Publications by authors named "Jean-Paul R Herrman"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Two-Year Clinical Outcomes of the REVELATION Study: Sustained Safety and Feasibility of Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon Angioplasty Versus Drug-Eluting Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Interventional Cardiology, OLVG Hospital, Oosterpark 9, 1091 AC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The randomized REVELATION (REVascularization With PaclitaxEL-Coated Balloon Angioplasty Versus Drug-Eluting Stenting in Acute Myocardial InfarcTION) trial showed that in the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a drug-coated balloon (DCB) strategy was non-inferior to a drug-eluting stent (DES) strategy in terms of fractional flow reserve assessed at 9 months. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome of this treatment strategy.

Methods: Between October 2014 and November 2017, a total of 120 patients with a non-severely calcified culprit lesion in a native coronary artery and a residual stenosis of <50% after predilation were randomized to treatment with DCB or DES. Primary clinical endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events, defined as death, recurrent myocardial infarction, or target-lesion revascularization, the occurrence of definite ST, and non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) major bleeding.

Results: Complete clinical follow-up at 2 years was available for 109 patients (91%). A major adverse cardiac event occurred in 3 patients (5.4%) in the DCB group and 1 patient (1.9%) in the DES group (hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-27.53; P=.34). Between 9 months and 2 years, only 1 additional event occurred (target-lesion revascularization in a patient randomized to DCB).

Conclusion: In this randomized study of DCB vs DES in selected patients presenting with STEMI, 2-year clinical outcome was excellent and comparable between the DCB and DES groups.
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November 2021

Cost Effectiveness of a CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Strategy in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results from the POPular Genetics Trial.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Unit of Global Health, Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The POPular Genetics trial demonstrated that a CYP2C19 genotype-guided P2Y inhibitor strategy reduced bleeding rates compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel without increasing thrombotic event rates after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Objective: In this analysis, we aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a genotype-guided strategy compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel.

Methods: A 1-year decision tree based on the POPular Genetics trial in combination with a lifelong Markov model was developed to compare costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) between a genotype-guided and a standard P2Y inhibitor strategy in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI. The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a Dutch healthcare system perspective. Within-trial survival and utility data were combined with lifetime projections to evaluate lifetime cost effectiveness for a cohort of 1000 patients. Costs and utilities were discounted at 4 and 1.5%, respectively, according to Dutch guidelines for health economic studies. Besides deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, several scenario analyses were also conducted (different time horizons, different discount rates, equal prices for P2Y inhibitors, and equal distribution of thrombotic events between the two strategies).

Results: Base-case analysis with a hypothetical cohort of 1000 subjects demonstrated 8.98 QALYs gained and €725,550.69 in cost savings for the genotype-guided strategy (dominant). The deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the model and the cost-effectiveness results. In scenario analyses, the genotype-guided strategy remained dominant.

Conclusion: In patients undergoing primary PCI, a CYP2C19 genotype-guided strategy compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel resulted in QALYs gained and cost savings.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01761786, Netherlands trial register number: NL2872.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-021-00496-4DOI Listing
September 2021

One-year mortality in NSTEMI patients is unaffected by timing of PCI within the first week of admission: Results of a real-world cohort analysis.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 11 15;98(5):E661-E667. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Heart Center, OLVG Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Objectives: We aimed to explore the impact of time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (T2P) on 1-year mortality in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients.

Background: The current guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for NSTEMI patients. However, impact of an early invasive strategy on mortality is a matter of debate. For that reason, real world data are of great value to determine the optimal treatment window.

Methods: This retrospective single center cohort study was performed in a high-volume PCI center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Intermediate- and high-risk NSTEMI patients undergoing PCI were included. The main discriminant was timing of PCI after admission (T2P), stratified according to different time windows (<24 h, 24-72 h, 72 h-7 days or >7 days). We analyzed 1-year mortality and the time distribution of overall survival.

