Publications by authors named "Jean-Jacques Kiladjian"

162 Publications

Favorable overall survival with imetelstat in relapsed/refractory myelofibrosis patients compared with real-world data.

Ann Hematol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 USF Magnolia Drive, CSB 7th Floor, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

In the MYF2001 trial, treatment of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor-relapsed/refractory intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis (MF) with imetelstat 9.4 mg/kg every 3 weeks demonstrated encouraging median overall survival of 29.9 months. To provide historical context, external real-world data (RWD) were collected from a study of 96 patients who had discontinued ruxolitinib and were subsequently treated with best available therapy (BAT) at Moffitt Cancer Center. A closely matched cohort was identified using the MYF2001 eligibility criteria, including patients with MF who had discontinued ruxolitinib due to lack or loss of response. Overall survival was measured from time of JAK inhibitor discontinuation to death or censored at last follow-up. To improve comparability, propensity score weighting approaches using average treatment effect for overlap population (ATO) and stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting (sIPTW) were used for 10 critical baseline covariates. Fifty-seven patients treated with imetelstat 9.4 mg/kg from MYF2001 and 38 patients treated with BAT from RWD were analyzed with improved balanced baseline covariates after propensity score adjustment, showing significantly lower risk of death with imetelstat compared with BAT (hazard ratio: 0.35; p = 0.0019). With sIPTW, results were similar. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with the primary analysis. In conclusion, treatment with imetelstat was associated with longer overall survival compared to BAT (30 vs 12 months, respectively) in closely matched patients with MF after JAK inhibitor failure, warranting further evaluation of imetelstat in this poor-prognosis patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04683-wDOI Listing
October 2021

Revisiting Diagnostic performances of serum erythropoïetin level and JAK2 mutation for polycythemias: analysis of a cohort of 1090 patients with red cell mass measurement.

Br J Haematol 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

APHP, Biologie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

We assessed the diagnostic performances of erythropoietin and JAK2 mutations in 1,090 patients with suspected polycythemia who were referred for red cell mass (RCM) measurement. In patients with a high haematocrit and/or haemoglobin level, a low erythropoietin level (<=3·3 mUI/ml) and JAK2 mutation showed comparable positive predictive value (PPV) for true polycythemia (RCM>=125%), 92·1% and 90% respectively. A very-low erythropoietin level (<=1·99 mUI/ml) had a PPV of 100% for polycythemia vera (PV) diagnosis. We confirmed the correlations between RCM, erythropoietin and JAK2 variant allelic frequency in PV patients. This study prompts the need to revisit the role of EPO in PV diagnostic criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17848DOI Listing
September 2021

Retrospective analysis of pacritinib in patients with myelofibrosis and severe thrombocytopenia.

Haematologica 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.

Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with myelofibrosis and is a well-established adverse prognostic factor. Both of the approved Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, ruxolitinib and fedratinib, can worsen thrombocytopenia and have not been evaluated in patients with severe thrombocytopenia (.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2021.279415DOI Listing
September 2021

Unmet clinical needs in the management of CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia: a consensus-based proposal from the European LeukemiaNet.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Sep;8(9):e658-e665

FROM Research Foundation, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy. Electronic address:

Recommendations regarding management of essential thrombocythaemia rely on studies done before the discovery of the CALR mutation. On May 20, 2020, the European LeukemiaNet annual meeting was held with the goal to identify unmet clinical needs in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Because patients with a CALR mutation have specific clinical characteristics, treatment of CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia was considered an unmet clinical need by the European LeukemiaNet. The elaboration of a consensus document with recommendations according to current evidence was proposed as a solution for resolving uncertainties in the treatment of CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia. A steering committee comprising four European LeukemiaNet members was then formed and a panel of ten experts in the field was recruited. The experts proposed 51 potential unmet clinical needs in the management of CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia and were asked to score the relevance of each topic. Those topics that obtained the highest scores as relevant unmet clinical needs were identified, including antiplatelet therapy in patients at low risk, definition of extreme thrombocytosis and its management in patients at low risk, indications of cytoreduction and targets of therapy, first-line treatment of choice in young patients (<60 years), and management of pregnancy. After the steering committee revised the available evidence for each topic, a consensus on management and proposal for improving knowledge was achieved by use of an email-based, two round, Delphi approach. Consensus was achieved when 90% of the panellists agreed with a statement and included 14 recommendations and six solution proposals. Key recommendations included careful observation for asymptomatic patients with classical, low-risk, CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia without cardiovascular risk factors; caution in the use of antiplatelet therapy for symptomatic patients at low risk with platelet counts of 1000-1500 × 10 platelets per L, in such cases cytoreduction is an adequate option, especially if adquired Von Willebrand disease is present; cytoreduction is recommended for extreme thrombocytosis (platelet count >1500 × 10 platelets per L) with pegylated interferon alfa being the preferred option for younger patients; both hydroxycarbamide and anagrelide might be given to patients ineligible for pegylated interferon alfa; and treatment algorithms for patients with high-risk pregnancies should not be changed according to genotype. The European LeukemiaNet proposes to use these recommendations in the routine management of patients with CALR-mutated essential thrombocythaemia, and designing new clinical studies in this field might be useful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00204-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Inferring the dynamic of mutated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells induced by IFNα in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Blood 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Université Paris-Saclay, France.

