Publications by authors named "Jean-Brice Marteau"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Non-clinical Safety and Efficacy of an AAV2/8 Vector Administered Intravenously for Treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2017 Sep 24;6:143-158. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Pozzuoli (Naples) 80078, Italy.

In vivo gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is safe and effective in humans. We recently demonstrated that AAV8-mediated liver gene transfer is effective in animal models of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), a rare lysosomal storage disease that is caused by arylsulfatase B (ARSB) deficiency. In preparing for a first-in-human trial, we performed non-clinical studies to assess the safety of intravenous administrations of AAV2/8.TBG. produced under good manufacturing practice-like conditions. No toxicity was observed in AAV-treated mice, except for a transient increase in alanine aminotransferase in females and thyroid epithelial hypertrophy. AAV2/8.TBG. biodistribution and expression confirmed the liver as the main site of both infection and transduction. Shedding and breeding studies suggest that the risk of both horizontal and germline transmission is minimal. An AAV dose-response study in MPS VI mice was performed to define the range of doses to be used in the clinical study. Overall, these data support the non-clinical safety and efficacy of AAV2/8.TBG. and pave the way for a phase I/II clinical trial based on intravascular infusions of AAV8 in patients with MPS VI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2017.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5552066PMC
September 2017

"RCL-Pooling Assay": A Simplified Method for the Detection of Replication-Competent Lentiviruses in Vector Batches Using Sequential Pooling.

Hum Gene Ther 2016 Feb;27(2):202-10

1 Genethon, Evry, France .

Nonreplicative recombinant HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectors (LV) are increasingly used in gene therapy of various genetic diseases, infectious diseases, and cancer. Before they are used in humans, preparations of LV must undergo extensive quality control testing. In particular, testing of LV must demonstrate the absence of replication-competent lentiviruses (RCL) with suitable methods, on representative fractions of vector batches. Current methods based on cell culture are challenging because high titers of vector batches translate into high volumes of cell culture to be tested in RCL assays. As vector batch size and titers are continuously increasing because of the improvement of production and purification methods, it became necessary for us to modify the current RCL assay based on the detection of p24 in cultures of indicator cells. Here, we propose a practical optimization of this method using a pairwise pooling strategy enabling easier testing of higher vector inoculum volumes. These modifications significantly decrease material handling and operator time, leading to a cost-effective method, while maintaining optimal sensibility of the RCL testing. This optimized "RCL-pooling assay" ameliorates the feasibility of the quality control of large-scale batches of clinical-grade LV while maintaining the same sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2015.166DOI Listing
February 2016

Identification of cis- and trans-acting genetic variants explaining up to half the variation in circulating vascular endothelial growth factor levels.

Circ Res 2011 Aug 14;109(5):554-63. Epub 2011 Jul 14.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, B602, 72 East Concord St, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Rationale: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Although the heritability of circulating VEGF levels is high, little is known about its genetic underpinnings.

Objective: Our aim was to identify genetic variants associated with circulating VEGF levels, using an unbiased genome-wide approach, and to explore their functional significance with gene expression and pathway analysis.

Methods And Results: We undertook a genome-wide association study of serum VEGF levels in 3527 participants of the Framingham Heart Study, with preplanned replication in 1727 participants from 2 independent samples, the STANISLAS Family Study and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study. One hundred forty single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) reached genome-wide significance (P<5×10(-8)). We found evidence of replication for the most significant associations in both replication datasets. In a conditional genome-wide association study, 4 SNPs mapping to 3 chromosomal regions were independently associated with circulating VEGF levels: rs6921438 and rs4416670 (6p21.1, P=6.11×10(-506) and P=1.47×10(-12)), rs6993770 (8q23.1, P=2.50×10(-16)), and rs10738760 (9p24.2, P=1.96×10(-34)). A genetic score including these 4 SNPs explained 48% of the heritability of serum VEGF levels. Six of the SNPs that reached genome-wide significance in the genome-wide association study were significantly associated with VEGF messenger RNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ingenuity pathway analyses showed found plausible biological links between VEGF and 2 novel genes in these loci (ZFPM2 and VLDLR).

