CNRS 5290, IRD 224, UM1, UM2), 39, avenue Charles-Flahault, 34295 Montpellier cedex, France. Electronic address:

Leishmania infantum is the only species occurring in metropolitan France; located in the Mediterranean part of the country, it is responsible for a highly enzootic canine disease, while the human endemicity is low, with about 23 cases yearly reported to the National Reference Centre of Leishmaniases, mainly visceral forms. In French Guyana, five Leishmania species occur in the Amazonian forest, of which L. guyanensis is the predominant species, and L. braziliensis is responsible for the most critical forms. The most frequent clinical feature is cutaneous leishmaniasis, with a mean annual incidence reaching 2 p. 1000, with some inter-annual fluctuations. In Martinique Island, recent studies have confirmed the presence of an ancestral Leishmania species, responsible for small cutaneous lesions, of mild evolution; the life cycle of this species remains unknown. In Guadeloupe Island, a few autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis cases have been reported, needing a prospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2013.03.010DOI Listing
November 2013

A newly emerged cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in northern Israel and two new reservoir hosts of Leishmania major.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 21;7(2):e2058. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada, The Kuvin Centre for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

In 2006/7, 18 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were reported for the first time from Sde Eliyahu (pop. 650), a village in the Beit She'an valley of Israel. Between 2007-2011, a further 88 CL cases were diagnosed bringing the total to 106 (16.3% of the population of Sde Eliyahu). The majority of cases resided in the south-western part of the village along the perimeter fence. The causative parasite was identified as Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor, 1914 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), 1786 (Diptera: Psychodidae) was found to be the most abundant phlebotomine species comprising 97% of the sand flies trapped inside the village, and an average of 7.9% of the females were positive for Leishmania ITS1 DNA. Parasite isolates from CL cases and a sand fly were characterized using several methods and shown to be L. major. During a comprehensive survey of rodents 164 Levant voles Microtus guentheri Danford & Alston, 1880 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) were captured in alfalfa fields bordering the village. Of these 27 (16.5%) tested positive for Leishmania ITS1 DNA and shown to be L. major by reverse line blotting. A very high percentage (58.3%-21/36) of Tristram's jirds Meriones tristrami Thomas, 1892 (Rodentia: Muridae), found further away from the village also tested positive for ITS1 by PCR. Isolates of L. major were successfully cultured from the ear of a wild jird found positive by ITS1 PCR. Although none of the wild PCR-positive voles exhibited external pathology, laboratory-reared voles that were infected by intradermal L. major inoculation, developed patent lesions and sand flies became infected by feeding on the ears of these laboratory-infected voles. This is the first report implicating M. guentheri and M. tristrami as reservoirs of Leishmania. The widespread co-distribution of M. guentheri and P. papatasi, suggests a significant threat from the spread of CL caused by L. major in the Middle East, central Asia and southern Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3578753PMC
July 2013

[Edmond and Etienne Sergent. The epic of the Pasteur Institute of Algeria].

Rev Prat 2012 Sep;62(7):1029-33

Laboratoire de parasitologie, CHRU de Montpellier, université Montpellier-1, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

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September 2012

Geographical distribution and epidemiological features of Old World Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani foci, based on the isoenzyme analysis of 2277 strains.

Parasitology 2013 Apr 12;140(4):423-34. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

Université Montpellier 1, Centre National de référence des leishmanioses, Département de Parasitologie-Mycologie, CHRU de Montpellier, 39, Avenue Charles Flahault, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

A series of 2277 Leishmania strains from Old World visceral leishmaniasis foci, isolated between 1973 and 2008, were studied by isoenzyme analysis. The strains were obtained from humans, domestic and wild carnivores, rodents and phlebotomine sandflies, and came from 36 countries. In all, 60 different zymodemes were identified and clustered by a phenetic analysis into 3 different groups corresponding to the typically visceralizing species L. donovani (20 zymodemes, 169 strains), L. archibaldi (3 zymodemes, 46 strains) and L. infantum (37 zymodemes, 2,062 strains). The taxonomic position of these isoenzymatic groups is discussed in view of contradictory results obtained from recent molecular studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182012001825DOI Listing
April 2013

Genetic, serological and biochemical characterization of Leishmania tropica from foci in northern Palestine and discovery of zymodeme MON-307.