Classical BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) caused mainly by recurrent mutations in genes encoding JAK2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR), or the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL). Interferon alpha (IFNα) has demonstrated some efficacy in inducing molecular remission in MPN. In order to determine factors that influence molecular response rate, we evaluated the long-term molecular efficacy of IFNα in MPN patients by monitoring the fate of cells carrying driver mutations in a prospective observational and longitudinal study of 48 patients over more than 5 years. We measured several times per year the clonal architecture of early and late hematopoietic progenitors (84,845 measurements) and the global variant allele frequency in mature cells (409 measurements). Using mathematical modeling and hierarchical Bayesian inference, we further inferred the dynamics of IFNα-targeted mutated HSC. Our data support the hypothesis that IFNα targets JAK2V617F HSC by inducing their exit from quiescence and differentiation into progenitors. Our observations indicate that treatment efficacy is higher in homozygous than heterozygous JAK2V617F HSC and increases with high IFNα dosage in heterozygous JAK2V617F HSC. Besides, we found that the molecular responses of CALRm HSC to IFNα were heterogeneous, varying between type 1 and type 2 CALRm, and high dosage of IFNα correlates with worse outcomes. Together, our work indicates that the long-term molecular efficacy of IFNα implies an HSC exhaustion mechanism and depends on both the driver mutation type and IFNα dosage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021010986DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficacy and tolerability of Janus kinase inhibitors in myelofibrosis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Blood Cancer J 2021 Jul 27;11(7):135. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Univ Angers, INSERM, UMR 1066, CNRS 6021, MINT, Angers, France.

Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with constitutional symptoms, increasing splenomegaly, and worsening cytopenias. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have been used for the treatment of myelofibrosis for several years, but there is a lack of comparative information between those treatments. A systematic review and network meta-analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials in patients with myelofibrosis receiving JAK inhibitor or placebo or control. Primary outcomes were efficacy on spleen volume reduction and total symptom score reduction. Additional analyses were conducted on anemia and thrombopenia events. Seven studies were included in the network meta-analysis including 1953 patients randomly assigned to four JAK inhibitors-ruxolitinib, fedratinib, pacritinib, momelotinib-or control. In first-line therapy, momelotinib and fedratinib were associated with comparable efficacy to ruxolitinib, and with less toxicity on erythrocytes and platelets, respectively. Pacritinib was less effective on splenomegaly than ruxolitinib as a first-line treatment but seemed effective in second line, after ruxolitinib exposure. Fedratinib and ruxolitinib that are FDA approved in myelofibrosis have both confirmed being valuable option to treat splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms, and their slightly different tolerance-profiles can guide therapeutic choice for first-line treatment, according to patient profile. Momelotinib could be another option especially due to its positive effect on anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00526-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316412PMC
July 2021

Randomized, Single-Blind, Multicenter Phase II Study of Two Doses of Imetelstat in Relapsed or Refractory Myelofibrosis.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 17;39(26):2881-2892. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Hôpital Saint-Louis, Université Paris, Paris, France.

Purpose: Patients with myelofibrosis who are relapsed or refractory (R/R) to Janus-associated kinase inhibitors (JAKis) have poor clinical outcomes including dismal overall survival (OS) that ranges between 13 and 16 months. Imetelstat, a telomerase inhibitor, was evaluated in patients with intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis R/R to JAKi in a phase II multicenter study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02426086).

Patients And Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either imetelstat 9.4 mg/kg or 4.7 mg/kg intravenous once every 3 weeks. Spleen response (≥ 35% spleen volume reduction) and symptom response (≥ 50% reduction in total symptom score) rates at week 24 were coprimary end points. Secondary end points included OS and safety.

Results: Study enrollment was closed early, and patients treated with 4.7 mg/kg were permitted to continue treatment with 9.4 mg/kg. At week 24, spleen and symptom response rates were 10.2% and 32.2% in the 9.4-mg/kg arm and 0% and 6.3% in the 4.7-mg/kg arm. Treatment with imetelstat 9.4 mg/kg led to a median OS of 29.9 months and bone marrow fibrosis improvement in 40.5% and variant allele frequency reduction of driver mutations in 42.1% of evaluable patients. Fibrosis improvement and variant allele frequency reduction correlated with OS. Target inhibition was demonstrated by reduction of telomerase activity and human telomerase reverse transcriptase level and correlated with spleen response, symptom response, and OS. Most common adverse events on both arms were grade 3 or 4 reversible cytopenias.