Conclusions: Genetic variants explaining up to half the heritability of serum VEGF levels were identified. These new insights provide important clues to the pathways regulating circulating VEGF levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.243790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3193930PMC
August 2011

Association study of gene polymorphisms involved in vascular alterations in elderly hypertensives with subjective memory complaints.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2010 25;30(5):440-8. Epub 2010 Nov 25.

Nancy University Hospital and Inserm Clinical Investigation Center, CIC9501, Nancy, France.

Background: We have recently shown that vascular abnormalities are associated with cognitive impairment as well as with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in elderly hypertensive patients presenting with subjective memory complaints (SMC), a population at high risk of developing dementia. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic variants associated with the degree of cognitive impairment and the severity of WMH in the same study population, focusing on genes involved in vascular alterations.

Methods: 50 gene polymorphisms known to be associated with vascular alterations (blood pressure regulation, lipid and homocysteine metabolism, thrombosis and inflammation) were genotyped using a multilocus genotyping assay in 369 elderly treated hypertensive patients >60 years of age and presenting with SMC but no dementia. The patients underwent a combination of neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging with semiquantification of WMH.

Results: None of the tested polymorphisms were found to be associated with age- and gender-adjusted memory score, visual capacity, body-mass-index-adjusted verbal fluency score or the age-adjusted WMH Fazekas score.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the associations between arterial factors and cognitive decline or WMH are not genetically driven by the genes we investigated, at least at this early stage of cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000321120DOI Listing
April 2011

Concomitant heterochromatinisation and down-regulation of gene expression unveils epigenetic silencing of RELB in an aggressive subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in males.

BMC Med Genomics 2010 Nov 10;3:53. Epub 2010 Nov 10.

Institut de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, France.

Background: The sensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells to current treatments, both in vitro and in vivo, relies on their ability to activate apoptotic death. CLL cells resistant to DNA damage-induced apoptosis display deregulation of a specific set of genes.

Methods: Microarray hybridization (Human GeneChip, Affymetrix), immunofluorescent in situ labeling coupled with video-microscopy recording/analyses, chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP), polymerase chain reactions (PCR), real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) and bisulfite genome sequencing were the main methods applied. Statistical analyses were performed by applying GCRMA and SAM analysis (microarray data) and Student's t-test or Mann & Whitney's U-test.

Results: Herein we show that, remarkably, in a resistant male CLL cells the vast majority of genes were down-regulated compared with sensitive cells, whereas this was not the case in cells derived from females. This gene down-regulation was found to be associated with an overall gain of heterochromatin as evidenced by immunofluorescent labeling of heterochromatin protein 1α (HP-1), trimethylated histone 3 lysine 9 (3metH3K9), and 5-methylcytidine (5metC). Notably, 17 genes were found to be commonly deregulated in resistant male and female cell samples. Among these, RELB was identified as a discriminatory candidate gene repressed in the male and upregulated in the female resistant cells.

Conclusion: The molecular defects in the silencing of RELB involve an increase in H3K9- but not CpG-island methylation in the promoter regions. Increase in acetyl-H3 in resistant female but not male CLL samples as well as a decrease of total cellular level of RelB after an inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) by trichostatin A (TSA), further emphasize the role of epigenetic modifications which could discriminate two CLL subsets. Together, these results highlighted the epigenetic RELB silencing as a new marker of the progressive disease in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1755-8794-3-53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2994775PMC
November 2010

Metabolic syndrome-related composite factors over 5 years in the STANISLAS family study: genetic heritability and common environmental influences.

Clin Chim Acta 2010 Jun 25;411(11-12):833-9. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

EA 4373, Cardiovascular Genetics research team, Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy Université, Faculté de Pharmacie, 30 rue Lionnois, F-54000 Nancy, France.