Results: In total, 848 patients treated between January 1, 2016 and January 1, 2018 were included in the analysis. T2P was <24 h in 145 patients, 24-72 h in 192 patients, 72 h-7 days in 275 patients, and >7 days in 236 patients. The mean GRACE-risk score was 127.1 (SD 28.7), 130.0 (33.1), 133.8 (32.1), and 148.7 (34.6) respectively, p = <0.001. After adjusting for confounders, 1-year mortality in patients with T2P <24 h did not significantly differ when compared with T2P 24-72 h (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.33-3.51) and T2P 72 h-7 days (OR 1.72; 95% CI = 0.57-5.21) but was significantly higher in T2P >7 days (OR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.06-9.68).

Conclusions: In an unselected cohort of patients with NSTEMI, treatment by PCI <24 h did not lead to improved survival as compared to aT2P <7 days strategy. Delay in PCI >7 days after admission resulted in worse outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29873DOI Listing
November 2021

Clopidogrel in noncarriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles versus ticagrelor in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome: A pre-specified sub analysis from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials CYP2C19 alleles in elderly patients.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 20;334:10-17. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands; Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles derive less benefit from clopidogrel treatment. Despite this, in elderly patients, clopidogrel might be preferred over more potent P2Y inhibitors due to a lower bleeding risk. Whether CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet treatment in the elderly could be of benefit has not been studied specifically.

Methods: Patients aged 70 years and older with known CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotype were identified from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials. Noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles treated with clopidogrel were compared to patients, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, treated with ticagrelor and to clopidogrel treated carriers of loss-of-function alleles. We assessed net clinical benefit (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke and Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major bleeding), atherothrombotic outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and bleeding outcomes (PLATO major and minor bleeding).

Results: A total of 991 patients were assessed. There was no significant difference in net clinical benefit (17.2% vs. 15.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.44), atherothrombotic outcomes (9.7% vs. 9.2%, adjHR 1.00, 95%CI 0.66-1.50), and bleeding outcomes (17.7% vs. 19.8%, adjHR 0.80, 95%CI 0.62-1.12) between clopidogrel in noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles and ticagrelor respectively.

Conclusion: In ACS patients aged 70 years and older, there was no significant difference in net clinical benefit and atherothrombotic outcomes between noncarriers of a loss-of-function allele treated with clopidogrel and patients treated with ticagrelor. The bleeding rate was numerically; though not statistically significant, lower in patients using clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.04.029DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of different anticoagulation management strategies on outcomes in atrial fibrillation: Dutch and Belgian results from the GARFIELD-AF registry.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 12 25;18(12):3280-3288. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: The uptake rate of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) for the treatment of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) was far lower in the Netherlands (NL) compared to Belgium (BE). Also, patients on VKA in NL were treated with a higher target international normalized ratio (INR) range of 2.5 to 3.5.

Objectives: To explore the effect of these differences on thromboembolism (TE) and bleeding.

Methods: Data from the GARFIELD-AF registry was used. Patients with new-onset AF and ≥1 investigator-determined risk factor for stroke were included between 2010 and 2016. Event rates from 2 years of follow-up were used.

Results: In NL and BE, 1186 and 1705 patients were included, respectively. Female sex (42.3% vs 42.2%), mean age (70.7 vs 71.3 years), CHA DS -VASc (3.1 vs 3.1), and HAS-BLED score (1.4 vs 1.5) were comparable between NL and BE. At diagnosis in NL vs BE, 72.1% vs 14.6% received vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and 17.8% vs 65.5% NOACs, varying greatly across cohorts. Mean INR was 2.9 (±1.0) and 2.4 (±1.0) in NL and BE, respectively. Event rates per 100 patient-years in NL and BE, respectively, of all-cause mortality (3.38 vs 3.90; hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15), ischemic stroke/TE (0.82 vs 0.72; HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.62-2.11), and major bleeding (2.06 vs 1.54; HR 1.33, 95% CI 0.89-1.99) did not differ significantly.

Conclusions: In GARFIELD-AF, despite similar characteristics, patients on anticoagulants were treated differently in NL and BE. Although the rate of major bleeding was 33% higher in NL, variations in bleeding, mortality, and TE rates were not statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756514PMC
December 2020

A Genotype-Guided Strategy for Oral P2Y Inhibitors in Primary PCI.