Conclusion: In this phase II study of two imetelstat doses, 9.4 mg/kg once every 3 weeks demonstrated clinical benefits in symptom response rate, with an acceptable safety profile for this poor-risk JAKi R/R population. Biomarker and bone marrow fibrosis assessments suggested selective effects on the malignant clone. A confirmatory phase III study is currently underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02864DOI Listing
September 2021

Avadomide induces degradation of ZMYM2 fusion oncoproteins in hematologic malignancies.

Blood Cancer Discov 2021 May 10;2(3):250-265. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Thalidomide analogs exert their therapeutic effects by binding to the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase, promoting ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of specific protein substrates. Drug-induced degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 in B-cell malignancies demonstrates the clinical utility of targeting disease-relevant transcription factors for degradation. Here, we found that avadomide (CC-122) induces CRBN-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of ZMYM2 (ZNF198), a transcription factor involved in balanced chromosomal rearrangements with and in aggressive forms of hematologic malignancies. The minimal drug-responsive element of ZMYM2 is a zinc-chelating MYM domain and is contained in the N-terminal portion of ZMYM2 that is universally included in the derived fusion proteins. We demonstrate that avadomide has the ability to induce proteasomal degradation of ZMYM2-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FLT3 chimeric oncoproteins, both and . Our findings suggest that patients with hematologic malignancies harboring these fusion proteins may benefit from avadomide treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2643-3230.bcd-20-0105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133393PMC
May 2021

Fedratinib Improves Myelofibrosis-related Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Myelofibrosis Previously Treated with Ruxolitinib: Patient-reported Outcomes from the Phase II JAKARTA2 Trial.

Hemasphere 2021 May 29;5(5):e562. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Mays Cancer Center at UT Health San Antonio MD Anderson, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Myelofibrosis symptoms compromise health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Ruxolitinib can reduce myelofibrosis symptom severity, but many patients discontinue ruxolitinib due to loss of response or unacceptable toxicity. Fedratinib is an oral, selective JAK2 inhibitor approved in the United States for treatment of patients with intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis. The single-arm, phase II JAKARTA2 trial assessed fedratinib 400 mg/d (starting dose) in patients with myelofibrosis previously treated with ruxolitinib. Patient-reported changes in myelofibrosis symptom severity using the modified Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form (MFSAF), and overall HRQoL and functional status using the EORTC QLQ-C30, were evaluated at each cycle. Clinically meaningful changes from baseline HRQoL scores were based on effect sizes. Ninety patients were MFSAF-evaluable. Myelofibrosis symptoms were mild-to-moderate at baseline. Patients showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in total symptom scores from baseline on the MFSAF at all post baseline visits through the end of cycle 6 (EOC6). Baseline global health status/QoL and functional domain scores on the EORTC QLQ-C30 were meaningfully worse than in the general population. At EOC6, 44% of patients reported clinically meaningful improvements in global health status/QoL, and 30%-53% of patients experienced clinically meaningful improvement in QLQ-C30 functional domains across post baseline timepoints. Over 80% of ongoing patients perceived fedratinib as beneficial on the Patient's Global Impression of Change questionnaire. Fedratinib effects were consistent among prognostically relevant patient subgroups. Patients with myelofibrosis previously treated with ruxolitinib experienced clinically meaningful improvements in myelofibrosis symptom burden, overall HRQoL, and functional status in the first 6 months of fedratinib treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096470PMC
May 2021

Patient-reported Effects of Fedratinib, an Oral, Selective Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 2, on Myelofibrosis-related Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in the Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Phase III JAKARTA Trial.