Parasit Vectors 2012 Jun 18;5:121. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Al-Quds Nutrition and Health Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Quds University, Abu-Deis, P.O. Box 20760, West Bank, Palestine.

Background: Many cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) have been recorded in the Jenin District based on their clinical appearance. Here, their parasites have been characterized in depth.

Methods: Leishmanial parasites isolated from 12 human cases of CL from the Jenin District were cultured as promastigotes, whose DNA was extracted. The ITS1 sequence and the 7SL RNA gene were analysed as was the kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) sequence. Excreted factor (EF) serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) were also applied.

Results: This extensive characterization identified the strains as Leishmania tropica of two very distinct sub-types that parallel the two sub-groups discerned by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) done previously. A high degree of congruity was displayed among the results generated by the different analytical methods that had examined various cellular components and exposed intra-specific heterogeneity among the 12 strains.Three of the ten strains subjected to MLEE constituted a new zymodeme, zymodeme MON-307, and seven belonged to the known zymodeme MON-137. Ten of the 15 enzymes in the profile of zymodeme MON-307 displayed different electrophoretic mobilities compared with the enzyme profile of the zymodeme MON-137. The closest profile to that of zymodeme MON-307 was that of the zymodeme MON-76 known from Syria.Strains of the zymodeme MON-307 were EF sub-serotype A2 and those of the zymodeme MON-137 were either A9 or A9B4. The sub-serotype B4 component appears, so far, to be unique to some strains of L. tropica of zymodeme MON-137. Strains of the zymodeme MON-137 displayed a distinctive fragment of 417 bp that was absent in those of zymodeme MON-307 when their kDNA was digested with the endonuclease RsaI. kDNA-RFLP after digestion with the endonuclease MboI facilitated a further level of differentiation that partially coincided with the geographical distribution of the human cases from which the strains came.

Conclusions: The Palestinian strains that were assigned to different genetic groups differed in their MLEE profiles and their EF types. A new zymodeme, zymodeme MON-307 was discovered that seems to be unique to the northern part of the Palestinian West Bank. What seemed to be a straight forward classical situation of L. tropica causing anthroponotic CL in the Jenin District might be a more complex situation, owing to the presence of two separate sub-types of L. tropica that, possibly, indicates two separate transmission cycles involving two separate types of phlebotomine sand fly vector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3432594PMC
June 2012

Vector-borne diseases--constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum.

Parasit Vectors 2012 Mar 20;5:55. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Rehovot, Israel.

The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs).The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population.Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians.In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France) in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world.As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-55DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3359183PMC
March 2012

Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) of strains from Turkey and Cyprus reveals a novel monophyletic L. donovani sensu lato group.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012 14;6(2):e1507. Epub 2012 Feb 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece.

Background: New foci of human CL caused by strains of the Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) complex have been recently described in Cyprus and the Çukurova region in Turkey (L. infantum) situated 150 km north of Cyprus. Cypriot strains were typed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) using the Montpellier (MON) system as L. donovani zymodeme MON-37. However, multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) has shown that this zymodeme is paraphyletic; composed of distantly related genetic subgroups of different geographical origin. Consequently the origin of the Cypriot strains remained enigmatic.

Methodology/principal Findings: The Cypriot strains were compared with a set of Turkish isolates obtained from a CL patient and sand fly vectors in south-east Turkey (Çukurova region; CUK strains) and from a VL patient in the south-west (Kuşadasi; EP59 strain). These Turkish strains were initially analyzed using the K26-PCR assay that discriminates MON-1 strains by their amplicon size. In line with previous DNA-based data, the strains were inferred to the L. donovani complex and characterized as non MON-1. For these strains MLEE typing revealed two novel zymodemes; L. donovani MON-309 (CUK strains) and MON-308 (EP59). A population genetic analysis of the Turkish isolates was performed using 14 hyper-variable microsatellite loci. The genotypic profiles of 68 previously analyzed L. donovani complex strains from major endemic regions were included for comparison. Population structures were inferred by combination of bayesian model-based and distance-based approaches. MLMT placed the Turkish and Cypriot strains in a subclade of a newly discovered, genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group, suggesting that the Cypriot strains may originate from Turkey.

