Publications by authors named "Jean-Loup Guyot"

5 Publications

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Global karst springs hydrograph dataset for research and management of the world's fastest-flowing groundwater.

Sci Data 2020 02 20;7(1):59. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Institute of Applied Geosciences, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Karst aquifers provide drinking water for 10% of the world's population, support agriculture, groundwater-dependent activities, and ecosystems. These aquifers are characterised by complex groundwater-flow systems, hence, they are extremely vulnerable and protecting them requires an in-depth understanding of the systems. Poor data accessibility has limited advances in karst research and realistic representation of karst processes in large-scale hydrological studies. In this study, we present World Karst Spring hydrograph (WoKaS) database, a community-wide effort to improve data accessibility. WoKaS is the first global karst springs discharge database with over 400 spring observations collected from articles, hydrological databases and researchers. The dataset's coverage compares to the global distribution of carbonate rocks with some bias towards the latitudes of more developed countries. WoKaS database will ensure easy access to a large-sample of good quality datasets suitable for a wide range of applications: comparative studies, trend analysis and model evaluation. This database will largely contribute to research advancement in karst hydrology, supports karst groundwater management, and promotes international and interdisciplinary collaborations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-019-0346-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033224PMC
February 2020

Amazon River dissolved load: temporal dynamics and annual budget from the Andes to the ocean.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Jun 21;23(12):11405-29. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

INAMHI, Iñaquito N36-14 y Corea, Código 16-310, Quito, Ecuador.

The aim of the present study is to estimate the export fluxes of major dissolved species at the scale of the Amazon basin, to identify the main parameters controlling their spatial distribution and to identify the role of discharge variability in the variability of the total dissolved solid (TDS) flux through the hydrological cycle. Data are compiled from the monthly hydrochemistry and daily discharge database of the "Programa Climatologico y Hidrologico de la Cuenca Amazonica de Bolivia" (PHICAB) and the HYBAM observatories from 34 stations distributed over the Amazon basin (for the 1983-1992 and 2000-2012 periods, respectively). This paper consists of a first global observation of the fluxes and temporal dynamics of each geomorphological domain of the Amazon basin. Based on mean interannual monthly flux calculations, we estimated that the Amazon basin delivered approximately 272 × 10(6) t year(-1) (263-278) of TDS during the 2003-2012 period, which represents approximately 7 % of the continental inputs to the oceans. This flux is mainly made up by HCO3, Ca and SiO2, reflecting the preferential contributions of carbonate and silicate chemical weathering to the Amazon River Basin. The main tributaries contributing to the TDS flux are the Marañon and Ucayali Rivers (approximately 50 % of the TDS production over 14 % of the Amazon basin area) due to the weathering of carbonates and evaporites drained by their Andean tributaries. An Andes-sedimentary area-shield TDS flux (and specific flux) gradient is observed throughout the basin and is first explained by the TDS concentration contrast between these domains, rather than variability in runoff. This observation highlights that, under tropical context, the weathering flux repartition is primarily controlled by the geomorphological/geological setting and confirms that sedimentary areas are currently active in terms of the production of dissolved load. The log relationships of concentration vs discharge have been characterized over all the studied stations and for all elements. The analysis of the slope of the relationship within the selected contexts reveals that the variability in TDS flux is mainly controlled by the discharge variability throughout the hydrological year. At the outlet of the basin, a clockwise hysteresis is observed for TDS concentration and is mainly controlled by Ca and HCO3 hysteresis, highlighting the need for a sampling strategy with a monthly frequency to accurately determine the TDS fluxes of the basin. The evaporite dissolution flux tends to be constant, whereas dissolved load fluxes released from other sources (silicate weathering, carbonate weathering, biological and/or atmospheric inputs) are mainly driven by variability in discharge. These results suggest that past and further climate variability had or will have a direct impact on the variability of dissolved fluxes in the Amazon. Further studies need to be performed to better understand the processes controlling the dynamics of weathering fluxes and their applicability to present-day concentration-discharge relationships at longer timescales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5503-6DOI Listing
June 2016

Oxygen isotopes in tree rings are a good proxy for Amazon precipitation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Oct 1;109(42):16957-62. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Department of Ecology and Global Change, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.

We present a unique proxy for the reconstruction of variation in precipitation over the Amazon: oxygen isotope ratios in annual rings in tropical cedar (Cedrela odorata). A century-long record from northern Bolivia shows that tree rings preserve the signal of oxygen isotopes in precipitation during the wet season, with weaker influences of temperature and vapor pressure. Tree ring δ(18)O correlates strongly with δ(18)O in precipitation from distant stations in the center and west of the basin, and with Andean ice core δ(18)O showing that the signal is coherent over large areas. The signal correlates most strongly with basin-wide precipitation and Amazon river discharge. We attribute the strength of this (negative) correlation mainly to the cumulative rainout processes of oxygen isotopes (Rayleigh distillation) in air parcels during westward transport across the basin. We further find a clear signature of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the record, with strong ENSO influences over recent decades, but weaker influence from 1925 to 1975 indicating decadal scale variation in the controls on the hydrological cycle. The record exhibits a significant increase in δ(18)O over the 20th century consistent with increases in Andean δ(18)O ice core and lake records, which we tentatively attribute to increased water vapor transport into the basin. Taking these data together, our record reveals a fresh path to diagnose and improve our understanding of variation and trends of the hydrological cycle of the world's largest river catchment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1205977109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3479466PMC
October 2012

Episodic sediment accumulation on Amazonian flood plains influenced by El Niño/Southern Oscillation.

Nature 2003 Oct;425(6957):493-7

Quaternary Research Center University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Continental-scale rivers with a sandy bed sequester a significant proportion of their sediment load in flood plains. The spatial extent and depths of such deposits have been described, and flood-plain accumulation has been determined at decadal timescales, but it has not been possible to identify discrete events or to resolve deposition on near-annual timescales. Here we analyse (210)Pb activity profiles from sediment cores taken in the pristine Beni and Mamore river basins, which together comprise 720,000 km2 of the Amazon basin, to investigate sediment accumulation patterns in the Andean-Amazonian foreland. We find that in most locations, sediment stratigraphy is dominated by discrete packages of sediments of uniform age, which are typically 20-80 cm thick, with system-wide recurrence intervals of about 8 yr, indicating relatively rare episodic deposition events. Ocean temperature and stream flow records link these episodic events to rapidly rising floods associated with La Niña events, which debouch extraordinary volumes of sediments from the Andes. We conclude that transient processes driven by the El Niño/Southern Oscillation cycle control the formation of the Bolivian flood plains and modulate downstream delivery of sediments as well as associated carbon, nutrients and pollutants to the Amazon main stem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature02002DOI Listing
October 2003
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