Hemasphere 2021 May 29;5(5):e553. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Patients with myelofibrosis (MF) experience an array of symptoms that impair health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fedratinib, an oral, selective Janus-kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor, was investigated in the randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III JAKARTA study in adult patients with intermediate- or high-risk JAK-inhibitor-naïve MF. The effect of fedratinib 400 mg/d on patient-reported MF symptoms and HRQoL in JAKARTA was assessed. Participants completed the modified Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form (MFSAF v2.0), which evaluates 6 key MF symptoms (night sweats, early satiety, pruritus, pain under ribs on the left side, abdominal discomfort, bone/muscle pain). The modified MFSAF v2.0 was completed during the first 6 treatment cycles and at end of cycle 6 (EOC6). Symptom response was a ≥50% improvement from baseline in total symptom score (TSS). Overall HRQoL was assessed by EQ-5D-3L health utility index (HUI) score. The MFSAF-evaluable population comprised 91/96 patients randomized to fedratinib 400 mg and 85/96 patients randomized to placebo. Mean baseline TSS was 17.6 and 14.7 for fedratinib and placebo, respectively, and mean EQ-5D-3L HUI was 0.70 and 0.72. Fedratinib elicited statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in TSS from baseline versus placebo at all postbaseline visits. Symptom response rates at EOC6 were 40.4% with fedratinib and 8.6% with placebo (OR 7.0 [95% CI, 2.9-16.9];  < 0.001), and a significantly higher proportion of fedratinib-treated patients achieved clinically meaningful improvement from baseline on the EQ-5D-3L HUI at EOC6 (23.2% versus 6.5%;  = 0.002). Fedratinib provided clinically meaningful improvements in MF symptoms and overall HRQoL versus placebo in patients with JAK-inhibitor-naïve MF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096463PMC
May 2021

PPARγ agonists promote the resolution of myelofibrosis in preclinical models.

J Clin Invest 2021 06;131(11)

Division of Innovative Therapies, CEA/DRF/François Jacob Biology Institute, UMR1184 IMVA-HB/IDMIT, Université Paris-Saclay, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a non-BCR-ABL myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with poor outcomes. Current treatment has little effect on the natural history of the disease. MF results from complex interactions between (a) the malignant clone, (b) an inflammatory context, and (c) remodeling of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Each of these points is a potential target of PPARγ activation. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of PPARγ agonists in resolving MF in 3 mouse models. We showed that PPARγ agonists reduce myeloproliferation, modulate inflammation, and protect the BM stroma in vitro and ex vivo. Activation of PPARγ constitutes a relevant therapeutic target in MF, and our data support the possibility of using PPARγ agonists in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI136713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159700PMC
June 2021

ABCG2 Is Overexpressed on Red Blood Cells in Ph-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Potentiates Ruxolitinib-Induced Apoptosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 29;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

BIGR, UMR_S1134, Inserm, Université de Paris, F-75015 Paris, France.

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of disorders characterized by clonal expansion of abnormal hematopoietic stem cells leading to hyperproliferation of one or more myeloid lineages. The main complications in MPNs are high risk of thrombosis and progression to myelofibrosis and leukemia. MPN patients with high risk scores are treated by hydroxyurea (HU), interferon-α, or ruxolitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Polycythemia vera (PV) is an MPN characterized by overproduction of red blood cells (RBCs). ABCG2 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily transporters known to play a crucial role in multidrug resistance development. Proteome analysis showed higher ABCG2 levels in PV RBCs compared to RBCs from healthy controls and an additional increase of these levels in PV patients treated with HU, suggesting that ABCG2 might play a role in multidrug resistance in MPNs. In this work, we explored the role of ABCG2 in the transport of ruxolitinib and HU using human cell lines, RBCs, and in vitro differentiated erythroid progenitors. Using stopped-flow analysis, we showed that HU is not a substrate for ABCG2. Using transfected K562 cells expressing three different levels of recombinant ABCG2, MPN RBCs, and cultured erythroblasts, we showed that ABCG2 potentiates ruxolitinib-induced cytotoxicity that was blocked by the ABCG2-specific inhibitor KO143 suggesting ruxolitinib intracellular import by ABCG2. In silico modeling analysis identified possible ruxolitinib-binding site locations within the cavities of ABCG2. Our study opens new perspectives in ruxolitinib efficacy research targeting cell types depending on ABCG2 expression and polymorphisms among patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036917PMC
March 2021

Ruxolitinib before allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis on behalf SFGM-TC and FIM groups.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 08 25;56(8):1888-1899. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Hôpital Saint-Louis, APHP, Centre d'investigation clinique, Paris, France.

This multicenter prospective phase 2 trial analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) in myelofibrosis patients receiving ruxolitinib for 6 months before transplantation. Seventy-six patients were recruited. Age-adjusted dynamic international prognostic scoring system was intermediate-1, intermediate-2, and high in 27 (36%), 31 (41%), and 18 (24%) patients. All patients received ruxolitinib from inclusion to conditioning regimen (fludarabine-melphalan) or to progression. A donor was found in 64 patients: 18 HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 32 HLA-matched unrelated (UD10/10), and 14 HLA mismatched unrelated donor (UD9/10. Among 64 patients with a donor, 20 (31%) achieved a partial response before transplantation and 59 (92%) could be transplanted after ruxolitinib therapy (18/18 MSD, 30/21 UD10/10, 11/34 UD9/10), of whom 19 (32%) were splenectomized. Overall survival from inclusion was 68% at 12 months. One-year DFS after transplantation was 55%: 83%, 40%, and 34% after MSD, UD10/10 or UD9/10, respectively. Cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 66% and non-relapse-mortality was 42% at 12 months. Short course of ruxolitinib before transplantation is followed by a high rate of transplantation. With the platform used in this protocol, outcome was much better in patients transplanted with HLA-matched sibling donor as compared to unrelated donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01252-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992510PMC
August 2021

Pegcetacoplan versus Eculizumab in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria.

