Publications by authors named "Jean-Luc Jougleux"

10 Publications

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Evaluating the mitochondrial activity and inflammatory state of dimethyl sulfoxide differentiated PLB-985 cells.

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 7;135:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB, Canada; New Brunswick Center for Precision Medicine, Moncton, NB, Canada. Electronic address:

Neutrophils play a key role in the innate immunity with their ability to generate and release inflammatory mediators that promote the inflammatory response and consequently restore the hemostasis. As active participants in several steps of the normal inflammatory response, neutrophils are also involved in chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. Given their dual role in the modulation of inflammation, regulating the inflammatory response of neutrophils has been suggested as an important therapeutic approach by numerous researchers. The neutrophils have a relatively short lifespan, which can be problematic for some in vitro experiments. To address this issue, researchers have used the human monomyelocyte cell line PLB-985 as an in vitro model for exploratory experiments addressing neutrophil-related physiological functions. PLB-985 cells can be differentiated into a neutrophil-like phenotype upon exposure to several agonists, including dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Whether this differentiation of PLB-985 affects important features related to the neutrophil's normal functions (i.e., mitochondrial activity, eicosanoid production) remains elusive, and characterizing these changes will be the focal point of this study. Our results indicate that the differentiation affected the proliferation of PLB-985 cells, without inducing apoptosis. A significant decrease in mitochondrial respiration was observed in differentiated PLB-985 cells. However, the overall mitochondria content was not affected. Immunoblotting with mitochondrial antibodies revealed a strong modulation of the succinate dehydrogenase A, superoxide dismutase 2, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 2 and ATP synthase subunit α in differentiated PLB-985 cells. Finally, eicosanoids (leukotriene B, 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids) production was significantly increased in differentiated cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that the differentiation process of PLB-985 cells does not impact their viability despite a reduced respiratory state of the cells. This process is also accompanied by modulation of the inflammatory state of the cell. Of importance, our data suggest that PLB-985 cells could be suitable in vitro candidates to study mitochondrial-related dysfunctions in inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.03.026DOI Listing
April 2021

Influence of iron-deficient diets during gestation and lactation on cerebral fatty acids and eicosanoids in guinea pig offspring-Comparison of studies with different sources of dietary lipids.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2019 10 9;149:37-45. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Département de Chimie et Biochimie, Université de Moncton, 18 Antonine-Maillet Avenue, Moncton, NB, E1A 3E9, Canada. Electronic address:

Previous studies showed that mild iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) induced by feeding an iron deficient (ID) diet to female guinea pigs during gestation and lactation to alters the auditory functions of the offspring when corn oil is the only source of dietary lipids. Conversely, feeding an ID diet with a dietary fatty acid composition similar to that of typical human western diets induced minor impairments. Since tissue fatty acid metabolism is affected by dietary iron, the current study measured the impacts of these ID diets (ID-corn and ID-west) compared to the corresponding iron-sufficient control diets (IS-corn and IS-west) on encephalum fatty acid metabolism in the offspring at post-natal day 24. IDA induced by the ID-corn diet resulted in significant increases in encephalum n-6 PUFA content, but IDA induced by the ID-west diet had little impact on fatty acid profiles compared to the IS-west group. Brain COX II protein expression and FADS2 mRNA expression were statistically unaffected in both experiments, but encephalum PGE concentrations were significantly reduced in ID-west pups. These results suggest IDA studies during prenatal development should consider dietary lipid compositions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2019.08.001DOI Listing
October 2019

Rapid isolation and purification of functional platelet mitochondria using a discontinuous Percoll gradient.

Platelets 2020 5;31(2):258-264. Epub 2019 May 5.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, Moncton, Canada.

The isolation of mitochondria is gaining importance in experimental and clinical laboratory settings. The mitochondrion is known as the powerhouse of the cell as it produces the energy to power most cellular functions but is also involved in many cellular processes. Of interest, mitochondria and mitochondrial components (. circular DNA, N-formylated peptides, cardiolipin) have been involved in several human inflammatory pathologies, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, stringent methods of isolation and purification of mitochondria are of the utmost importance in assessing mitochondrial-related diseases. While several mitochondrial isolation methods have been previously published, these techniques are aimed at yielding mitochondria from cells types other than platelets. In addition, little information is known on the number of platelet-derived microparticles that can contaminate the mitochondrial preparation or even the overall quality and integrity of the mitochondria. In this project, we provide an alternate purification method yielding mitochondria of high purity and integrity from human platelets. Using human platelets, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments were performed to demonstrate that the Percoll gradient method yielded significantly purified mitochondria by removing platelet membrane debris. Mitochondrial respiration following the substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor-titration (SUIT) protocol was similar in both the purified and crude mitochondrial extraction methods. Finally, the cytochrome c effect and JC-1 staining did not exhibit a significant difference between the two methods, suggesting that the mitochondrial integrity was not affected. Our study suggests that the Percoll discontinuous gradient purifies viable platelet-derived mitochondria by removing platelet-derived debris, including microparticles, therefore confirming that this isolation method is ideal for studying the downstream effects of intact mitochondria in mitochondrial-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2019.1609666DOI Listing
September 2020

