Publications by authors named "Jean-Baptiste Ricco"

122 Publications

Management of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis may need to be individualized: a multidisciplinary call for action.

Int Angiol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Neurology & Stroke Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The optimal management of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is the subject of extensive debate. According to the 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines, carotid endarterectomy should (Class IIa; Level of Evidence: B) or carotid artery stenting may be considered (Class IIb; Level of Evidence: B) in the presence of one or more clinical/imaging characteristics that may be associated with an increased risk of late ipsilateral stroke (e.g. silent embolic infarcts on brain computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, progression in the severity of ACS, a history of contralateral transient ischemic attack/stroke, microemboli detection on transcranial Doppler, etc.), provided documented perioperative stroke/death rates are <3% and the patient's life expectancy is >5 years. Besides these clinical/imaging characteristics, there are additional individual, ethnic/racial or social factors that should probably be evaluated in the decision process regarding the optimal management of these patients, such as individual patient needs/patient choice, patient compliance with best medical treatment, patient sex, culture, race/ethnicity, age and comorbidities, as well as improvements in imaging/operative techniques/outcomes. The present multispecialty position paper will present the rationale why the management of patients with ACS may need to be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0392-9590.21.04751-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Predictors of Early Stroke or Death in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug 12;30(8):105912. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, CHU La Milétrie, Poitiers, France and University of Poitiers, France.

Background/objective: While postoperative stroke is a known complication of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), predictors of early stroke occurrence have not been specifically reviewed. The objective of this study was to estimate the predictors and incidence of stroke during the first 30 days post-TAVI.

Methods: A cohort of 506 consecutive patients having undergone TAVI between January 2017 and June 2019 was extracted from a prospective database. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were analyzed by univariate analysis followed by logistic regression to find predictors of the occurrence of stroke or death within the first 30 days after the procedure.

Results: Incidence of stroke within 30 days post-TAVI was 4.9%, [CI 95% 3.3-7.2], i.e., 25 strokes. Four out of the 25 patients (16%) with a stroke died within 30 days post-TAVI. After logistic regression analysis, the predictors of early stroke related to TAVI were: CHA2Ds2VASc score ≥ 5 (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% CI: 1.06-6.49; p = .037), supra-aortic access vs. femoral access (OR: 9.00, 95%CI: 2.95-27.44; p = .001) and introduction post-TAVI of a single vs. two or three antithrombotic agents (OR: 5.13; CI 95%: 1.99 to 13.19; p = .001). Over the 30-day period, bleeding occurred in 28 patients (5.5%), in 25 of whom, it was associated with femoral or iliac artery access injury. Anti-thrombotic regimen was not associated with bleeding; two patients out of 48 (4.1%) bled with a single anti-thrombotic regimen vs. 26 patients out of 458 (5.6%) with a dual or triple anti-thrombotic regimen (p = 0.94). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.9%, [95% CI 2.5-6.0]. Patients with a single post-TAVI antithrombotic agent (OR: 44.07 [CI 95% 13.45-144.39]; p < .0001) and patients with previous coronary artery bypass surgery or coronary artery stenting (OR: 6.16, [CI 95% 1.99-21.29]; p = .002) were at significantly higher risk of death within the 30-day period.

Conclusion: In this large-scale single-center retrospective study, a single post-TAVI antithrombotic regimen independently predicted occurrence of early stroke or death. Dual or triple antithrombotic regimen was not associated with a higher risk of bleeding and should be considered as an option in patients undergoing TAVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105912DOI Listing
August 2021

Management of Patients with Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis May Need to Be Individualized: A Multidisciplinary Call for Action.

J Stroke 2021 May 31;23(2):202-212. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology & Stroke Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The optimal management of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is the subject of extensive debate. According to the 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines, carotid endarterectomy should (Class IIa; Level of Evidence: B) or carotid artery stenting may be considered (Class IIb; Level of Evidence: B) in the presence of one or more clinical/imaging characteristics that may be associated with an increased risk of late ipsilateral stroke (e.g., silent embolic infarcts on brain computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, progression in the severity of ACS, a history of contralateral transient ischemic attack/stroke, microemboli detection on transcranial Doppler, etc.), provided documented perioperative stroke/death rates are <3% and the patient's life expectancy is >5 years. Besides these clinical/imaging characteristics, there are additional individual, ethnic/racial or social factors that should probably be evaluated in the decision process regarding the optimal management of these patients, such as individual patient needs/patient choice, patient compliance with best medical treatment, patient sex, culture, race/ethnicity, age and comorbidities, as well as improvements in imaging/operative techniques/outcomes. The present multispecialty position paper will present the rationale why the management of patients with ACS may need to be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2020.04273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189852PMC
May 2021