N Engl J Med 2021 03;384(11):1028-1037

From the Department of Haematology, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds (P.H., M.G.), and Lisa Tan Pharma Consulting, Cambridge (L.T.) - both in the United Kingdom; the Department of Clinical Haematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (J.S.); Jane Anne Nohl Division of Hematology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles (I.W.); the Department of Hematology, West German Cancer Center University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (A. Röth), the Institute of Transfusion Medicine, University of Ulm and Institute of Clinical Transfusion Medicine and Immunogenetics, German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service and University Hospital Ulm, Ulm (B.H.), and the Department of Oncology, Hematology, Hemostaseology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen (J.P.) - all in Germany; the Department of Hematology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo, Tokyo (K.U.), and the Department of Hematology and Oncology, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama (H.N.) - both in Japan; Centre d'Investigations Cliniques (J.-J.K.) and the French Reference Center for Aplastic Anemia and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (R.P.T.), Hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, Paris; the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Duke University, Durham, NC (C.C.); Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Waltham, MA (M.H., P.D., C.F., F.G., T.A.); and the Hematology and BMT Unit, AORN San Giuseppe Moscati, Avellino, Italy (A. Risitano).

Background: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired disease characterized by chronic complement-mediated hemolysis. C5 inhibition controls intravascular hemolysis in untreated PNH but cannot address extravascular hemolysis. Pegcetacoplan, a pegylated peptide targeting proximal complement protein C3, potentially inhibits both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis.

Methods: We conducted a phase 3 open-label, controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of pegcetacoplan as compared with eculizumab in adults with PNH and hemoglobin levels lower than 10.5 g per deciliter despite eculizumab therapy. After a 4-week run-in phase in which all patients received pegcetacoplan plus eculizumab, we randomly assigned patients to subcutaneous pegcetacoplan monotherapy (41 patients) or intravenous eculizumab (39 patients). The primary end point was the mean change in hemoglobin level from baseline to week 16. Additional clinical and hematologic markers of hemolysis and safety were assessed.

Results: Pegcetacoplan was superior to eculizumab with respect to the change in hemoglobin level from baseline to week 16, with an adjusted (least squares) mean difference of 3.84 g per deciliter (P<0.001). A total of 35 patients (85%) receiving pegcetacoplan as compared with 6 patients (15%) receiving eculizumab no longer required transfusions. Noninferiority of pegcetacoplan to eculizumab was shown for the change in absolute reticulocyte count but not for the change in lactate dehydrogenase level. Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scores improved from baseline in the pegcetacoplan group. The most common adverse events that occurred during treatment in the pegcetacoplan and eculizumab groups were injection site reactions (37% vs. 3%), diarrhea (22% vs. 3%), breakthrough hemolysis (10% vs. 23%), headache (7% vs. 23%), and fatigue (5% vs. 15%). There were no cases of meningitis in either group.

Conclusions: Pegcetacoplan was superior to eculizumab in improving hemoglobin and clinical and hematologic outcomes in patients with PNH by providing broad hemolysis control, including control of intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. (Funded by Apellis Pharmaceuticals; PEGASUS ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03500549.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2029073DOI Listing
March 2021

Genomic analysis of primary and secondary myelofibrosis redefines the prognostic impact of ASXL1 mutations: a FIM study.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(5):1442-1451

Service d'Hématologie, CH Perpignan, Perpignan, France.

We aimed to study the prognostic impact of the mutational landscape in primary and secondary myelofibrosis. The study included 479 patients with myelofibrosis recruited from 24 French Intergroup of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (FIM) centers. The molecular landscape was studied by high-throughput sequencing of 77 genes. A Bayesian network allowed the identification of genomic groups whose prognostic impact was studied in a multistate model considering transitions from the 3 conditions: myelofibrosis, acute leukemia, and death. Results were validated using an independent, previously published cohort (n = 276). Four genomic groups were identified: patients with TP53 mutation; patients with ≥1 mutation in EZH2, CBL, U2AF1, SRSF2, IDH1, IDH2, NRAS, or KRAS (high-risk group); patients with ASXL1-only mutation (ie, no associated mutation in TP53 or high-risk genes); and other patients. A multistate model found that both TP53 and high-risk groups were associated with leukemic transformation (hazard ratios [HRs] [95% confidence interval], 8.68 [3.32-22.73] and 3.24 [1.58-6.64], respectively) and death from myelofibrosis (HRs, 3.03 [1.66-5.56] and 1.77 [1.18-2.67], respectively). ASXL1-only mutations had no prognostic value that was confirmed in the validation cohort. However, ASXL1 mutations conferred a worse prognosis when associated with a mutation in TP53 or high-risk genes. This study provides a new definition of adverse mutations in myelofibrosis with the addition of TP53, CBL, NRAS, KRAS, and U2AF1 to previously described genes. Furthermore, our results argue that ASXL1 mutations alone cannot be considered detrimental.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948260PMC
March 2021