Identification of Peracetylated Quercetin as a Selective 12-Lipoxygenase Pathway Inhibitor in Human Platelets.

Mol Pharmacol 2019 01 7;95(1):139-150. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, Moncton, Canada (M.S.D., J.-L.J., S.J.P., M.C., J.L.L., M.E.S., N.P., M.T., L.H.B.) and Centre de Recherche, Département de Médecine, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Québec, Canada (S.J.P.)

The inflammatory response is necessary for the host's defense against pathogens; however, uncontrolled or unregulated production of eicosanoids has been associated with several types of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, it is not surprising that enzymes implicated in the production of eicosanoids have been strategically targeted for potential therapeutic approaches. The 12()-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12()-HETE] lipid mediator is among inflammatory molecules that are abundantly produced in various diseases and is primarily biosynthesized via the 12()-lipoxygenase pathway. The effects of the abundance of 12()-HETE and its contribution to several chronic inflammatory diseases have been well studied over the last few years. While most developed compounds primarily target the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) or the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, very few compounds selectively inhibiting the 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) pathway are known. In this study, we examined whether the distribution of hydroxyl groups among flavones could influence their potency as 12-LO inhibitors. Using human platelets, the human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line expressing 5-LO, and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) we investigated the effects of these compounds on several inflammatory pathways, namely, 12-LO, 5-LO, and COX. Using high-resolution respirometry and flow cytometry, we also evaluated some normal cell functions that could be modulated by our compounds. We identified a peracetylated quercetin (compound ) that exerts potent inhibitory activity toward the platelet 12-LO pathway (IC = 1.53 M) while having a lesser affinity toward the COX pathway. This study characterizes the peracetylated quercetin (compound ) as a more selective platelet-type 12-LO inhibitor than baicalein, with no measurable nontargeted effects on the platelet's activation or overall cell's oxygen consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.118.113480DOI Listing
January 2019

Impact of maternal iron deficiency on the auditory functions in the young and adult guinea pig.

Nutr Neurosci 2019 Jun 3;22(6):444-452. Epub 2017 Dec 3.

f École des Sciences de la Nutrition, Université d'Ottawa , Ottawa , Ontario , Canada.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hearing function in the guinea pig offspring at post-natal day (PNd) 24 and PNd84 born from dams suffering from iron deficiency during pregnancy and lactation by using the auditory brainstem response (ABR).

Method: Female guinea pigs (n = 24 per dietary group) were fed an iron sufficient (IS) diet (114 mg/kg) or an iron deficient (ID) diet (11.7 mg/kg) during the gestation and lactation periods. Pups in both groups were weaned at PNd9 and given the IS diet. The hematocrit level was measured at every trimester of pregnancy and at the day of sacrifice in dams and at PNd24 and PNd84 in pups. The animal body weight was measured on every second day until the day of sacrifice. The ABR was used in pups to measure the hearing threshold using a broad range of stimulus intensities and latency at 100 and 80 dB in response to 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kHz tone pips at PNd24 and 84.

Results And Discussion: No significant difference between dietary groups was measured in hearing threshold and absolute latencies in pups at PNd24 and PNd84. Although the ID offspring (n = 16) did not differ in brainstem transmission times (BTTs) at 80 dB compare to the IS siblings (n = 25) at PNd24, they showed significant delayed inter-peak latency (IPL) I-IV at 100 dB suggesting a delayed BTT. At PNd84, the latency of all peaks including IPL I-IV at 80 and 100 dB significantly decreased and was also similar in pups from both dietary groups suggesting a better brain maturation. This is the first study investigating the long-term impact of maternal iron deficiency on the auditory functions in the guinea pig offspring during early development to adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2017.1408946DOI Listing
June 2019

Dietary LC-PUFA in iron-deficient anaemic pregnant and lactating guinea pigs induce minor defects in the offsprings' auditory brainstem responses.