N Engl J Med 2019 10 3;381(17):1621-1631. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (D.M.F.C., G.J.A.V., T.O.B., P.W.A.J., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H., A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Maastricht, Maastricht (A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen (P.H., J.M.B.), the Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (M.J.P.), and the Unit of Global Health, Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (M.J.P., C.B.), Groningen, the Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem (R.M.T.J.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs (F.W.A.), and the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Division of Laboratories, Pharmacy, and Biomedical Genetics (V.H.M.D.), University Medical Center Utrecht, and the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (A.B.), Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Department of Cardiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (A.M.), the Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam (J.-P.R.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda (W.J.M.D.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy (E.B., C.M.); the Cardiovascular Research Center, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Hospital, Aalst (E.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (W.J.M.D.) - both in Belgium; and the Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Faculty of Population Health Sciences, and Health Data Research UK and Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London (F.W.A.).

Background: It is unknown whether patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) benefit from genotype-guided selection of oral P2Y inhibitors.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded trial in which patients undergoing primary PCI with stent implantation were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a P2Y inhibitor on the basis of early genetic testing (genotype-guided group) or standard treatment with either ticagrelor or prasugrel (standard-treatment group) for 12 months. In the genotype-guided group, carriers of *2 or *3 loss-of-function alleles received ticagrelor or prasugrel, and noncarriers received clopidogrel. The two primary outcomes were net adverse clinical events - defined as death from any cause, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, stroke, or major bleeding defined according to Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) criteria - at 12 months (primary combined outcome; tested for noninferiority, with a noninferiority margin of 2 percentage points for the absolute difference) and PLATO major or minor bleeding at 12 months (primary bleeding outcome).

Results: For the primary analysis, 2488 patients were included: 1242 in the genotype-guided group and 1246 in the standard-treatment group. The primary combined outcome occurred in 63 patients (5.1%) in the genotype-guided group and in 73 patients (5.9%) in the standard-treatment group (absolute difference, -0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.0 to 0.7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The primary bleeding outcome occurred in 122 patients (9.8%) in the genotype-guided group and in 156 patients (12.5%) in the standard-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.04).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing primary PCI, a genotype-guided strategy for selection of oral P2Y inhibitor therapy was noninferior to standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel at 12 months with respect to thrombotic events and resulted in a lower incidence of bleeding. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular Genetics ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01761786; Netherlands Trial Register number, NL2872.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1907096DOI Listing
October 2019

Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon Angioplasty Versus Drug-Eluting Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction: The REVELATION Randomized Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2019 09 21;12(17):1691-1699. Epub 2019 May 21.

Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to assess the efficacy and safety of a drug-coated balloon (DCB) strategy versus drug-eluting stent (DES) in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Background: In primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI, stenting has proved to be beneficial with regard to repeat revascularization, but not recurrent myocardial infarction or death, compared with balloon angioplasty alone. A strategy of DCB angioplasty without stenting might abolish the potential disadvantages of stent implantation while reducing the probability of restenosis observed in plain old balloon angioplasty.

Methods: In the prospective, randomized, single-center REVELATION trial, we compared DCB with DES in patients presenting with STEMI. Patients with a new, nonseverely calcified culprit lesion in a native coronary artery and a residual stenosis of <50% after pre-dilatation were randomized to treatment with a DCB or DES. The primary endpoint was fractional flow reserve at 9 months, allowing for a functional measurement of the infarct-related lesion.

Results: A total of 120 patients were included. At 9 months after enrolment, the mean fractional flow reserve value was 0.92 ± 0.05 in the DCB group (n = 35) and 0.91 ± 0.06 in the DES group (n = 38) (p = 0.27). One abrupt vessel closure requiring treatment occurred after treatment with DCB. Up to 9-months follow-up, 2 patients required nonurgent target lesion revascularization (1 in each group).

Conclusions: In the setting of STEMI, the DCB strategy was noninferior to DES in terms of fractional flow reserve assessed at 9 months. Furthermore, it seemed to be a safe and feasible strategy. (Revascularization With Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon Angioplasty Versus Drug-Eluting Stenting in Acute Myocardial Infarction [REVELATION]; NCT02219802).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.04.016DOI Listing
September 2019

Effect of the BET Protein Inhibitor, RVX-208, on Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: Results of the Phase 2b, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, ASSURE Trial.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2016 Feb;16(1):55-65

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and Cleveland Clinic Coordinating Center for Clinical Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins regulate transcription of lipoprotein and inflammatory factors implicated in atherosclerosis. The impact of BET inhibition on atherosclerosis progression is unknown.