Background: We estimated genetic heritability and common environmental influences for various traits related to metabolic syndrome in young families from France.

Methods: At entrance and after 5 years, nineteen traits related to metabolic syndrome were measured in a sample of families drawn from the STANISLAS study. In addition, 5 aggregates of these traits were identified using factor analysis.

Results: At entrance, genetic heritability was high (20 to 44%) for plasma lipids and lipoproteins, uric acid, fasting glucose, and the related clusters "risk lipids" and "protective lipids". Intermediate or low genetic heritability (less than 20%) was shown for triglycerides, adiposity indices, blood pressure, hepatic enzyme activity, inflammatory makers and the related clusters: "liver enzymes", "adiposity/blood pressure" and "inflammation". Moreover, common environmental influences were significant for all the parameters. With regard to 5-year changes, polygenic variance was low and not statistically significant for any of the individual variables or clusters whereas shared environment influence was significant.

Conclusions: In these young families, genetic heritability of metabolic syndrome-related traits was generally lower than previously reported while the common environmental influences were greater. In addition, only shared environment contributed to short-term changes of these traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2010.02.070DOI Listing
June 2010

Drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects: biological variations and importance of pre-analytical steps.

Curr Drug Metab 2009 May;10(4):410-9

Université Henri Poincaré Nancy I, Faculté de Pharmacie, Equipe Génétique Cardiovasculaire, 30 rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy, France.

Quantification in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mRNA of drug metabolizing enzymes or drug targets could give interesting, new information in the field of pharmacogenomics and molecular mechanisms. However, for the interpretation of these data, it is necessary to know mRNA biological variations. In this review, we propose a strategy based on the production and interpretation of clinical chemistry reference values. We discuss the concept of reference values; the necessity to master pre-analytical variations of CYP and ABC transporters; the choice of the analytical methods and of the reference genes; and finally the biological variations themselves. In particular, we focus on the importance of considering homogeneity for age, sex, degree of adiposity, tobacco and alcohol intake, food habits, and drug consumption, including their inductive effects, at the phase of subject recruitment. All this information is useful to define the partition and exclusion factors to obtain mRNA reference limits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920009788498987DOI Listing
May 2009

Parental precocious influences on offspring cardiovascular risk markers: an exploratory study in the STANISLAS Cohort.

Per Med 2009 May;6(3):343-352

Université Henri Poincaré Nancy I - Faculté de Pharmacie, Équipe 'Génétique Cardiovasculaire' - 30 rue Lionnois, F-54000, Nancy, France.

Familial history of cardiovascular disease is acknowledged as a risk indicator in offspring. The aim of this study was to assess whether the cardiovascular risk factors in parents predicted the risk of their children developing cardiovascular disease in a French population: the STANISLAS Cohort, in which Caucasian biparental families with at least two siblings were followed for 5 years. Silent risk factors (blood pressure, lipid traits, glycemia, BMI and waist circumference) of children were compared according to their parents' risk status in a subsample of 693 families. All of these traits, with the exception of glucose, were significantly higher in children who had parents at a high risk than in children with parents at a low risk at the first health examination, and these results were confirmed again 5 years later at the second health examination. Thus, silent cardio-metabolic risk factors can be screened in children according to the risk status of their parents for early prevention. The influence of parents' variants on their offspring underlined the need to initiate familial prevention strategies, with a particular follow-up of young individuals between childhood and adolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pme.09.11DOI Listing
May 2009

Candidate gene microarray analysis in peripheral blood cells for studying hypertension/obesity.

Per Med 2009 May;6(3):269-291

Nancy Université Henri Poincaré, Faculté de Pharmacie, Unité de recherche Génétique Cardiovasculaire, 30 rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy, France.

Aims: The gene expression of 182 cardiovascular candidate genes was measured in high quality groups of individuals (n = 20) by microarrays to determine whether a subset of genes would discriminate obese and hypertensive individuals, in spite of the existence of a close link between these two cardiovascular risk factors.