Nutr Neurosci 2016 Dec 10;19(10):447-460. Epub 2016 Mar 10.

e Département de Chimie et Biochimie , Université de Moncton , Moncton , NB , Canada.

Objectives: We previously demonstrated that a mild pre-natal/early post-natal iron-deficient anaemic (IDA) diet devoid of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) affected development, neurophysiology, and cerebral lipid biochemistry of the guinea pigs' progeny. Impacts of dietary LC-PUFA on altered cerebral development resulting from pre-natal IDA are unknown. To address this health issue, impacts of mild gestational IDA in the presence of dietary LC-PUFA on the offsprings' neural maturation were studied in guinea pigs using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and assessments of brain fatty acids (FAs).

Methods: Female guinea pigs (n = 10/group) were fed an iron sufficient (IS) or IDA diet (146 and 12.7 mg iron/kg, respectively) with physiological amounts of LC-PUFA, during the gestation and lactation periods. From post-natal day (PNd) 9 onwards, the IS + PUFA diet was given to both groups of weaned offspring. Cerebral tissue and offsprings' ABR were collected on PNd24.

Results: There was no difference in peripheral and brainstem transmission times (BTTs) between IS + PUFA and IDA + PUFA siblings (n = 10/group); the neural synchrony was also similar in both groups. Despite the absence of differences in auditory thresholds, IDA + PUFA siblings demonstrated a sensorineural hearing loss in the extreme range of frequencies (32, 4, and 2 kHz), as well as modified brain FA profiles compared to the IS + PUFA siblings.

Discussion: The present study reveals that siblings born from dams exposed to a moderate IDA diet including balanced physiological LC-PUFA levels during pregnancy and lactation demonstrate minor impairments of ABR compared to the control siblings, particularly on the auditory acuity, but not on neural synchrony, auditory nerve velocity and BTT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000140DOI Listing
December 2016

Mild iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy and lactation in guinea pigs alters amplitudes and auditory nerve velocity, but not brainstem transmission times in the offspring's auditory brainstem response.

Nutr Neurosci 2014 Jan 26;17(1):37-47. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

Objectives: It is well known that postnatal/early childhood iron deficiency (ID) anaemia (IDA) adversely affects infants' cognitive development and neurophysiology. However, the effects of IDA during gestation and lactation on the offspring are largely unknown. To address this health issue, the impact of mild IDA during gestation and lactation on the offsprings' neural maturation was studied in the guinea pig, using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) latencies and amplitudes.

Methods: Female guinea pigs (n = 10/group) were fed an iron sufficient (ISD) or deficient diet (IDD) (144 and 11.7 mg iron/kg) during the gestation and lactation periods. From postnatal day (PNd) 9 onward, the ISD was given to both groups of weaned offspring. The offsprings' ABRs were collected on PNd24 using a broad range of stimulus intensities in response to 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kHz tone pips.

Results: Although the IDA siblings (n = 8) did not differ in brainstem transmission times (BTTs) compared to the IS siblings (n = 8), they showed significant delayed peak I latency at 100 and 80 dB, respectively. Additionally, significantly higher ABR wave amplitudes were observed in the IDA female offspring between 35 and 50 dB (4 kHz), a phenomenon suggestive of a neural hyperactivity (hyperacusis).

Discussion: In support to our previous findings, the present results indicate that a mild IDA during gestation and lactation can have detrimental effects on early development of the offsprings' hearing and nervous systems, particularly on neural synchrony and auditory nerve conduction velocity, but not on BTT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1476830513Y.0000000067DOI Listing
January 2014

Mild maternal iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy and lactation in guinea pigs causes abnormal auditory function in the offspring.

J Nutr 2011 Jul 25;141(7):1390-5. Epub 2011 May 25.

Département des Sciences des Aliments et de Nutrition, Faculté des Sciences de l'Agriculture et de l'Alimentation, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1K7P4, Canada.