[An example of Clinical Investigations Center reorganization during the COVID-19 pandemic French national lockdown].

Therapie 2021 Jul-Aug;76(4):347-358. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Centre d'investigations cliniques (INSERM CIC 1427), Université de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, 75010 Paris, France.

Background: The Clinical Investigations Center of Saint-Louis Hospital (CIC-1427) is a structure dedicated to clinical trials and mainly early phase trials (first-in-man administration, phase 1 and 2). These trials are conducted in a French Regional Health Agency (ARS) authorized structure. In March 2020, faced to the global COVID-19 pandemic and the French national lockdown measures, the CIC-1427 had to rapidly adapt its operating procedures to ensure the safety of both patients and staff.

Study Objective: Ensuring optimal management of patients included in early phase clinical trials, while respecting the good clinical and professional practices (GCP/GPP) of the CICs protocol sponsors' requirements, patients' safety and clinical research multidisciplinary staff safety (nurses, caregivers' assistants (AS), clinical research assistants (CRA), clinical trial coordinators (CTC), project leaders, health executive and investigating physicians), in the context of the health crisis related to COVID-19.

Methods And Results: Due to their activity, requiring on-site presence, each staff member of the CIC-1427 clinical research team had to adapt their daily activity to the constraints of the health crisis. New specific procedures were quickly developed to deal with the pandemic. Most of the on-site medical visits were replaced by virtual consults with biological assessments in the local laboratories. "Remote monitoring" replaced on-site monitoring visits. Treatments were sent to each patient's home via couriers after agreement of the CPPs of each protocol (Committee for the Protection of Persons). The essential visits were maintained on site thanks to the unfailing involvement of our clinical care team, with implementation of a specific sanitary protocol.

Conclusion: The involvement of our entire multidisciplinary research team ensured that each patient was able to benefit from a personalized follow-up and to continue the treatment on-trial. The newly introduced procedures also allowed collection of a maximum of safety and efficacy data for clinical trial sponsors while complying with good regulatory practices. This set of procedures developed during the first epidemic wave, fundamentally helped setting the frame for a better coping during the subsequent pandemic waves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.therap.2021.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882219PMC
August 2021

Long-term outcome of imatinib 400 mg compared to imatinib 600 mg or imatinib 400 mg daily in combination with cytarabine or pegylated interferon alpha 2a for chronic myeloid leukaemia: results from the French SPIRIT phase III randomised trial.

Leukemia 2021 08 22;35(8):2332-2345. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Inserm CIC 1427, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

The STI571 prospective randomised trial (SPIRIT) French trial is a four-arm study comparing imatinib (IM) 400 mg versus IM 600 mg, IM 400 mg + cytarabine (AraC), and IM 400 mg + pegylated interferon alpha2a (PegIFN-α2a) for the front-line treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Long-term analyses included overall and progression-free survival, molecular responses to treatment, and severe adverse events. Starting in 2003, the trial included 787 evaluable patients. The median overall follow-up of the patients was 13.5 years (range 3 months to 16.7 years). Based on intention-to-treat analyses, at 15 years, overall and progression-free survival were similar across arms: 85%, 83%, 80%, and 82% and 84%, 87%, 79%, and 79% for the IM 400 mg (N = 223), IM 600 mg (N = 171), IM 400 mg + AraC (N = 172), and IM 400 mg + PegIFN-α2a (N = 221) arms, respectively. The rate of major molecular response at 12 months and deep molecular response (MR4) over time were significantly higher with the combination IM 400 mg + PegIFN-α2a than with IM 400 mg: p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0035, respectively. Progression to advanced phases and secondary malignancies were the most frequent causes of death. Toxicity was the main reason for stopping AraC or PegIFN-α2a treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01117-wDOI Listing
August 2021

MOMENTUM: momelotinib vs danazol in patients with myelofibrosis previously treated with JAKi who are symptomatic and anemic.