Materials & Methods: The results were validated on the 20 subjects used for microarray analysis and on 62 additional individuals by real-time PCR.

Results: The first analysis, where patient groups were compared with healthy subjects, revealed 15 out of 182 genes that differed in hypertensive, obese or obesity-related hypertensive individuals. These genes were ALOX5, APOA2, SELL, RGS2, CD14, FPR1, CAMP, DEFA3, DEFA4, CBS, CHRM1, ICAM1, NR1H2, SCNN1B and TGFB1. A second analysis was carried out in which patient groups were compared with each other, demonstrating FPR1 and DEFA3 as being significant genes discriminating patient groups. Furthermore, an analysis stratified by sex revealed that, with the exception of DEFA3, there are no other common genes between men and women.

Discussion: We were able to indentify a number of interesting genes that distinguish patient and healthy subject groups as well as patient groups between them.

Conclusion: In addition, it seems that gender plays an important role, at least for some of the genes we tested. These findings may have important implications in the screening and etiology of hypertension or obesity, and could further help to focus on these specific mRNAs as antisense therapy targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pme.09.6DOI Listing
May 2009

Functional genomics towards personalized healthcare.

Per Med 2009 Jan;6(1):19-32

INSERM team 'Génétique Cardiovasculaire', Faculty of Pharmacy - Nancy University, 30 rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/17410541.6.1.19DOI Listing
January 2009

Pharmacogenomics and antihypertensive drugs: a path toward personalized medicine.

Per Med 2007 Nov;4(4):393-412

Équipe Inserm, Génétique Cardiovasculaire, du CIC 9501, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy I, 30 rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy, France.

Pharmacogenomics focuses on genes and the transcriptome and proteome. It has the potential to enhance healthcare management by improving disease diagnosis and implementing treatments adapted to each patient. Previously, pharmacogenetics of candidate genes focused on clinical research. It is now extended by using genome-wide approaches to elucidate the inherited basis of differences between individuals in their response to drugs. We summarize relevant polymorphisms of genes involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antihypertensive drugs and we give an overview of the state of pharmacogenomic research in hypertension medicine. Even if things are getting better, current pharmacogenetic studies still lack power, adequate selection of candidate genes and knowledge of their functions at the physiological level. Finally, some specific end point phenotypes (i.e., peptides or proteins related to the metabolic cycle targeted by the drug) should be integrated to propose data that are easily applicable to personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/17410541.4.4.393DOI Listing
November 2007

Transcription factor and drug-metabolizing enzyme gene expression in lymphocytes from healthy human subjects.

Drug Metab Dispos 2008 Jan 16;36(1):182-9. Epub 2007 Oct 16.

Equipe Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Génétique Cardiovasculaire CIC 9501, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Henri Poincaré-Nancy I, Nancy, France.

We aimed to measure simultaneously the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) and transcription factors (TF) with high importance in cardiovascular physiopathology in lymphocytes from healthy subjects. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 20 subjects from the Stanislas Cohort. We used a microarray approach to measure 16 DME and 13 TF. Cytochromes P450 (P450s), including CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2J2, CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP4F2, CYP4A11, CYP2E1, CYP11B2, CYP2C18, and CYP2A6, were expressed in all the subjects. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were not expressed. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) were expressed, but GSTM1 was seen only in some subjects. Pregnane X receptor (PXR), myocyte enhancer factor 2, vitamin D receptor, liver X receptor (LXR)-alpha, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), T-cell factor 7, constitutive androstane receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) were expressed in the majority of the subjects. Glucocorticoid receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, and LXRbeta were expressed only in some individuals. PPARalpha mRNA was found in one subject only, and farnesoid X-activated receptor was not expressed. In addition, we found significant correlations between the expression of AHR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 and between PXR and P450 involved in leukotriene metabolism (CYP2C, CYP4F2, CYP4A11, CYP2J2, and CYP11B2). We describe here for the first time the presence of the majority of TF and DME in PBMC of healthy subjects without previous induction. The expression of these genes in lymphocytes could be a useful tool for further studying the physiological and pathological variations of DME and TF related to environment, to drug intake, and to cardiovascular metabolic cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.107.017228DOI Listing
January 2008

Natural phosphorylation of CD5 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells and analysis of CD5-regulated genes in a B cell line suggest a role for CD5 in malignant phenotype.

