Publications by authors named "Jean-Baptiste Nikiema"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The role of intellectual property rights on access to medicines in the WHO African region: 25 years after the TRIPS agreement.

BMC Public Health 2021 03 11;21(1):490. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Adjunct Faculty, Daystar University School of Law, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: It is now 25 years since the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the same concerns raised during its negotiations such as high prices of medicines, market exclusivity and delayed market entry for generics remain relevant as highlighted recently by the Ebola and COVID-19 pandemics. The World Health Organization's (WHO) mandate to work on the interface between intellectual property, innovation and access to medicine has been continually reinforced and extended to include providing support to countries on the implementation of TRIPS flexibilities in collaboration with stakeholders. This study analyses the role of intellectual property on access to medicines in the African Region.

Methods: We analyze patent data from the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) and Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle (OAPI) to provide a situational analysis of patenting activity and trends. We also review legislation to assess how TRIPS flexibilities are implemented in countries.

Results: Patenting was low for African countries. Only South Africa and Cameroon appeared in the list of top ten originator countries for ARIPO and OAPI respectively. Main diseases covered by African patents were HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular diseases, cancers and tumors. Majority countries have legislation allowing for compulsory licensing and parallel importation of medicines, while the least legislated flexibilities were explicit exemption of pharmaceutical products from patentable subject matter, new or second use of patented pharmaceutical products, imposition of limits to patent term extension and test data protection. Thirty-nine countries have applied TRIPS flexibilities, with the most common being compulsory licensing and least developed country transition provisions.

Conclusions: Opportunities exist for WHO to work with ARIPO and OAPI to support countries in reviewing their legislation to be more responsive to public health needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10374-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951129PMC
March 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on blood supply and demand in the WHO African Region.

Vox Sang 2021 Aug 2;116(7):774-784. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

Background And Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected millions of people worldwide and caused disruptions at the global level including in healthcare provision. Countries of the WHO African region have put in place measures for the COVID-19 pandemic containment that may adversely affect blood system activities and subsequently reduce the supply and demand of blood and blood components. This study aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on blood supply and demand in the WHO African Region and propose measures to address the challenges faced by countries.

Materials And Methods: A survey questionnaire was sent to all 47 countries in the WHO African Region to collect information on blood supply and demand for the first 5 months of 2019 and 2020, respectively, and on COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma therapy in September 2020.

Results: Thirty-seven countries provided responses. The total number of blood donations dropped in 32 countries while it increased in five countries. The proportion of blood drives also decreased in 21 countries and increased in nine countries. The blood requested and issued for transfusion decreased for blood demand and for blood issued for transfusion in 30 countries. Ten countries reported some activities of convalescent plasma. However, very few units of this product collected have been transfused to COVID-19 patients.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a reduction of blood related activities in the region, including the supply and demand. Countries preparedness plans for health emergencies need more emphasis to maintaining blood stock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.13071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014179PMC
August 2021

Prevention, Detection and Response to incidences of substandard and falsified medical products in the Member States of the Southern African Development Community.

J Pharm Policy Pract 2020 20;13:71. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

WHO Regional Office for Africa, Medicines, Infrastructure and Medical Equipment Unit, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

Background: Medical products are an integral and pivotal part of health care delivery. They need to be available, affordable and quality-assured. The SADC region is prone to threats arising from the availability and use of substandard and falsified (SF) medical products. This is something that needs to be actively addressed.

Method: A survey, constructed around four themes, was carried out between September 2018 and January 2019. The National Medicines Regulatory Authorities (NMRAs) of the 16 Member States within the SADC region were asked to respond to the survey questionnaire. The objective was to map existing fameworks, mechanisms and approaches to prevention, detection and response (PDR) to SF medical products.

Results: Responses were received from twelve out of the sixteen NMRAs. Only three of the twelve respondents had included elements for PDR for SF medical products in their national medicine policies. Regardless of the status in terms of policies, legislation is however in place for the majority of NMRAs. The mandate for regular sampling, an important detection mechanism, was enshrined in the legislation of nine of the twelve respondents. In terms of response mechanisms, six of the respondents had both inter-agency and intra-agency co-ordination for responding to SF products.