Future Oncol 2021 Apr 11;17(12):1449-1458. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Mays Cancer Center, UT Health San Antonio Cancer Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

Hallmark features of myelofibrosis (MF) are cytopenias, constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly. Anemia and transfusion dependency are among the most important negative prognostic factors and are exacerbated by many JAK inhibitors (JAKi). Momelotinib (MMB) has been investigated in over 820 patients with MF and possesses a pharmacological and clinical profile differentiated from other JAKi by inhibition of JAK1, JAK2 and ACVR1. MMB is designed to address the complex drivers of iron-restricted anemia and chronic inflammation in MF and should improve constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly while maintaining or improving hemoglobin in JAKi-naive and previously JAKi-treated patients. The MOMENTUM Phase III study is designed to confirm and extend observations of safety and clinical activity of MMB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1048DOI Listing
April 2021

Determining the recommended dose of pacritinib: results from the PAC203 dose-finding trial in advanced myelofibrosis.

Blood Adv 2020 11;4(22):5825-5835

Ichan School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

PAC203 is a randomized dose-finding study of pacritinib, an oral JAK2/IRAK1 inhibitor, in patients with advanced myelofibrosis who are intolerant of or resistant to ruxolitinib. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to pacritinib 100 mg once per day, 100 mg twice per day, or 200 mg twice per day. Enhanced eligibility criteria, monitoring, and dose modifications were implemented to mitigate risk of cardiac and hemorrhagic events. Efficacy was based on ≥35% spleen volume response (SVR) and ≥50% reduction in the 7-component total symptom score (TSS) through week 24. Of 161 patients, 73% were intolerant of and 76% had become resistant to ruxolitinib; 50% met criteria for both. Severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50 × 103/μL) was present in 44%. SVR rates were highest with 200 mg twice per day (100 mg once per day, 0%; 100 mg twice per day, 1.8%; 200 mg twice per day, 9.3%), particularly among patients with baseline platelet counts <50 × 103/μL (17%; 4 of 24). Although TSS response rate was similar across doses (100 mg once per day, 7.7%; 100 mg twice per day, 7.3%; 200 mg twice per day, 7.4%), median percent reduction in TSS suggested a dose-response relationship (-3%, -16%, and -27%, respectively). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling based on all available data showed greatest SVR and TSS reduction at 200 mg twice per day compared with lower doses. Common adverse events were gastrointestinal events, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. There was no excess of grade ≥3 hemorrhagic or cardiac events at 200 mg twice per day. Pacritinib 200 mg twice per day demonstrated clinical activity and an acceptable safety profile and was selected as the recommended dose for a pivotal phase 3 study in patients with myelofibrosis and severe thrombocytopenia. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03165734.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686901PMC
November 2020

Transient expansion of TP53 mutated clones in polycythemia vera patients treated with idasanutlin.

Blood Adv 2020 11;4(22):5735-5744

Division of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Activation of the P53 pathway through inhibition of MDM2 using nutlins has shown clinical promise in the treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. There is concern, however, that nutlin therapy might stimulate the emergence or expansion of TP53-mutated subclones. We recently published the results of a phase 1 trial of idasanutlin in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) that revealed tolerability and clinical activity. Here, we present data indicating that idasanutlin therapy is associated with expansion of TP53 mutant subclones. End-of-study sequencing of patients found that 5 patients in this trial harbored 12 TP53 mutations; however, only 1 patient had been previously identified as having a TP53 mutation at baseline. To identify the origin of these mutations, further analysis of raw sequencing data of baseline samples was performed and revealed that a subset of these mutations was present at baseline and expanded during treatment with idasanutlin. Follow-up samples were obtained from 4 of 5 patients in this cohort, and we observed that after cessation of idasanutlin, the variant allele frequency (VAF) of 8 of 9 TP53 mutations decreased. Furthermore, disease progression to myelofibrosis or myeloproliferative neoplasm blast phase was not observed in any of these patients after 19- to 32-month observation. These data suggest that idasanutlin treatment may promote transient TP53 mutant clonal expansion. A larger study geared toward high-resolution detection of low VAF mutations is required to explore whether patients acquire de novo TP53 mutations after idasanutlin therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686898PMC
November 2020

Splenectomy before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis: A French nationwide study.

Am J Hematol 2021 01 18;96(1):80-88. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

CHU de Lille, LIRIC, INSERM 995, Université de Lille, Lille, France.