J Immunol 2007 Oct;179(7):4335-44

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 764, Université Paris XI, Laboratoire d'Hématologie, Service de Médecine Interne-Immunologie, Hôpital Antoine Beclère, Clamart, France.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) results in the accumulation of B cells, presumably reflecting the selection of malignant cell precursors with Ag combined with complex alterations in protein activity. Repeated BCR stimulation of normal B cells leads to anergy and CD5 expression, both of which are features of CLL. Because CD5 is phosphorylated on tyrosine following BCR engagement and negatively regulates BCR signaling in normal B cells, we investigated its phosphorylation status and found it to be naturally phosphorylated on tyrosine but not on serine residues in CLL samples. To analyze the role of CD5, we established a B cell line in which CD5 is phosphorylated. Gene profiling of vector vs CD5-transfected B cells pointed out gene groups whose expression was enhanced: Apoptosis inhibitors (BCL2), NF-kappaB (RELB, BCL3), Wnt, TGFbeta, VEGF, MAPKs, Stats, cytokines, chemokines (IL-10, IL-10R, IL-2R, CCL-3, CCL-4, and CCR7), TLR-9, and the surface Ags CD52, CD54, CD70, and CD72. Most of these gene groups are strongly expressed in CLL B cells as compared with normal B cells. Unexpectedly, metabolic pathways, namely cholesterol synthesis and adipogenesis, are also enhanced by CD5. Conversely, CD5 inhibited genes involved in RNA splicing and processing, ribosome biogenesis, proteasome, and CD80 and CD86 Ags, whose expression is low in CLL. Comparison of CD5- vs tailless CD5-transfected cells further demonstrated the role of CD5 phosphorylation in the regulation of selected genes. These results support a model where CLL cells are chronically stimulated, leading to CD5 activation and cell survival. In addition to CD5 itself, we point to several CD5-induced genes as potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.7.4335DOI Listing
October 2007

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): a possible model for studying cardiovascular biology systems.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2007 ;45(9):1154-68

1INSERM, U525, équipe 4, Nancy, France.

Background: The inflammation system, alone or in relation to or interaction with other cardiovascular pathways, is suggested to be the central pathway in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present investigation was to propose a specific and informative model for exploring this hypothesis.

Methods: In a biological system approach, we studied the expression of 182 candidate cardiovascular genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cells that provide specific information on the inflammatory pathway. We explored their expression in 20 individuals with or without risk factors (obesity, hypertension) for cardiovascular disease.

Results: We found that: 1) 166 among the 182 selected genes were expressed in at least one individual's PBMCs, some of them being detected for the first time in this tissue; 2) all pathways were represented by the majority of their genes selected; 3) genes were expressed at a level sufficient for further study of the inter-individual variations in their mRNA to determine their biological variation; and 4) 15 genes discriminated hypertensive from obese or controls.

Conclusions: The results of the present investigation support our proposal of a promising novel strategy based on PBMC transcriptomic studies to elucidate the complexity of the cardiovascular system in relation to inflammation. Preliminary data support the usefulness of the PBMC model in hypertension/inflammation research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2007.255DOI Listing
January 2008

Interaction between CYP1A1 T3801C and AHR G1661A polymorphisms according to smoking status on blood pressure in the Stanislas cohort.

J Hypertens 2006 Nov;24(11):2199-205

INSERM U525, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Henri Poincaré Nancy 1, Nancy, France.