Conclusion: The discovery of a genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group in the south-eastern Mediterranean stresses the importance of species genetic characterization towards better understanding, monitoring and controlling the spread of leishmaniasis in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279343PMC
June 2012

Twenty-four new human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania killicki in Metlaoui, southwestern Tunisia: probable role of Phlebotomus sergenti in the transmission.

Acta Trop 2012 Jun 24;122(3):276-83. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie (99UR/08-05), Département de biologie clinique, Tunisia.

Metlaoui district in the South-west of Tunisia is a classical focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania major. Since 2005, a single case of CL due to L. killicki has been reported. We report twenty four human cases due to this parasite, affecting men and women from 2 to 70 years old. Leishmania killicki have been typed using molecular techniques: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and gene sequencing. Four strains from patients have been successfully cultured on NNN medium and isoenzymatically typed as L. killicki MON-8. Our results strongly suggests that Metlaoui is a new L. killicki focus with a stable transmission cycle. Sand flies fauna in the same focus was also studied. 1400 Phlebotomine sand flies (785 males/615 females) have been caught during an entomological survey. Leishmania major DNA has been found in one P. papatasi female, the most abundant species, whereas L. killicki DNA has been found in one Phlebotomus sergenti female emphasizing the probable role of this species as vector of this zoonotic parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2012.01.014DOI Listing
June 2012

Re-emergence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Greek Island of Crete.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2012 Mar 4;12(3):214-22. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Laboratory of Clinical Bacteriology, Parasitology, Zoonoses, and Geographical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece.

Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. Three species of Leishmania are found in the Mediterranean basin: Leishmania infantum, the most common species responsible for both visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL); Leishmania major, found in North Africa and Middle East causing CL; Leishmania tropica with a limited presence in Europe, causing CL. During the last 25 years, Crete has become an endemic zone for L. infantum with a high number of infected dogs and an increasing number of human cases every year; in the last 4 years, the incidence has reached an average of seven VL patients per year in a population of 600,000. At the same time, CL has re-emerged in Crete due to L. tropica, with an average of three CL cases per year in the last 4 years. Isolates were typed as L. infantum MON-1 and MON-98 and L. tropica MON-300, a zymodeme not reported before. Both VL and CL have spread to the whole of the island during the last 25 years, primarily in semi-urban and urban areas with altitudes of 0-50 m. The prevailing Phlebotomus species were Phlebotomus neglectus (proven vector of L. infantum) and Phlebotomus similis (suspected vector of L. tropica).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3300062PMC
March 2012

Predicting the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in western Europe based on environmental variables.

Parasitology 2011 Dec 14;138(14):1878-91. Epub 2011 Sep 14.

Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

The domestic dog is the reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis endemic in Mediterranean Europe. Targeted control requires predictive risk maps of canine leishmaniasis (CanL), which are now explored. We databased 2187 published and unpublished surveys of CanL in southern Europe. A total of 947 western surveys met inclusion criteria for analysis, including serological identification of infection (504, 369 dogs tested 1971-2006). Seroprevalence was 23 2% overall (median 10%). Logistic regression models within a GIS framework identified the main environmental predictors of CanL seroprevalence in Portugal, Spain, France and Italy, or in France alone. A 10-fold cross-validation approach determined model capacity to predict point-values of seroprevalence and the correct seroprevalence class (<5%, 5-20%, >20%). Both the four-country and France-only models performed reasonably well for predicting correctly the <5% and >20% seroprevalence classes (AUC >0 70). However, the France-only model performed much better for France than the four-country model. The four-country model adequately predicted regions of CanL emergence in northern Italy (<5% seroprevalence). Both models poorly predicted intermediate point seroprevalences (5-20%) within regional foci, because surveys were biased towards known rural foci and Mediterranean bioclimates. Our recommendations for standardizing surveys would permit higher-resolution risk mapping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003118201100148XDOI Listing
December 2011

First detection of Leishmania killicki (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in Ctenodactylus gundi (Rodentia, Ctenodactylidae), a possible reservoir of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

Parasit Vectors 2011 Aug 11;4:159. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie (99UR/08-05), Département de biologie clinique, Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Tunisia.

Background: Leishmania killicki was originally described in 1980 in southeast Tunisia. It was also recently reported in Lybia and Algeria. Nevertheless, neither vector nor reservoirs of this parasite are known. The identification of the vector and the animal reservoir host of L. killicki is critical for the establishment of an efficient control strategy.