Iron deficiency (ID) anemia (IDA) adversely affects different aspects of the nervous system such as myelinogenesis, neurotransmitters synthesis, brain myelin composition, and brain fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism. Infant neurophysiological outcome in response to maternal IDA is underexplored, especially mild to moderate maternal IDA. Furthermore, most human research has focused on childhood ID rather than prenatal or neonatal ID. Thus, our study evaluated the consequences of mild maternal IDA during pregnancy and lactation on the offsprings' auditory function using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This technique provides objective measures of auditory acuity, neural transmission times along the peripheral and brainstem portions of the auditory pathway, and postnatal brain maturation. Female guinea pigs (n = 10/group) were fed an iron sufficient diet (ISD) or an iron deficient diet (IDD) (144 and 11.7 mg iron/kg) during their acclimation, gestation, and lactation periods. From postnatal d (PNd) 9 onward, the ISD was given to all weaned offspring. ABR were collected from the offspring on PNd24 using a broad range of stimulus intensities in response to 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kHz tone pips. IDA siblings (n = 4), [corrected] compared with the IS siblings (n = 5), had significantly elevated ABR thresholds (hearing loss) in response to all tone pips. These physiological disturbances were primarily due to a sensorineural hearing loss, as revealed by the ABR's latency-intensity curves. These results indicate that mild maternal IDA during gestation and lactation altered the hearing and nervous system development of the young offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.110.135715DOI Listing
July 2011

Enhancement of calcium/vitamin d supplement efficacy by administering concomitantly three key nutrients essential to bone collagen matrix for the treatment of osteopenia in middle-aged women: a one-year follow-up.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2010 Jan 29;46(1):20-9. Epub 2009 Dec 29.

School of Food Science and Nutrition, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB, E1A 3E9, Canada.

Two vitamins and proline (CB(6)Pro), three nutrients essential for bone collagen, were used in combination to a 1000 mg calcium/250 IU vitamin D (Ca/D) daily supplement to treat osteopenia as a preventive measure against osteoporosis later in life. Middle-aged women not using estrogen were screened for osteopenia using the WHO criteria and divided into three groups (n = 20 each): 1) placebo healthy controls with normal bone mineral density (BMD); 2) control Ca/D-treated osteopenic patients; and 3) Ca/D + CB(6)Pro-treated osteopenic patients. The three groups were comparable at baseline except for BMD. After one-year treatment, cortical diaphyseal BMD remained constant in each group, but trabecular bone loss persisted (at 5 lumbar sites) in osteopenic group 2. No further bone loss was detected in osteopenic group 3. A loss of 2% was evidenced in the placebo group at one lumbar site. Markers of bone formation (which increase in coupling to resorption) decreased significantly in both osteopenic groups. Although biomarkers of resorption did not change, hormone (PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3))-induced osteoclastic activity was significantly reduced. No decline in BMD occurred at any bone site in osteopenic group 3, highlighting the importance of improving the quality of bone matrix concomitantly to mineral replacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.09-45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2803129PMC
January 2010

Bone mineral density and metabolism at an early stage of menopause when estrogen and calcium supplement are not used and without the interference of major confounding variables.

J Am Coll Nutr 2005 Oct;24(5):354-60

Dept of Human Nutrition, University of Moncton, Moncton, Canada.

Objectives: To measure bone mineral density (BMD) and to screen for early biochemical abnormalities in bone mineral metabolism in the first five years of natural menopause when estrogen and calcium supplement are not used and in the absence of major confounding variables.

Setting: Two homogeneous and comparable groups (n = 30) of healthy pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women living in a northern region (latitude 46 degrees N) were recruited during the mid-Spring/Summer season in a cross-sectional design.

Methods: Volumetric apparent BMAD (g/cm(3)) was calculated from areal BMD (g/cm(2)) which was evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar) at both axial and peripheric (femur) sites using two sets of reference values (WHO criterion expressed as T-score and absolute values of areal density) in combination to bone specific biochemical measurements.

Results: BMD and BM(A)D were significantly lower in postmenopausal women for all lumbar sites, but not for Ward's triangle and any other femoral sites whereas free deoxypyridinoline (Dpd), urinary biochemical marker of bone resorption, was markedly (p < 0.0001) greater. Their serum calcium and phosphate were significantly higher without a difference in 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and PTH. The prevalence of osteopenia in pre- and postmenopausal women was about 2-fold lower in both groups (26.6 and 46.9%, respectively) when lumbar (L) spine and femur neck were combined and using the criteria based on reference values of areal density instead of T-scores.

Conclusions: The present study showed that the negative effects of estrogen deficiency on BMD and bone metabolism in early menopause occurred independently of the effect of major calcitropic hormones. Bone loss affects a non negligible proportion of premenopausal women. The prevalence of osteopenia in pre- and postmenopausal women varied according to the criterion used and anatomic site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2005.10719485DOI Listing
October 2005