Background: CYP1A1, one of the key enzymes in detoxifying toxic components produced during cigarette smoking, is regulated by aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). A CYP1A1 T3801C polymorphism, associated with a higher CYP1A1 inducibility and enhanced catalytic activity, has been linked to stroke, triple vessel disease and may, therefore, be associated with blood pressure (BP). The relation of the widely studied G1661A polymorphism of the human AHR gene with BP is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the genetic influence of CYP1A1 T3801C and AHR G1661A polymorphisms on BP in relation to tobacco consumption.

Design And Participants: Study participants were selected from a French longitudinal cohort of volunteers for a free health check-up. These individuals (302 men and 311 women) were not taking medication that can affect blood pressure. Information about active smoking status was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire.

Results: After multiple regression analysis, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not differ significantly according to their tobacco status excepted for DBP in men. In addition, neither CYP1A1 T3801C nor AHR G1661A polymorphism was linked to blood pressure. However, systolic and diastolic blood pressures differed significantly according to CYP1A1 T3801C genotype between ex-smokers and smokers. Finally, the interaction between CYP1A1 T3801C and AHR G1661A polymorphisms explained a significant difference of SBP and DBP between carriers of both CYP1A1-C3801 and AHR-A1661 alleles.

Conclusion: This study is the first to show an interaction between the CYP1A1 T3801C and AHR G1661A polymorphisms. This interaction could explain the difference in blood pressure level between smokers and non-smokers/ex-smokers but needs to be confirmed in a large sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.hjh.0000249697.26983.aaDOI Listing
November 2006

Genetic variants predisposing to cardiovascular disease.

Curr Opin Lipidol 2006 Apr;17(2):139-51

INSERM U525 Equipe 4, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nancy, France.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this review is to provide an update on the most recent and relevant findings in the area of genotype-phenotype associations as well as the relationships between genetic factors and cardiovascular disease risk markers and events. In addition, emphasis will be placed on the methodological problems associated with studying the genetics of complex disorders, specifically cardiovascular diseases.

Recent Findings: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease predisposition have been examined, including traditional cardiovascular disease candidate genes, such as ACE, AGT, eNOS, PON and MTHFR, new loci that have recently been added to the growing list of cardiovascular disease candidate genes (i.e. MEF2A, ALOX5, LTA, APOM, PDE4D), and genes that have been shown to be at the intersection of several age-related disorders through interaction with one another or with environmental factors (i.e. APOA5, APOE, PPARgamma, LPL and LIPC).

Summary: During the last year, tremendous effort has been made in elucidating new genes associated with cardiovascular disease predisposition. For the most part, however, major breakthroughs have not been made, primarily due to the poor replication of results among studies, as a consequence of poor experimental design. Nevertheless, we have increased our understanding of the complexity of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of gene-environment interactions as the ultimate drivers of the individual predisposition to the disease. It is essential, therefore, that present and future genetic studies in this area take into consideration the inclusion of high-quality environmental data in the analytical process to test the clinical usefulness of a genetic marker as a risk predictor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mol.0000217895.67444.deDOI Listing
April 2006

Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular drugs: need for integrated biological system with phenotypes and proteomic markers.

Eur J Pharmacol 2005 Dec 28;527(1-3):1-22. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Inserm U525 Equipe 4, Université Henri Poincaré Nancy I, 30 rue Lionnois Faculté de Pharmacie, 54000 Nancy, France.