Methods: ASSURE was a double-blind, randomized, multicenter trial in which 323 patients with angiographic coronary disease and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were randomized in a 3:1 fashion to treatment with the BET protein inhibitor RVX-208 200 mg or placebo for 26 weeks. Plaque progression was measured with serial intravascular ultrasound imaging. Lipid levels, safety, and tolerability were also assessed.

Results: During treatment, apolipoprotein (apo)A-I increased by 10.6% with placebo (P < 0.001 compared with baseline) and 12.8% with RVX-208 (P < 0.001 compared with baseline), between groups P = 0.18. HDL-C increased by 9.1% with placebo (P < 0.001 compared with baseline) and 11.1% with RVX-208 (P < 0.001 compared with baseline), between groups P = 0.24. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased by 17.9% with placebo (P < 0.001 compared with baseline) and 15.8% with RVX-208 (P < 0.001 compared with baseline), between groups P = 0.55. The primary endpoint, the change in percent atheroma volume, decreased 0.30% in placebo-treated patients (P = 0.23 compared with baseline) and 0.40% in the RVX-208 group (P = 0.08 compared with baseline), between groups P = 0.81. Total atheroma volume decreased 3.8 mm(3) in the placebo group (P = 0.01 compared with baseline) and 4.2 mm(3) in the RVX-208 group (P < 0.001 compared with baseline), P = 0.86 between groups. A greater incidence of elevated liver enzymes was observed in RVX-208-treated patients (7.1 vs. 0%, P = 0.009).

Conclusion: Administration of the BET protein inhibitor RVX-208 showed no greater increase in apoA-I or HDL-C or incremental regression of atherosclerosis than administration of placebo.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier-NCT01067820.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-015-0146-zDOI Listing
February 2016

REVascularization with paclitaxEL-coated balloon angioplasty versus drug-eluting stenting in acute myocardial infarcTION-A randomized controlled trial: Rationale and design of the REVELATION trial.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2016 Jun 15;87(7):1213-21. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aim: In primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), stenting has proved to reduce the need for repeat revascularization compared with balloon angioplasty alone. The incidence of cardiac death or recurrent myocardial infarction, though, is not reduced by stenting. This is in part attributable to stent-related complications like stent thrombosis which may occur even years after implantation. A strategy of drug coated balloon (DCB) angioplasty without stenting would abolish the potential disadvantages of stent implantation while reducing the probability of restenosis observed in plain old balloon angioplasty. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a DCB only strategy versus drug-eluting stents (DES) in PPCI for STEMI.

Study Design: The REVELATION trial is a prospective, single center, randomized study, in which 120 patients presenting with STEMI will be allocated to treatment with a DCB versus DES. Appertaining to the established prognostic value of fractional flow reserve (FFR) rather than angiographic lesion severity, the functional assessment of the infarct-related lesion by FFR at 9 months after initial treatment is the primary end point. Assuming an FFR value of 0.90 after stenting and an increased risk of adverse events if post-PCI FFR <0.85, we decided to accept an FFR value of ≥0.85 after DCB only at follow-up as noninferiority margin. Secondary end points include major adverse cardiac events up to 5-year follow-up.

Conclusion: Our trial will address the efficacy and safety of DCB angioplasty versus DES in the setting of PPCI for STEMI. The REVELATION trial will introduce the recognized prognostic significance of physiologic assessment of the infarct-related lesion by FFR at 9 months follow-up as primary end point. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.26241DOI Listing
June 2016

Safety and feasibility of a PAclitaxel-eluting balloon angioplasty in Primary Percutaneous coronary intervention in Amsterdam (PAPPA): one-year clinical outcome of a pilot study.