The painstaking search for the optimal management of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

J Vasc Surg 2021 May;73(5):1834-1835

Division of Vascular Surgery, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY; Division of Vascular Surgery, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.12.076DOI Listing
May 2021

A balanced approach is warranted for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr;73(4):1473-1474

Department of Surgery, West Virginia University, Charleston, WV.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.12.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Outcomes After Open and Endovascular Repair of Non-Ruptured True Pancreaticoduodenal and Gastroduodenal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Coeliac Artery Compression: A Multicentre Retrospective Study.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 Jun 21;61(6):945-953. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital of Poitiers, Poitiers, France. Electronic address:

Objective: True aneurysms of the peri-pancreatic arcade (PDAA) have been attributed to increased collateral flow related to coeliac axis (CA) occlusion by a median arcuate ligament (MAL). Although PDAA exclusion is currently recommended, simultaneous CA release and the technique to be used are debated. The aim of this retrospective multicentre study was to compare the results of open surgical repair of true non-ruptured PDAA with release or CA bypass (group A) vs. coil embolisation of PDAA and CA stenting or laparoscopic release (group B).

Methods: From January 1994 to February 2019, 57 consecutive patients (group A: 31 patients; group B: 26 patients), including 35 (61%) men (mean age 56 ± 11 years), were treated at three centres. Twenty-six patients (46%) presented with non-specific abdominal pain: 15 (48%) in group A and 11 (42%) in group B (p = .80).

Results: No patient died during the post-operative period. At 30 days, all PDAAs following open repair and embolisation had been treated successfully. In group A, all CAs treated by MAL release or bypass were patent. In group B, 2/12 CA stentings failed at < 48 hours, and all MAL released by laparoscopy were successful. Median length of hospital stay was significantly greater in group A than in group B (5 vs. 3 days; p = .001). In group A, all PDAAs remained excluded. In group B, three PDAA recanalisations following embolisation were treated successfully (two redo embolisations and one open surgical resection). At six years, Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom for PDAA recanalisation were 100% in group A, and 88% ± 6% in group B (p = .082). No PDAA ruptured during follow up. In group A, all 37 CAs treated by MAL release were patent, and one aortohepatic bypass occluded. In group B, five CAs occluded: four after stenting and the other after laparoscopic MAL release with two redo stenting and three aortohepatic bypasses. Estimates of freedom from CA restenosis/occlusion were 95% ± 3% for MAL release or visceral bypass, and 60% ± 9% for CA stenting (p = .001). Two late restenoses following CA stenting were associated with PDAA recanalisation.

Conclusion: Current data suggest that open and endovascular treatment of PDAA can be performed with excellent post-operative results in both groups. However, PDAA embolisation was associated with few midterm recanalisations and CA stenting with a significant number of early and midterm failures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.02.023DOI Listing
June 2021

The Life in their Years versus the Years in their Lives.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 Jun 17;61(6):919. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Rangueil, Toulouse, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.02.017DOI Listing
June 2021

International public awareness of peripheral artery disease.

Vasa 2021 07 1;50(4):294-300. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Cardiology, Dupuytren University Hospital, Limoges, France.

: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) of the lower limbs is a common condition with considerable global burden. Some country-specific studies suggest low levels of public awareness. To our knowledge public awareness of PAD has never been assessed simultaneously in several countries worldwide. : This was an international, general public, internet-based quantitative survey assessing vascular health and disease understanding. Questionnaires included 23 closed-ended multiple-choice, Likert scale and binary choice questions. Data were collected from 9,098 survey respondents from nine countries in Europe, North and Latin America during May-June 2018. : Overall, familiarity with PAD was low (57% of respondents were "not at all familiar", and 9% were "moderately" or "very familiar"). Knowledge about PAD health consequences was limited, with 55% of all respondents not being aware of limb consequences of PAD. There were disparities in PAD familiarity levels between countries; highest levels of self-reported awareness were in Germany and Poland where 13% reported to be "very" or "moderately" familiar with PAD, and lowest in Scandinavian countries (5%, 3% and 2% of respondents in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, respectively). There were disparities in awareness according to age. Respondents aged 25-34 were most familiar with PAD, with 12% stating that they were "moderately" or "very" familiar with the condition, whereas those aged 18-24 were the least familiar with PAD (7% "moderately" or "very" familiar with PAD). In the 45-54, 55-64 and 65+ age groups, 9% said they were "moderately" or "very" familiar with the term. There was no important gender-based difference in PAD familiarity. : On an international level, public self-reported PAD awareness is low, even though PAD is a common condition with considerable burden. Campaigns to increase PAD awareness are needed to reduce delays in diagnosis and to motivate people to control PAD risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0301-1526/a000945DOI Listing
July 2021