Personalized medicine is based on a better knowledge of biological variability, considering the important part due to genetics. When trying to identify involved genes and their products in differential cardiovascular drug responses, a five-step strategy is to be followed: 1) Pharmacokinetic-related genes and phenotypes (2) Pharmacodynamic targets, genes and products (3) Cardiovascular diseases and risks depending on specific or large metabolic cycles (4) Physiological variations of previously identified genes and proteins (5) Environment influences on them. After summarizing the most well-known genes involved in drug metabolism, we will take as example of drugs, the statins, considered as very important drugs from a Public-Health standpoint, but also for economical reasons. These drugs respond differently in human depending on multiple polymorphisms. We will give examples with common ApoE polymorphisms influencing the hypolipemic effects of statins. These drugs also have pleiotropic effects and decrease inflammatory markers. This illustrates the need to separate clinical diseases phenotypes in specific metabolic pathways, which could propose other classifications, of diseases and related genes. Hypertension is also a good example of clinical phenotype which should be followed after various therapeutic approaches by genes polymorphisms and proteins markers. Gene products are under clear environmental expression variations such as age, body mass index and obesity, alcohol, tobacco and dietary interventions which are the first therapeutical actions taken in cardiovascular diseases. But at each of the five steps, within a pharmacoproteomic strategy, we also need to use available information from peptides, proteins and metabolites, which usually are the gene products. A profiling approach, i.e., dealing with genomics, but now also with proteomics, is to be used. In conclusion, the profiling, as well as the large amount of data, will more than before render necessary an organized interpretation of DNA, RNA as well as proteins variations, both at individual and population level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.011DOI Listing
December 2005

Genetic determinants of blood pressure regulation.

J Hypertens 2005 Dec;23(12):2127-43

INSERM U525, Equipe 4, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Henri Poincare, Nancy, France.

Hypertension is a multifactorial disorder that probably results from the inheritance of a number of susceptibility genes and involves multiple environmental determinants. Existing evidence suggests that the genetic contribution to blood pressure variation is about 30-50%. Although a number of candidate genes have been studied in different ethnic populations, results from genetic analysis are still inconsistent and specific causes of hypertension remain unclear. Furthermore, the abundance of data in the literature makes it difficult to piece together the puzzle of hypertension and to define candidate genes involved in the dynamic of blood pressure regulation. In this review, we attempt to highlight the genetic basis of hypertension pathogenesis, focusing on the most important existing genetic variations of candidate genes and their potential role in the development of this disease. Our objective is to review current knowledge and discuss limitations to clinical applications of genotypic information in the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of hypertension. Finally, some principles of pharmacogenomics are presented here along with future perspectives of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.hjh.0000186024.12364.2eDOI Listing
December 2005

Collection and storage of human blood cells for mRNA expression profiling: a 15-month stability study.

Clin Chem 2005 Jul;51(7):1250-2

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U525 Equipe 4, Faculté de Pharmacie, Nancy, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2005.048546DOI Listing
July 2005

The Leu554Phe polymorphism in the E-selectin gene is associated with blood pressure in overweight people.

J Hypertens 2004 Feb;22(2):305-11

Unité INSERM U525 Equipe 4 Centre de Médecine Préventive, Nancy, France.

Background: Associations between circulating concentrations of E-selectin, blood pressure and obesity, and between the Leu554Phe (L/F554) polymorphism and blood pressure have been documented.

Objectives: To investigate how the E-selectin L/F554 polymorphism is involved in longitudinal blood pressure changes, and how this polymorphism interacts with body mass index (BMI) on blood pressure.

Design And Participants: For this study, 478 men and 546 women were selected from the Stanislas cohort, a French longitudinal study of volunteers for a free health check-up. These individuals underwent two examinations (t(0) and t(+5)) and were not taking medication that can affect blood pressure.

Results: At t(0), no relationship was observed between L/F554 polymorphism and blood pressure. However at t(+5), systolic blood pressure (SBP) was greater in individuals carrying the F allele, and the L/F554 polymorphism was associated with SBP in interaction with BMI (P < 0.001 in men and P < 0.05 for women). There was a steeper increase in SBP with BMI greater than 25 kg/m2 in carriers of the F allele than in LL homozygotes. Similar results were observed for diastolic blood pressure in men (P = 0.0103).

Conclusion: These results suggest a BMI-specific effect of L/F554 polymorphism of the E-selectin gene on blood pressure, and strengthen the hypothesis that E-selectin is implicated in hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200402000-00014DOI Listing
February 2004