The value of pretransplant splenectomy in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) is subject to debate, since the procedure may preclude subsequent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). To determine the impact of pretransplant splenectomy on the incidence of allo-HCT, we conducted a comprehensive retrospective study of all patients with MF for whom an unrelated donor search had been initiated via the French bone marrow transplantation registry (RFGM) between 1 January 2008 and 1 January 2017. Additional data were collected from the patients' medical files and a database held by the French-Language Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC). We used a multistate model with four states ("RFGM registration"; "splenectomy"; "death before allo-HCT", and "allo-HCT") to evaluate the association between splenectomy and the incidence of allo-HCT. The study included 530 patients from 57 centers. With a median follow-up time of 6 years, we observed 81 splenectomies, 99 deaths before allo-HCT (90 without splenectomy and nine after), and 333 allo-HCTs (268 without splenectomy and 65 after). In a bivariable analysis, the hazard ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] for the association of splenectomy with allo-HCT was 7.2 [5.1-10.3] in the first 4 months and 1.18 [0.69-2.03] thereafter. The hazard ratio [95% CI] for death associated with splenectomy was 1.58 [0.79-3.14]. These reassuring results suggest that splenectomy does not preclude allo-HCT in patients with MF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26034DOI Listing
January 2021

JAK2V617F myeloproliferative neoplasm eradication by a novel interferon/arsenic therapy involves PML.

J Exp Med 2021 02;218(2)

INSERM U944, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR7212, IRSL, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

Interferon α (IFNα) is used to treat JAK2V617F-driven myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) but rarely clears the disease. We investigated the IFNα mechanism of action focusing on PML, an interferon target and key senescence gene whose targeting by arsenic trioxide (ATO) drives eradication of acute promyelocytic leukemia. ATO sharply potentiated IFNα-induced growth suppression of JAK2V617F patient or mouse hematopoietic progenitors, which required PML and was associated with features of senescence. In a mouse MPN model, combining ATO with IFNα enhanced and accelerated responses, eradicating MPN in most mice by targeting disease-initiating cells. These results predict potent clinical efficacy of the IFNα+ATO combination in patients and identify PML as a major effector of therapy, even in malignancies with an intact PML gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579737PMC
February 2021

Benefits of molecular profiling with next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis and prognosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms in splanchnic vein thrombosis.

J Hepatol 2021 01 26;74(1):251-252. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Hôpital Beaujon, AP-HP, DHU Unity, Pôle des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, Service d'Hépatologie, Centre de Référence des Maladies Vasculaires du Foie, Inserm U1149, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation (CRI), Paris, Université de Paris, ERN Rare Liver Diseases, Clichy, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.07.043DOI Listing
January 2021

Molecular profiling and risk classification of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and splanchnic vein thromboses.

Blood Adv 2020 08;4(15):3708-3715

Centre d'Investigations Cliniques (CIC) 1427, INSERM, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are the most frequent underlying causes of splanchnic vein thromboses (SVTs). MPN patients with SVTs (MPN-SVT) often have a unique presentation including younger age, female predominance, and low Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation allele burden. This study aimed at identifying risk factors for adverse hematologic outcomes in MPN-SVT patients. We performed a retrospective study of a fully characterized cohort of MPN-SVT patients. The primary outcome was the incidence of evolution to myelofibrosis, acute leukemia, or death. Eighty patients were included in the testing cohort. Median follow-up was 11 years. Most of the patients were women with a mean age of 42 years and a diagnosis of polycythemia vera. The primary outcome was met in 13% of the patients and was associated with a JAK2V617F allele burden ≥50% (odds ratio [OR], 14.7) and presence of additional mutations in genes affecting chromatin/spliceosome (OR, 9). We identified high-risk patients (29% of the cohort) as those harboring at least 1 molecular risk factor: JAK2-mutant allele burden ≥50%, presence of chromatin/spliceosome/TP53 mutation. High-risk patients had worse event-free survival (81% vs 100%; P = .001) and overall survival at 10 years (89% vs 100%; P = .01) than low-risk patients. These results were confirmed in an independent validation cohort of 30 MPN-SVT patients. In conclusion, molecular profiling identified MPN-SVT patients with dismal outcome. In this high-risk population, a disease-modifying therapy should be taken into consideration to minimize the probability of transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7422133PMC
August 2020

From leeches to interferon: should cytoreduction be prescribed for all patients with polycythemia vera?

Leukemia 2020 11 16;34(11):2837-2839. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Foundation of Clinical Research-FROM, Ospedale Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0984-9DOI Listing
November 2020

Risk factors for vascular liver diseases: Vascular liver diseases: position papers from the francophone network for vascular liver diseases, the French Association for the Study of the Liver (AFEF), and ERN-rare liver.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2020 09 7;44(4):410-419. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Laboratory Hematology, Beaujon Hospital AP-HP, 100, boulevard du Général Leclerc, 92118 Clichy, France; French Network for Rare Liver Diseases FILFOIE, Saint-Antoine Hospital AP-HP, 184, rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France; Reference center of vascular liver diseases, European Reference Network (ERN) Rare-Liver.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.03.010DOI Listing
September 2020
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