Cholesterol, carotid artery disease and stroke: what the vascular specialist needs to know.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Oct;8(19):1265

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital Campus, University College London Medical School, University College London (UCL), London, UK.

Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for carotid artery stenosis and stroke. Statins are the main drugs for the management of hypercholesterolemia and they are strongly recommended by international guidelines for the management of vascular patients. The present review will focus on the associations between cholesterol, carotid artery stenosis and stroke and will cover several topics, including the conservative and perioperative/periprocedural management of carotid patients, the effect of statins on contrast-induced nephropathy developing after endovascular carotid interventions, the role of statin loading prior to endovascular procedures, as well as the indirect beneficial effects of statin treatment on renal function. It will also discuss the topics of statin intolerance and alternative cholesterol-lowering options for statin-intolerant vascular patients. Cholesterol levels play a prognostic role in carotid patients with regards to both short- and long-term stroke and mortality rates. Physicians should keep in mind the pivotal role of cholesterol levels in determining cardiovascular outcomes and the pleiotropic beneficial effects associated with statin use and should not miss the opportunity for cardiovascular risk reduction with aggressive statin treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607102PMC
October 2020

Chronic Limb Threatening Ischaemia: Hits and Misses.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 11 22;60(5):643-644. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Biomedical and Preclinical Sciences, GIGA Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.08.029DOI Listing
November 2020

Renal Artery Outcomes After Open Repair of Suprarenal or Type IV Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 11 1;60(5):678-686. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid and long term patency of elective renal artery reconstructions during open surgical repair of suprarenal aortic aneurysms (SRAA) and type 4 thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms (T4AAA).

Methods: This retrospective, single centre study included all consecutive patients who underwent surgery for SRAA or T4AAA between January 2009 and December 2019 at Toulouse University Hospital. All patients underwent strict pre-operative planning with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and 3D reconstruction of the aortic aneurysm, visceral and renal artery anatomy to choose the most appropriate surgical technique for each case. Primary patency, primary assisted patency, and rates of re-intervention were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: In total, 103 patients, having undergone 159 renal artery revascularisation procedures, were enrolled in the study. Fifty-five patients presented with a type T4AAA and 48 patients with a SRAA. In hospital mortality was 2.9%. In association with aortic surgery, 100 direct re-implantation (62.8%), 48 retrograde bypasses (30.1%), and 11 anterograde bypasses (6.9%) of the renal arteries were performed. Median follow up was 45.9 ± 36 months. Renal artery primary patency rates were 99.4%, 96.4%, and 93.1% at one, three, and five years, respectively. Assisted primary patency rates were 99.4%, 97.7%, and 97.7% at one, three, and five years, respectively, with five cases of renal stenosis > 70% successfully treated by renal stenting. No significant difference in patency was found regarding the type of renal revascularisation.

Conclusion: This retrospective study suggests that the mid term patency of elective open renal artery reconstruction during SRAA and type T4AAA surgery preceded by pre-operative planning with 3D-CTA reconstruction, yields excellent outcomes whatever the technique used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.07.052DOI Listing
November 2020

Protocol of supra-visceral aortic ischemic preconditioning for open surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm : The EPICATA study (Evaluation of the Efficacy of Ischemic PreConditioning on morbidity and mortality in open ThoracoAbdominal Aortic surgery).

BMC Surg 2020 Aug 27;20(1):193. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of vascular surgery and Inserm U1096, Rouen University Hospital, 1 rue de Germont, 76031, Rouen Cedex, France.

Background: Open surgical repair (OSR) for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA) is associated with a high pulmonary and renal morbidity rate. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a mechanism of protection against the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion. To our knowledge IPC has never been tested during OSR for TAA.