Conclusion: Though findings point to some deficiencies in terms of policies and implementation plans, the majority of countries have the mandate and legislation to deal with substandard and falsified medical products. Effective enforcement requires more investments into human resources, infrastructure, stakeholder coordination and public outreach. WHO has an important source of actionable information about incidience of substandard and falsified medical products. It needs to be leveraged to improve outreach to stakeholders and to raise awareness about SF problem and mechanisms available to address it. The extent, to which mechanisms and procedures are in place, varies. Some elements of the desired approach exist in the region; however, they will benefit from targeted strengthening to ensure a holistic approach across 12 action areas recommended by WHO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00257-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574476PMC
October 2020

A review of policies and programmes for human organ and tissue donations and transplantations, WHO African Region.

Bull World Health Organ 2020 Jun 28;98(6):420-425. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Cite du Djoue, P.O. Box 06, Brazzaville, Congo.

Several resolutions, endorsed by the World Health Assembly and the United Nations General Assembly, articulate the need to improve the availability, quality and safety of organ and tissue donation and transplantation, as well as to prevent and combat trafficking in human organs. Here we assessed the implementation of these resolutions pertaining to organ and tissue donations and transplantations by sending out a questionnaire to all 47 countries in the World Health Organization African Region. From 33 countries that provided data, we identified several obstacles and challenges. Compared to other regions, there are very limited data on organ donation and transplantation. Most countries are lacking legal and regulatory frameworks, since they did not yet establish a specific or comprehensive legislation covering donation and transplantation of human organs and tissues. Countries also have a poor national capacity to perform organ and tissue transplantations and the organization and management of national programmes are weak. Funding, both from domestic and external sources, is insufficient to implement effective transplantations programmes and patients have inadequate financial protection. To address these challenges, we propose that countries and partners should develop and implement policies, strategies, plans and regulatory frameworks for all aspects of organ and tissue donations and transplantations, including fighting against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. Where donation and transplantation programmes exist, stakeholders should develop the skills of human resources, adopt technical standards and quality management procedures to improve donation and transplantation of human organs and tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.19.236992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265924PMC
June 2020

Resilient health systems for attaining universal health coverage.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 5;4(Suppl 9):e002006. Epub 2019 Oct 5.

Health Systems and Services Cluster, World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6797417PMC
October 2019

Towards universal health coverage: advancing the development and use of traditional medicines in Africa.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 11;4(Suppl 9):e001517. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

World Health Organization, Inter-Country Support Team for Eastern & Southern Africa, Health systems and services cluster, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe.

African traditional medicine (ATM) and traditional health practitioners (THPs) could make significant contributions to the attainment of universal health coverage (UHC). Consequently, the WHO provided technical tools to assist African countries to develop ATM as a significant component of healthcare. Many African countries adopted the WHO tools after appropriate modifications to advance research and development (R&D) of ATM. An analysis of the extent of this development was undertaken through a survey of 47 countries in the WHO African region. Results show impressive advances in R&D of ATM, the collaboration between THP and conventional health practitioners, quality assurance as well as regulation, registration and THP integration into the national health systems. We highlight the various ways investment in the R&D of ATM can impact on policy, practice and the three themes of UHC. We underscore the need for frameworks for fair and equitable sharing of all benefits arising from the R&D of ATM products involving all the stakeholders. We argue for further investment in ATM as a complement to conventional medicine to promote attainment of the objectives of UHC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6797325PMC
October 2019

Blood Safety Status in WHO African Region Countries: Lessons Learnt from Mauritius.

J Blood Transfus 2017 17;2017:1970479. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

WHO Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.

In 2001, the WHO Office for Africa adopted a strategy for blood safety defining four targets. This paper describes the progress made by Mauritius in the implementation of this strategy. The blood safety indicators were collected and compared with the norms recommended by WHO. The country has formulated its blood policy and developed a strategic plan for its implementation since 2004. The total number of blood donations increased from 31,228 in 2002 to 43,742 in 2016, giving an annual blood collection rate evolving from 26.3 per 1000 inhabitants in 2002 to 34.2 per 1000 inhabitants in 2016. The percentage of voluntary donations rose from 60% to 82.5%. Since 2002, all the blood units collected have been tested for the mandatory infectious markers. The Blood Transfusion Service has been certified ISO2008-9001 and nucleic acid testing has been introduced. The preparation of blood components increased from 60% to 98.2%. The most transfused blood components were red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, and fresh frozen plasma. In addition to transfusion activities, there were other departments performing antenatal serology, tissue typing, special investigations, and reagent preparation. Despite the progress made, some challenges remain, namely, legal framework and haemovigilance system. A regulatory system for blood needs to be established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/1970479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664371PMC
October 2017

BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF EXTRACTS FROM POIR (FABACEAE) ROOT BARKS.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2017 23;14(1):187-195. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Département de médecine-pharmacopée traditionnelle/pharmacie (IRSS/CNRST) 03 BP 7192 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.