EuroIntervention 2014 Sep;10(5):584-90

Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: In primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), stenting has been shown to reduce the need for repeat target lesion revascularisation (TLR) compared to balloon angioplasty alone, but did not result in a reduction of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiac death. Meanwhile, stent-related adverse events such as stent thrombosis continue to be of concern. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of drug- coated balloon (DCB) angioplasty without stenting in PPCI.

Methods And Results: One hundred patients presenting with ST-elevation MI were prospectively enrolled in this pilot study. They underwent PPCI with DCB angioplasty; additional stenting was allowed only in case of type C to F coronary dissection or residual stenosis >50%. All patients were treated with i.v. bivalirudin. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, recurrent MI and TLR. A total of 59 patients received treatment with DCB angioplasty alone, whereas additional stenting was required in 41 patients. One-year clinical follow-up was completed in 98 patients. A total of five major adverse cardiac events were reported (5%). Cardiac death was seen in two patients, while three patients underwent TLR.

Conclusions: This first study of a DCB angioplasty-only strategy in the setting of PPCI showed good one-year clinical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV10I5A101DOI Listing
September 2014

CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients-Rationale and design of the Patient Outcome after primary PCI (POPular) Genetics study.

Am Heart J 2014 Jul 21;168(1):16-22.e1. Epub 2014 Mar 21.

Department of Cardiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Rationale: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), the use of dual antiplatelet therapy is essential to prevent atherothrombotic complications. Therefore, patients are treated with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor. Clopidogrel, however, shows a major interindividual variation in antiplatelet effect, which is correlated to an increase in atherothrombotic events in patients with high platelet reactivity. This interindividual variation is partly a result of CYP2C19 genetic variants. Ticagrelor and prasugrel reduce atherothrombotic events but increase bleeding rate and drug costs, as compared with clopidogrel. CYP2C19-based tailoring of antiplatelet therapy might be beneficial to STEMI patients.

Study Design: POPular Genetics (NCT01761786) is a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial involving 2,700 STEMI patients who undergo pPCI. Patients are randomized to CYP2C19 genotyping or routine ticagrelor or prasugrel treatment. In the genotyping group, *1/*1 (wild-type) patients receive clopidogrel, and patients carrying 1 or 2 *2 or *3 loss-of-function alleles receive ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary net clinical benefit end point is the composite of death, (recurrent) myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, stroke, and Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major bleeding at 1 year. Primary safety end point is the composite of (PLATO) major and minor bleeding. Cost-effectiveness and quality of life will be assessed by calculating quality-adjusted life-years, net costs per life-year, and per quality-adjusted life-year gained.

Conclusion: The POPular Genetics study is the first large-scale trial comparing CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy to a nontailored strategy in terms of net clinical benefit, safety, and cost-effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2014.03.006DOI Listing
July 2014

Patterns of long-term thienopyridine therapy and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with coronary stenting: Observations from the TIMI-38 Coronary Stent Registry.

Clin Cardiol 2014 May 14;37(5):293-9. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not known. Factors influencing DAPT duration are not well described.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that continued DAPT 12 months beyond ACS would be associated with patient factors such as stent type and that it may be associated with lower rates of ischemic events.

Methods: The TIMI 38 Coronary Stent Registry (CSR) followed patients who completed the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial, received a stent, and were alive and event free. Continuation of DAPT was determined by the treating physician.

Results: The CSR enrolled 2110 patients (1679>12 months from index ACS) and followed for a median of 2.1 additional years. DAPT was continued in 554 (26%) and was more likely to be continued in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES; 54%) and in North America. The rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke was 2.35% per year, and 13 patients (0.6%) experienced Academic Research Consortium definite or probable ST. Recurrent ischemic events were similar between patients who continued thienopyridine therapy and those who stopped at registry entry (P = 0.74 for cardiovascular death/MI/stroke; P = 0.72 for definite or probable ST). After propensity score adjustment, there was no significant difference in cardiovascular death/MI/stroke (P = 0.55) or bleeding (P = 0.51) with prolonged DAPT.

Conclusions: Patients stabilized for a year after ACS and stenting have low rates of ST relative to overall cardiovascular events. The decision to continue DAPT maybe associated with stent type (DES vs bare-metal stent) and region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.22247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649600PMC
May 2014

Rationale and design of the PRAETORIAN trial: a Prospective, RAndomizEd comparison of subcuTaneOus and tRansvenous ImplANtable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy.