Methods: The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of IPC during OSR for TAA with respect to acute kidney injury (AKI) according to KDIGO and pneumonia/prolonged ventilation-time during the first 8 postoperative days. The secondary objectives are to compare both arms with respect to cardiac complications within 48 h, renal and pulmonary complications within 21 days and mortality at 60 days. To assess the efficacy of IPC with respect to pulmonary and renal morbidity, a cox model for competing risks will be used. Assuming that the event occurs among 36% of the patients when no IPC is performed, the allocation of 55 patients to each arm should allow detecting a hazard ratio of at least 2.75 with a power of 80% when admitting 5% for an error of first kind. This means that 110 patients, enrolled in this multicenter study, may be randomised within 36 months of the first randomization. Randomization will be performed to allocate patients either to surgery with preconditioning before aortic cross clamping (Arm 1) or to surgery without preconditioning before aortic cross clamping (Arm 2). Randomization takes place during the intervention after intravenous injection of heparin, or after the start of femoral assistance. The procedure for IPC will be a supra-visceral thoracic aortic cross clamping for 5 min followed by an unclamping period of 5 min. This procedure will be repeated twice before starting thoracic aortic cross clamping needed to perform surgery.

Conclusions: Our hypothesis is that ischemic preconditioning could reduce clinical morbidity and the incidence of lung damage associated with supra-visceral aortic clamping.

Trial Registration: EPICATAStudy registered in ClinicalTrial.gov / number: NCT03718312 on Oct.24.2018 URL number.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-020-00851-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457237PMC
August 2020

Intravascular Ultrasound-Assisted Endovascular Exclusion of Penetrating Aortic Ulcers.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Jan 4;70:467-473. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital of Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Background: Penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) is an atherosclerotic lesion penetrating the elastic lamina and extending into the media of the aorta. It may evolve into intramural hematoma, focal dissection, pseudoaneurysm, and eventually rupture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a totally intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-assisted endovascular exclusion of PAU.

Methods: Thirteen consecutive patients (median age 66 years) underwent IVUS-assisted endovascular exclusion of PAU. The primary end points were fluoroscopy time, radiation dose, and occurrence of type I primary endoleak. Secondary end points were postoperative mortality and morbidity, arterial access complications, postoperative length of stay in the hospital, and occurrence of type II endoleaks.

Results: The median fluoroscopy time was 4 min (4-5). The median radiation dose was 4.2 mGy (3.9-4.5). A proximal and distal landing zone of at least 2 cm could be obtained in all the patients. No patient presented a type I endoleak. No postoperative mortality, no morbidity, or arterial access complication was observed. The median length of postoperative stay in the hospital was 2 days (2-3). The median length of follow-up was 25 months (9.2-38.7). One late type II endoleak was observed (7.7%), because of reflux from the intercostal arteries, without the need for additional treatment.

Conclusions: IVUS-assisted endovascular treatment of PAU allows durable exclusion of PAU with a short fluoroscopy time and no need for injection of contrast media. Further series are needed to confirm the results of this preliminary study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.06.059DOI Listing
January 2021

In situ bypass and extra-anatomic bypass procedures result in similar survival in patients with secondary aortoenteric fistulas.

J Vasc Surg 2021 01 21;73(1):210-221.e1. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: The optimal revascularization modality in secondary aortoenteric fistula (SAEF) remains unclear in the literature. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the revascularization approach associated with the lowest morbidity and mortality using real-world data in patients with SAEF.

Methods: A retrospective, multi-institutional study of SAEF from 2002 to 2014 was performed using a standardized database. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, and operative and postoperative variables were recorded. The primary outcome was long-term mortality. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.