Background: Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso's folk medicine. Roots of are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from roots, to isolate pure compounds, and to evaluate their pharmacological activities.

Methods: Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of active components of the extracts. The structures were established by NMR analysis and comparison with data from literature. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using croton oil-induced edema of mice ear as well as the effect of extracts against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation was evaluated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

Results: Friedelin (1), 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one (2), a-sophoradiol (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from DCM extract and maltol-6--apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) isolated from MeOH. DCM extract and friedelin, 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one, a-sophoradiol showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema. Friedelin (1), α-sophoradiol (3) and maltol-6--apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. MeOH extract (100 μg/mL) inhibited lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities at 45.1 ± 3% and 30.7 ± 0.5% respectively. MeOH extract, ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction exhibited antioxidant property with both two methods used.

Conclusion: The results suggested that the extracts and compounds from roots of possessed local anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant properties and inhibitor effect against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v14i1.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5411871PMC
June 2017

[Molecular diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in patients in gastroenterology consultation at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou].

Pan Afr Med J 2015 15;21:123. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni (CERBA)/LABIOGENE, Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso ; Centre Médical Saint Camille (CMSC) Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.21.123.6001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4546728PMC
June 2016

Prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Burkina Faso: evaluation of vertical transmission by PCR, molecular characterization of subtypes and determination of antiretroviral drugs resistance.

Glob Health Action 2015 27;8:26065. Epub 2015 Jan 27.

Biomolecular Research Centre Pietro Annigoni (CERBA/LABIOGENE), University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, West Africa; Saint Camille Medical Centre, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Background: Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is a public health problem in Burkina Faso. The main objective of this study on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission was to determine the residual risk of HIV transmission in infants born to mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Moreover, we detect HIV antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance among mother-infant pairs and identify subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) in Burkina Faso.

Design: In this study, 3,215 samples of pregnant women were analyzed for HIV using rapid tests. Vertical transmission was estimated by polymerase chain reaction in 6-month-old infants born to women who tested HIV positive. HIV-1 resistance to ARV, subtypes, and CRFs was determined through ViroSeq kit using the ABI PRISM 3,130 sequencer.

Results: In this study, 12.26% (394/3,215) of the pregnant women were diagnosed HIV positive. There was 0.52% (2/388) overall vertical transmission of HIV, with rates of 1.75% (2/114) among mothers under prophylaxis and 0.00% (0/274) for those under HAART. Genetic mutations were also isolated that induce resistance to ARV such as M184V, Y115F, K103N, Y181C, V179E, and G190A. There were subtypes and CRF of HIV-1 present, the most common being: CRF06_CPX (58.8%), CRF02_AG (35.3%), and subtype G (5.9%).

Conclusions: ARV drugs reduce the residual rate of HIV vertical transmission. However, the virus has developed resistance to ARV, which could limit future therapeutic options when treatment is needed. Resistance to ARV therefore requires a permanent interaction between researchers, physicians, and pharmacists, to strengthen the network of monitoring and surveillance of drug resistance in Burkina Faso.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309832PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v8.26065DOI Listing
September 2015

A variant of DC-SIGN gene promoter associated with resistance to HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples in Burkina Faso.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014 Sep;7S1:S93-6

Biomolecular Research Center Pietro Annigoni CERBA/Labiogene University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Objective: To study the involvement of variations in 4 genes associated with susceptibility and/or protection against HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples in Burkina Faso, namely, genes encoding HLA-B57, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and CCR5 delta 32 (CCR5Δ32).

Methods: Two DC-SIGN and two IRF1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as HLA-B57*01 and CCR5Δ32 alleles were genotyped in 51 serodiscordant couples in Burkina Faso. DC-SIGN, IRF1 and HLA-B57*01 genotyping was carried out by real time PCR using TaqMan assays (Applied Biosystems, USA and Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy). CCR5Δ32 deletion was investigated by PCR.