Am Heart J 2012 May;163(5):753-760.e2

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are widely used to prevent fatal outcomes associated with life-threatening arrhythmic episodes in a variety of cardiac diseases. These ICDs rely on transvenous leads for cardiac sensing and defibrillation. A new entirely subcutaneous ICD overcomes problems associated with transvenous leads. However, the role of the subcutaneous ICD as an adjunctive or primary therapy in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death is unclear.

Study Design: The PRAETORIAN trial is an investigator-initiated, randomized, controlled, multicenter, prospective 2-arm trial that outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the subcutaneous ICD. Patients with a class I or IIa indication for ICD therapy without an indication for bradypacing or tachypacing are included. A total of 700 patients are randomized to either the subcutaneous or transvenous ICD (1:1). The study is powered to claim noninferiority of the subcutaneous ICD with respect to the composite primary endpoint of inappropriate shocks and ICD-related complications. After noninferiority is established, statistical analysis is done for potential superiority. Secondary endpoint comparisons of shock efficacy and patient mortality are also made.

Conclusion: The PRAETORIAN trial is a randomized trial that aims to gain scientific evidence for the use of the subcutaneous ICD compared with the transvenous ICD in a population of patients with conventional ICD with respect to major ICD-related adverse events. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with trial ID NCT01296022.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2012.02.012DOI Listing
May 2012

Intensive oral antiplatelet therapy for reduction of ischaemic events including stent thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a subanalysis of a randomised trial.

Lancet 2008 Apr 2;371(9621):1353-63. Epub 2008 Apr 2.

TIMI Study Group, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

Background: Intracoronary stenting can improve procedural success and reduce restenosis compared with balloon angioplasty in patients with acute coronary syndromes, but can also increase the rate of thrombotic complications including stent thrombosis. The TRITON-TIMI 38 trial has shown that prasugrel-a novel, potent thienopyridine-can reduce ischaemic events compared with standard clopidogrel therapy. We assessed the rate, outcomes, and prevention of ischaemic events in patients treated with prasugrel or clopidogrel with stents in the TRITON-TIMI 38 study.

Methods: Patients with moderate-risk to high-risk acute coronary syndromes were included in our analysis if they had received at least one coronary stent at the time of the index procedure following randomisation in TRITON-TIMI 38, and were further subdivided by type of stent received. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1 to 1 fashion to receive a loading dose of study drug (prasugrel 60 mg or clopidogrel 300 mg) as soon as possible after randomisation, followed by daily maintenance therapy (prasugrel 10 mg or clopidogrel 75 mg). All patients were to receive aspirin therapy. Treatment was to be continued for a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 15 months. Randomisation was not stratified by stents used or stent type. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. Stent thrombosis was assessed using Academic Research Consortium definitions, and analysis was by intention to treat. TRITON-TIMI 38 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00097591.

Findings: 12,844 patients received at least one coronary stent; 5743 received only drug-eluting stents, and 6461 received only bare-metal stents. Prasugrel compared with clopidogrel reduced the primary endpoint (9.7 vs 11.9%, HR 0.81, p=0.0001) in the stented cohort, in patients with only drug-eluting stents (9.0 vs 11.1%, HR 0.82, p=0.019), and in patients with only bare-metal stents (10.0 vs 12.2%, HR 0.80, p=0.003). Stent thrombosis was associated with death or myocardial infarction in 89% (186/210) of patients. Stent thrombosis was reduced with prasugrel overall (1.13 vs 2.35%, HR 0.48, p<0.0001), in patients with drug-eluting stents only (0.84 vs 2.31%, HR 0.36, p<0.0001), and in those with bare-metal stents only (1.27 vs 2.41%, HR 0.52, p=0.0009).

Interpretation: Intensive antiplatelet therapy with prasugrel resulted in fewer ischaemic outcomes including stent thrombosis than with standard clopidogrel. These findings were statistically robust irrespective of stent type, and the data affirm the importance of intensive platelet inhibition in patients with intracoronary stents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60422-5DOI Listing
April 2008
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