Results: During the study period, 182 patients at 34 institutions from 11 countries presented with SAEF (median age, 72 years; 79% male). The initial aortic procedures that resulted in SAEF were 138 surgical grafts (76%) and 42 endografts (23%), with 2 unknown; 102 of the SAEFs (56%) underwent complete excision of infected aortic graft material, followed by in situ (in-line) bypass (ISB), including antibiotic-soaked prosthetic graft (53), autogenous femoral vein (neoaortoiliac surgery; 17), cryopreserved allograft (28), and untreated prosthetic grafts (4). There were 80 patients (44%) who underwent extra-anatomic bypass (EAB) with infected graft excision. Overall median Kaplan-Meier estimated survival was 319 days (interquartile range, 20-2410 days). Stratified by EAB vs ISB, there was no significant difference in Kaplan-Meier estimated survival (P = .82). In comparing EAB vs ISB, EAB patients were older (74 vs 70 years; P = .01), had less operative hemorrhage (1200 mL vs 2000 mL; P = .04), were more likely to initiate dialysis within 30 days postoperatively (15% vs 5%; P = .02), and were less likely to experience aorta-related hemorrhage within 30 days postoperatively (3% aortic stump dehiscence vs 11% anastomotic rupture; P = .03). There were otherwise no significant differences in presentation, comorbidities, and intraoperative or postoperative variables. Multivariable Cox regression showed that the duration of antibiotic use (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.98; P = .01) and rifampin use at time of discharge (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.86; P = .03) independently decreased mortality.

Conclusions: These data suggest that ISB does not offer a survival advantage compared with EAB and does not decrease the risk of postoperative aorta-related hemorrhage. After repair, <50% of SAEF patients survive 10 months. Each week of antibiotic use decreases mortality by 8%. Further study with risk modeling is imperative for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.04.515DOI Listing
January 2021

Re Durability of Open Repair of Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 07 4;60(1):150-151. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital of Poitiers, Poitiers, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.04.004DOI Listing
July 2020

Complete aortic replacement in aortitis due to aseptic abscess syndrome.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2020 Jun 23;6(2):216-220. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

A 36-year-old man was admitted for a tender inflammatory type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with multiple aortic dilations. After open repair, he remained frail, but results of all infectious and inflammatory investigations were negative. Hypermetabolic intrasplenic collections were discovered on postoperative computed tomography, and aortitis with aseptic abscess syndrome was strongly suggested. Immunosuppressive therapy was undertaken, and his health improved dramatically. After 7 years of treatment, however, the initial aortic dilations had developed in size, necessitating multiple surgical procedures leading to complete aortic replacement. The postoperative course was uneventful with a satisfactory final computed tomography scan. Subsequent to immunotherapy, no new aneurysm developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2020.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184059PMC
June 2020

The benefit of deferred carotid revascularization in patients with moderate-severe disabling cerebral ischemic stroke.

J Vasc Surg 2021 01 26;73(1):117-124. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Vascular Surgery, University of Bologna "Alma Mater Studiorum", Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

Objective: Symptomatic carotid artery stenosis needs revascularization within 2 weeks by carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to reduce the risk of symptom recurrence; however, the optimal timing of intervention is yet to be defined in patients with large-volume cerebral ischemic lesion (LVCIL) and modified Rankin scale (mRS) score ≥3. The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate timing for CEA in patients with a recent stroke and LVCIL.

Methods: Data from patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis with LVCIL and mRS score of 3 or 4 from 2007 to 2017 were considered. Patients were submitted to CEA if they had a stable clinical condition and life expectancy >1 year. LVCIL was defined as a cerebral ischemic lesion of volume >4000 mm. Perioperative stroke and death were evaluated by stratifying for timing of CEA by χ test and multiple logistic regression. Patients with similar characteristics (LVCIL and mRS score of 3 or 4) unfit for CEA served as the control group for recurrence of stroke at 1-year follow-up.

Results: In an 11-year period, of a total 4020 CEAs, 126 (2.9%) were performed in patients with a moderate stroke and LVCIL occurring in the same admission. The patients' median age was 69 years (interquartile range [IQR], 10 years); 72% (91) were male, with mRS score of 3 (IQR, 1) and LVCIL volume of 20,000 mm (IQR, 47,000 mm). The median time elapsed from symptoms to CEA was 7 weeks (IQR, 8 weeks). Overall perioperative stroke/death was 7.3% (eight strokes and one death). By selective timing evaluation of the postoperative events, CEA performed within 4 weeks was associated with a significantly higher rate of stroke/death compared with patients operated on after 4 weeks: 11.9% (8/67) vs 1.7% (1/59; P = .03). By logistic regression, CEA within 4 weeks was an independent (from sex, cerebral ischemic lesion volume, dyslipidemia, and carotid stenosis) predictor of postoperative stroke/death (odds ratio, 8.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-73). In the same period, 101 patients were considered unfit for CEA for dementia (n = 22), severe comorbidities (n = 55), or short (<1-year) life expectancy (n = 24), and 43 (43%) survived at 1 year. At 1 year, the perioperative/recurrent stroke after CEA vs patients unfit for CEA was similar (6.2% vs 13.9%; P = .11), but CEA performed after 4 weeks led to significantly lower perioperative/recurrent stroke (1.7% vs 13.9%; P = .02).