Results: The two SNPs of DC-SIGN promoter showed a significant genotypic difference in serodiscordant couples. After multivariate analysis, only the association between DC-SIGN rs2287886 and HIV-1 remained significant (P<0.01). No association was found between IRF1 SNPs and HIV-1 infection. CCR5Δ32 wild type allele was found in 100% of serodiscordant couples. A high frequency of HLA-B57*01 allele was found in the HIV-positive (78%) compared with HIV-negative group (51%), however this difference was no longer significant after the correction of the sex confounding effect in the logistic regression model.

Conclusions: Our study suggests a protective role of a variation of DC-SIGN promoter and genetic resistance to HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples in Burkina Faso.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60211-XDOI Listing
September 2014

Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

PLoS One 2014 24;9(3):e92122. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni (CERBA), Laboratoire de Biologie et Génétique (LABIOGENE), Centre Médical Saint Camille, Ouagadougou, Université de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the highest activity on SF-763 cells. Altogether these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092122PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963878PMC
January 2015

Prevalence of HPV High-Risk Genotypes in Three Cohorts of Women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2013 2;5(1):e2013059. Epub 2013 Sep 2.

"Pietro Annigoni" Centre for Bio-molecular Research CERBA/LABIOGENE, University of Ouagadougou, 01 BP 364 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso ; University of Parakou, PO Box 123, Republic of Benin.

The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30'S and 50'S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30'S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50'S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30'S and 50'S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2013.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3787662PMC
October 2013

Screening of Hepatitis G and Epstein-Barr Viruses Among Voluntary non Remunerated Blood Donors (VNRBD) in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2013 2;5(1):e2013053. Epub 2013 Sep 2.

Pietro Annigoni Biomolecular Research Centre (CERBA)/LABIOGENE, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

In most sub-Saharan countries screening of blood-transmitted infections includes mainly HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Many viruses such as Hepatitis G (HGV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which also carry a risk of transmission by blood transfusion raise the question of the extent of screening for these pathogens. This work aims to evaluate the prevalence of HGV and EBV in first-time blood donors in Ouagadougou. The prevalence of HGV and EBV in 551 blood donors was 7.4% and 5.4% respectively. HGV prevalence was significantly higher in blood donors with hepatitis B antigens and positive for HCV compared to donors negative for HCV and no hepatitis B antigens (respectively p<0.001 and p=0.004). EBV prevalence was higher among blood donors of < 20 years age group. HBV and HCV positive individuals are not eligible for blood donation. This study shows significant results with regard to the prevalence of HGV and EBV prevalence in blood donors in Burkina Faso and emphasizes the need for a general screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2013.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3787664PMC
October 2013

Antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities of Canthium henriquesianum (K. Schum), a plant used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso.

J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Jul 13;148(3):763-9. Epub 2013 May 13.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Pascal 36, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Canthium henriquesianum (K. Schum) is traditionally used in Burkina Faso for the treatment of malaria, but has not been properly investigated, yet. The aim of this study was to characterize in vitro the antiplasmodial and the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Canthium henriquesianum (K. Schum). In parallel, extracts of Gardenia sokotensis (Hutch) and Vernonia colorata (Willd), also traditionally used together in Burkina Faso and already reported with antimalarial activity, were compared.

Materials And Methods: Plant extracts were tested in vitro for antimalarial activity against chloroquine susceptible (D10) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum using the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) by the MTT assay. The selectivity index (SI) was used as the ratio of the activity against the parasites compared to the toxicity of the plant extract against HDF. In vitro cytokine production was assessed by ELISA technique.

Results: Canthium henriquesianum aqueous extract had a moderate antimalarial activity (IC50<50 µg/ml) with a good selectivity index (SI=HDF/D10>7). Canthium henriquesianum diisopropyl ether extract was the most potent inhibitor of parasite growth with an IC50 9.5 µg/ml on W2 and 8.8 µg/ml on D10 and limited toxicity (SI>2). Gardenia sokotensis and Vernonia colorata aqueous extracts were shown to be significantly less active (IC50≥50 µg/ml) with substantial toxicity. In addition, when the production of IL-1β and TNFα by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or hemozoin (malaria pigment) stimulated human THP-1 monocytes was assayed, it was found that the extract of Canthium henriquesianum induced a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-1β, but not of TNFα production, thus confirming its traditional use as antipyretic. By NMR analysis, the chromone was identified as the mostly represented compound in the diisopropyl ether extract of Canthium henriquesianum. Chromone however, was less active as antimalarial than the crude extract and it did not inhibit cytokine production at not toxic doses, indicating that other molecules in the total extracts contribute to the antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory activity.