Findings: blood, popliteal lymph node, spleen, bone marrow, liver and skin were collected from 50 rodents in 2009 in south western Tunisia. Samples were smeared onto glass slides, cultured on NNN medium and tested by polymerase chain reaction for Leishmania detection. Parasites were detected by PCR from 10 Psammomys obesus and from two Ctenodactylus gundi. Parasite identification was performed simultaneously by internal transcribed spacer 1 PCR-RFLP and by PCR sequencing. Both Leishmania major and Leishmania killicki were identified from infected Psammomys and Ctenodactylus gundi respectively.

Conclusion: This is the first report of Leishmania killicki identified from Ctenodactylus gundi in Tunisia. This result supports the assumption that C. gundi is a potential reservoir for Leishmania killicki.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3162927PMC
August 2011

Mucosal Leishmania infantum leishmaniasis: specific pattern in a multicentre survey and historical cases.

J Infect 2011 Jul 20;63(1):76-82. Epub 2011 May 20.

Laboratoire de Parasitologie et Mycologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), 13385 Marseille, France.

Objective: Leishmania infantum mucosally restricted leishmaniasis was rarely reported, so that diagnostic and treatment strategies remain debated. A long-term multicentric survey appeared thereby necessary.

Methods: Cases were prospectively collected over 12 years in 3 academic hospitals of Southern France. Predisposing factors, clinical findings, diagnostic procedures, treatment and outcome were compared to medical literature.

Results: Ten new cases and 40 historical reports were collected. Respectively 10/10 and 35/40 patients were adult males. Immunodeficiency was frequent (5/10 and 18/40). No previous cutaneous lesion was reported. Leishmaniasis affected mostly larynx (5/10 and 19/40), but also mouth (2/10 and 19/40) and nose (3/10 and 5/40). Lesions were highly polymorph. Mucosa histological examination provided respectively 1/10 and 2/40 false negative results, contrary to serum immunoblotting and PCR on mucosal biopsy. Although local response was always satisfactory even using topical treatment, subsequent visceral spreading was observed in 2/10 and 1/40 cases.

Conclusion: L. infantum mucosally restricted leishmaniasis exhibits a specific pattern, marked by tropism for adult males, high clinical and histological polymorphism. Immunoblot screening and PCR confirmation of suspected lesions are necessary because of direct examination occasional false negative results. The risk of visceral spreading sustains systemic therapy.

Summary: Leishmania infantum mucosal leishmaniasis mostly affects adult males, half of them immunodeficient. Clinical and histological polymorphism makes the diagnosis difficult, stressing the need for immunoblot screening and mucosa PCR analysis of suspected cases. Possible visceralization sustains systemic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2011.03.012DOI Listing
July 2011

[Therapy of leishmaniasis in France: consensus on proposed guidelines].

Presse Med 2011 Feb 23;40(2):173-84. Epub 2010 Nov 23.

Université Paris 6, UMR945 47, hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, service de parasitologie-mycologie, boulevard de l'hôpital, 75651 Paris cedex 13, France.

Because it relies on potentially toxic, difficult-to-handle, or expensive compounds the therapy of leishmaniasis is still a complex issue in 2010, especially for visceral leishmaniasis in immuno-suppressed subjects, or in patients with cutaneous and mucosal involvement. This induces a wide diversity of observed therapeutic practices, some being sub-optimal. The Société de Pathologie Exotique organised a meeting dedicated to the therapy of leishmaniasis in France that led to the first consensus on therapeutic guidelines. Liposomal amphotericin B is the first-line option for visceral leishmaniasis both in immunocompetent, and immunosuppressed patients (cumulated doses of 20 mg/kg and 30-40 mg/kg, respectively). Secondary prophylaxis with either liposomal amphotericin B, pentamidine or meglumine antimoniate is proposed to patients with heavy immunosuppression until immunity has been restored for at least 6 months. While the efficacy of new topical formulations of paromomycin is being tested, patients with Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis may be left untreated, or be administered a combination of superficial cryotherapy plus intralesional antimony, or even--in complex situations--receive systemic therapy. The efficacy of a short course of pentamidine (L. guyanensis/L. panamensis) and a 20-day schedule of meglumine antimoniate (L. braziliensis) is solidly established. However, in well-defined situations, local therapy of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is now considered acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2010.09.023DOI Listing
February 2011

Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France.