Conclusions: The surgical risk of CEA in patients with a recent moderate-severe ischemic stroke and LVCIL is high. However, if the intervention is delayed >4 weeks, its benefit seems significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.03.043DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-term Efficacy of EVAR in Patients Aged Less Than 65 Years with an Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Favorable Anatomy.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Aug 10;67:283-292. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Vascular Surgery, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Policlinico Sant'Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare early and long-term outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) versus open surgical repair (OSR) in patients aged ≤ 65 years.

Methods: Data of patients aged ≤65 years undergoing infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, between 2005 and 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. All EVAR procedures were performed according to the instruction for use, and only OSR procedures with an infrarenal aortic cross-clamping were included in the study.

Results: In this group of 115 patients (EVAR: 58 patients, 51% and OSR: 57 patients, 49%), EVAR and OSR patients had similar comorbidities, except for obesity (EVAR: 38% vs. OSR: 19%; P = 0.03). A stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was necessary in 19% of patients with EVAR versus 79% with OSR (P = 0.001), and the amount of blood transfusion was 236 ± 31 mL for EVAR versus 744 ± 98 mL for OSR (P = 0.001). The hospital stay was 4 ± 2 days for EVAR versus 9 ± 6 days for OSR (P = 0.03). The overall 30-day mortality was 1% (EVAR: 0% vs. OSR: 2%; P = 0.30). Five patients (4%) required reinterventions within 30 days (EVAR: 0% vs. OSR: 8%, P = 0.001). The mean follow-up was 86 ± 38 months. Freedom from reintervention at 10 years after EVAR was 81% versus OSR 74%; (P = 0.77). Late reinterventions were reported in 13 patients (23%) with OSR and in 10 patients (17%) with EVAR. Postoperative retrograde ejaculation occurred more often in patients with OSR (31%) versus EVAR (2%) (P = 0.001). During the follow-up, cancer was found in 19 (17%) patients with no difference between EVAR and OSR (P = 0.83). The global survival at 10 years was 72% (EVAR: 79% vs. OSR: 70%; P = 0.94).

Conclusions: In this study, EVAR was associated with a shorter hospital stay, less need for the ICU, and less early reinterventions than OSR. Survival and reinterventions during the follow-up were not significantly different between EVAR and OSR. According to these results, EVAR may be considered for patients aged ≤65 years with a favorable anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.03.038DOI Listing
August 2020

Asymptomatic carotid stenosis revisited with nose to the grindstone.

J Vasc Surg 2020 07 4;72(1):383-384. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital of Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.01.080DOI Listing
July 2020

Long-term results of polytetrafluoroethylene versus saphenous vein repair of degenerative carotid artery aneurysm.

J Vasc Surg 2020 10 5;72(4):1413-1420. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Surgical Research, The University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Objective: To compare the results of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and great saphenous vein (GSV) bypass after resection of a degenerative aneurysm of the carotid artery.

Methods: From January 1994 to November 2017, 37 patients (27 men) with a mean age of 58 years (range, 39-82 years) with a degenerative aneurysm of the carotid artery (median diameter, 28 mm; range, 19-42 mm), underwent resection of the aneurysm followed by a bypass with either a GSV (n = 10) or a PTFE prosthesis (n = 27). Although 31 patients were asymptomatic, 6 patients were symptomatic: transient ischemic attack (n = 4), minor stroke (n = 1), and compression of the hypoglossal nerve (n = 1). The preoperative workup included duplex ultrasound examination of the arteries to the head, and angiography or computed tomography angiography. All patients were operated under general anesthesia and six were intubated through the nose. Sixteen patients were monitored through transcutaneous oximetry. No shunt was used in this series. In 10 patients receiving a PTFE graft, the external carotid artery was implanted in the prosthesis. Mean follow-up was 16.9 ± 2 years (95% confidence interval, 14.5-19.3 years). Primary end points were the 30-day combined stroke/death rate, graft infection, late graft patency, and late stroke-free survival. Secondary end points were cranial nerve injury and length of postoperative hospital stay.