Conclusion: Canthium henriquesianum seems to possess antimalarial activity in vitro and the ability to inhibit the production of the pyrogenic cytokine IL-1β.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.04.049DOI Listing
July 2013

Asymptomatic malaria correlates with anaemia in pregnant women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

J Biomed Biotechnol 2012 11;2012:198317. Epub 2012 Nov 11.

Biomolecular Research Center Pietro Annigoni-CERBA, Labiogene, UFR/SVT, University of Ouagadougou, 01BP364 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso.

Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT) and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/198317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511849PMC
April 2013

Efficiency of HAART in the prevention of mother to children HIV-1 transmission at Saint Camille medical centre in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012 Dec;5(12):991-4

Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni (CERBA)/LABIOGENE, UFR/SVT, Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Objective: To evaluate efficiency of HAART in the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission.

Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted on 1 300 women attending the antenatal service at Saint Camille Medical Centre from September 2010 to July 2011. The HIV status of mothers was determined by rapid tests and ELISA. Discordant results were confirmed by real-time PCR. PCR was used to determine HIV status of children born from HIV-positive mothers.

Results: Among 1 300 pregnant women tested for HIV, 378 were seropositive. Mothers were predominantly housewives (69.7%), and their mean age was (28.32±0.15) years. The overall prevalence of HIV transmission from mother to child was 4.8% (18/378). This prevalence differed significantly from 0.0% (0/114) to 6.8% (18/264) in children born from mothers under HAART and those with mothers under New Prophylactic Protocol (AZT + 3TC + NVP), respectively (P< 0.01). Children's mortality rate during the medical follow up was 1.3% (5/378). Among 16 women with HIV dubious status by ELISA, the Real Time PCR confirmed 2/16 (12.5%) as HIV positive.

Conclusions: The protocol of prevention of mother to children HIV transmission (PMTCT) is effective. The rate of HIV vertical transmission is significantly reduced. Early diagnosis determined by PCR of children born from HIV-positive mother is necessary and recommended in the context of PMTCT in Burkina Faso. We also found that PCR is an effective tool to confirm HIV status in pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60188-6DOI Listing
December 2012

Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound.

Malar J 2012 Aug 21;11:289. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Centre Interfacultaire de Recherche du Médicament (CIRM), Université de Liège, Av, de I'Hôpital 1, CHU-B36, B-4000, Liège, Belgium.

Background: Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds.

Methods: Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2) using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method). The Peters' four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice) was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay) and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity.

Results: The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml). Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml), which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate) as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 < 1 μg/ml against both 3D7 and W2 strains). This was also found to be the main cytotoxic compound (SI = 3.3). While this melampolide has already been described in the plant, this paper is the first report on the biological properties of this compound.

Conclusions: The present study highlighted the very promising anti-plasmodial activity of D. tomentosa and enabled to identify its main active compound, urospermal A-15-O-acetate. The high anti-plasmodial activity of this compound merits further study about its anti-plasmodial mechanism of action. The active extracts of D. tomentosa, as well as urospermal A 15-O-acetate, displayed only a moderate selectivity, and further studies are needed to assess the safety of the use of the plant by the local population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-11-289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483198PMC
August 2012

Antimalarial plant remedies from Burkina Faso: their potential for prophylactic use.

J Ethnopharmacol 2012 Mar 25;140(2):255-60. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy, Piazza dei Costantini, 62032 Camerino (MC), Italy.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Saye, a combination remedy prepared from Cochlospermum planchonii Hook.f. (Cochlospermaceae), Cassia alata L. (Fabaceae) and Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. et Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae), N'Dribala, a Cochlospermum planchonii root decoction, and a fruit preparation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) are plant remedies of the folk medicine in Burkina Faso and are commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed at validating the antiplasmodial activity of the preparations and at estimating their potential for prophylaxis, using the murine malaria system Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi.