Parasit Vectors 2010 Apr 8;3:31. Epub 2010 Apr 8.

Université Montpellier 1, Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Centre National de Référence des Leishmania, CHU de Montpellier and UMR 2724 GEMI (IRD-CNRS-UM1), Montpellier, France.

Background: Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i) map the reported cases in France, and ii) produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model).

Results: Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central), at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9 degrees C average), 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France.

Conclusion: Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-3-31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2857865PMC
April 2010

Leishmaniases and the Cyprus paradox.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2010 Mar;82(3):441-8

Veterinary Services of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

In Cyprus, leishmaniasis has been considered exclusively a veterinary problem. It was prevalent before 1945, and until its recent reemergence, it was nearly eradicated by 1996 as a consequence of the destruction of reservoir hosts and vectors. A survey carried out to provide an unbiased estimate of current transmission rates in dogs and humans showed a 9-fold increase in dog seroprevalence (reaching 14.9%) compared with 10 years ago. However, no human cases caused by Leishmania infantum were detected, although L. donovani cases were reported recently. The 62 strains isolated from dogs were typed as L. infantum MON-1 (98.4%), which is the predominating zymodeme in the Mediterranean region, and MON-98 (1.6%). The Phlebotomus species P. tobbi (vector of L. infantum in Cyprus), P. galilaeus, and P. papatasi were the predominant species captured. Two transmission cycles seem to run in parallel in Cyprus: in dogs with L. infantum and in humans with L. donovani.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829906PMC
March 2010

Geographical distribution and epidemiological features of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis foci, based on the isoenzyme analysis of 1048 strains.

Trop Med Int Health 2009 Sep 14;14(9):1071-85. Epub 2009 Jul 14.

Université Montpellier 1, Centre National de Référence des Leishmania, Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, CHU de Montpellier, France.

A series of 1048 Leishmania strains from Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis foci, isolated between 1981 and 2005, were studied by isoenzyme analysis. The strains were obtained from humans, rodents, dogs and sandflies from 33 countries. The four typically dermotropic species, Leishmania major, L. tropica, L. aethiopica and L. killicki, were found. The viscerotropic species L. donovani and L. infantum, which can occasionally be responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis, are not considered in this paper. Leishmania major was the least polymorphic species (12 zymodemes, 638 strains). Leishmania tropica was characterized by a complex polymorphism varying according to focus (35 zymodemes, 329 strains). Leishmania aethiopica, a species restricted to East Africa, showed a high polymorphism, in spite of a limited number of strains (23 zymodemes, 40 strains). Leishmania killicki, mainly restricted to Tunisia had a single zymodeme for 39 strains. Recently a parasite close to L. killicki (one zymodeme, two strains) was isolated in Algeria, which lead us to revise the taxonomic status of this taxon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02336.xDOI Listing
September 2009

Description of a dermatropic Leishmania close to L. killicki (Rioux, Lanotte & Pratlong 1986) in Algeria.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2009 Jul 22;103(7):716-20. Epub 2009 May 22.

Service d'Eco-Epidémiologie Parasitaire, Centre National de Référence des Leishmania, Institut Pasteur d'Algérie, Annexe de Sidi Fredj, Dely Ibrahim, 16000 Alger, Algeria.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Algeria where two forms have been previously described, the sporadic form caused by Leishmania infantum in the north and the cutaneous form caused by L. major in central and southern parts of the country. During 2005, a CL outbreak occurred in the province of Ghardaïa, located in the north of Sahara, where 2040 cases were recorded, of which several were from urban areas. Six strains isolated from patients with active lesions were identified by isoenzyme electrophoresis and by molecular typing using systematic sequencing of a large subunit of the RNA polymerase. Four of the strains belonged to a new zymodeme, MON-301, close to L. killicki MON-8. The two other isolates were identified as L. major zymodeme MON-25. The new dermatropic Leishmania close to L. killicki is reported for the first time in Algeria and coexists sympatrically with L. major MON-25 in the region of Ghardaïa where they occur in their usual vectors of Phlebotomus papatasi (L. major) and P. sergenti (L. tropica). This new parasite demonstrates the need for further investigations to elucidate the life cycle and transmission of the emergent disease and to evaluate its phylogenetic position in the taxonomy of Leishmania.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.04.013DOI Listing
July 2009
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