Results: Postoperative mortality was nil in both groups. One postoperative stroke was observed in the PTFE group, whereas none occurred in the GSV group (P = .84). No graft infection was observed in either group. At 10 years, survival in the GSV group was 80 ± 12%, and survival in the PTFE group was 76 ± 8% (log-rank [Mantel-Cox], P = .85). In the GSV group, graft patency at 7 and 10 years was 85 ± 13%. In the PTFE group B, graft patency was 100% (log-rank [Mantel-Cox], P = .12). No late stroke was observed. Two transient cranial nerve injuries were observed in the GSV group (20%) and two in the PTFE group (8%) (P = .97). Length of hospital stay was comparable in both groups (GSV group, 6 days; PTFE group, 5 days; P = .12).

Conclusions: This study suggests that, after resection of a degenerative aneurysm of the carotid artery, bypass with a PTFE prosthesis gives comparable results to those obtained with the GSV. We recommend sparing the GSV and instead using a PTFE prosthesis in patients with a degenerative aneurysm of the carotid artery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.054DOI Listing
October 2020

Corrigendum to "Real Life Lessons in Peripheral Artery Disease - A Priority for Public Healthcare" [Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 59 (1) (2020) 5-6].

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 04 31;59(4):679. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Biomedical and Preclinical Sciences, GIGA Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Liège, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.01.017DOI Listing
April 2020

Real Life Lessons in Peripheral Artery Disease - A Priority for Public Healthcare.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 01;59(1):5-6

Department of Biomedical and Preclinical Sciences, GIGA Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Liège, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.12.003DOI Listing
January 2020

Rebirth of an ESVS Journal - The New and Interactive EJVES Vascular Forum.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 Jan;59(1):3-4

Department of Clinical Research and Innovation, University Hospital of Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.12.001DOI Listing
January 2020

Peroperative Intravascular Ultrasound for Endovascular Aneurysm Repair versus Peroperative Angiography: A Pilot Study in Fit Patients with Favorable Anatomy.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Apr 11;64:54-61. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Clinical Research, University of Poitiers, CHU de Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assistance for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to standard assistance by angiography.

Methods: From June 2015 to June 2017, 173 consecutive patients underwent EVAR. In this group, 69 procedures were IVUS-assisted with X-ray exposure limited to completion angiography for safety purposes because an IVUS probe does not yet incorporate a duplex probe (group A), and 104 were angiography-assisted procedures (group B). All IVUS-assisted procedures were performed by vascular surgeons with basic duplex ultrasound (DUS) training. The primary study endpoints were mean radiation dose, duration of fluoroscopy, amount of contrast media administered, procedure-related outcomes, and renal clearance expressed as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) before and after the procedure. Secondary endpoints were operative mortality, morbidity, and arterial access complications.

Results: Mean duration of fluoroscopy time was significantly lower for IVUS-assisted procedures (24 ± 15 min vs. 40 ± 30 min for angiography-assisted procedures, P < 0.01). Moreover, mean radiation dose (Air KERMA) was significantly lower in IVUS-assisted procedures (76m Gy [44-102] vs. 131 mGy [58-494]), P < 0.01. IVUS-assisted procedures required fewer contrast media than standard angiography-assisted procedures (60 ± 20 mL vs. 120 ± 40 mL, P < 0.01). The mean duration of the procedure was comparable in the two groups (120 ± 30 min vs. 140 ± 30 min, P = 0.07). No difference in renal clearance before and after the procedure was observed in either of the two groups (99.0 ± 4/97.8 ± 2 mL/min in group A and 98.0 ± 3/97.6 ± 5 mL/min in group B) (P = 0.28). The mean length of follow-up was nine months (6-30 months). No postoperative mortality, morbidity, or arterial access complications occurred. No type 1 endoleak was observed. Early type II endoleaks were observed in 21 patients (11%), 12 in the angiography-assisted group (11%) and nine in the IVUS-assisted group (12%). They were not associated with sac enlargement ≥5 mm diameter and therefore did not require any additional treatment.

Conclusions: Compared with standard angiography-assisted EVAR, IVUS significantly reduces renal load with contrast media, fluoroscopy time, and radiation dose while preserving endograft deployment efficiency. Confirmation from a large prospective study with improved IVUS probes will be required before IVUS-assisted EVAR alone can become standard practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2019.11.013DOI Listing
April 2020
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