Materials And Methods: Aqueous extracts were orally administered to mice (6 animals per treatment group) at a daily dose of 200mg/kg body weight for nine days, applying protocols that mimic as much as possible traditional recipes and treatment schemes.

Results: Saye, N'Dribala and Azadirachta indica preparations revealed prophylactic activity, reducing parasitaemia in treated mice, with respect to controls, by 52.0% (CI(95) 46.1-57.9), 45.5% (CI(95) 44.5-46.5) and 45.0% (CI(95) 41.1-48.9), respectively. No evidence of transmission blocking effects was detected with any of the tested remedies.

Conclusions: This study confirms, in the murine malaria system, the antiplasmodial properties of the examined remedies on the Plasmodium stages developing in the vertebrate host, thus encouraging studies aiming at identifying the active fractions and compounds responsible for the described activity and to develop standardized prophylactic remedies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.014DOI Listing
March 2012

Effects of a cereal and soy dietary formula on rehabilitation of undernourished children at ouagadougou, in burkina faso.

J Nutr Metab 2012 28;2012:764504. Epub 2011 Nov 28.

Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6-48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of -3.10 and a WAZ z-score of -3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of -1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and "nutrigenetics" in order to combat malnutrition efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/764504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3228284PMC
August 2012

Seroprevalence and incidence of transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases among blood donors from regional blood transfusion centres in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

Trop Med Int Health 2012 Feb 12;17(2):247-53. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Background And Objective: The high prevalence of numerous transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases such as HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa affects blood safety for transfusion recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of transfusion-transmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Burkina Faso.

Methods: A retrospective study of blood donors' records from January to December 2009 was conducted. Prevalence and incidence of viral infections were calculated among repeat and first-time blood donors.

Results: Of the total of 31405 first-time volunteer blood donors in 2009, 24.0% were infected with at least one pathogen and 1.8% had serological evidence of multiple infections. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in first-time volunteer donors was 1.8%, 13.4%, 6.3% and 2.1%, respectively. In 3981 repeat donors, the incidence rate was 3270.2, 5874.1 and 6784.6 per 100000 donations for anti-HIV-1, HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively. These numbers varied significantly according to populations where blood is collected and blood centres in Burkina Faso.

Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of viral markers in first-time volunteers and remarkably high incidence of infections in repeat donors raise concerns regarding the safety of these donors and suggest that implementation of NAT might significantly improve the situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02902.xDOI Listing
February 2012

Enteric parasites prevalence at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011 May 22;4(5):401-3. Epub 2011 Jun 22.

Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of parasitic infections among patients attending Saint Camille Medical Centre and to estimate co-parasitic infections rates.

Methods: From January to December 2009, stool samples were collected from 11 728 persons, aged from five months to 72 years and suffering from gastroenteritis. After macroscopic description, the stools were examined by light microscopy to search for the presence of parasites.

Results: From the 11 728 analyzed stools, 6 154 (52.47%) were infected with at least one parasite. Protozoan frequently encountered were: Giardia intestinalis (43.47%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (30.74%) and Trichomonas intestinalis (21.72%), while Hymenolepis nana (2.25%) was the most common helminth. Co-infections occurred in 22.34% cases. Within the multi-infected samples, dual and triple infections accounted for 71.18% and 20.00%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis for protozoan and Hymenolepis nana for helminths were the most implicated co-infections.

Conclusions: This study confirms that intestinal parasites are still a public health problem in Burkina Faso. To reduce the incidence of parasitic infections, it is necessary to promote the education of people so that they practice the rules of individual and collective hygiene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60112-0DOI Listing
May 2011

HCV prevalence and co-infection with HIV among pregnant women in Saint Camille Medical Centre, Ouagadougou.

Trop Med Int Health 2011 Nov 18;16(11):1392-6. Epub 2011 Jul 18.

Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire, Pietro Annigoni, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Objective: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and the rate of HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in pregnant women attending Saint Camille medical centre (SCMC) in Ouagadougou.

Methods: A total of 607 pregnant women, 16-45 years old, with <32 weeks amenorrhoea were screened for HCV and HIV using rapid tests. The majority of the women included in the study were previously known as HIV infected, as the centre is a reference centre for the programme of prevention against mother-to-child HIV transmission in the country. HCV RNA was extracted and quantified using the cDNA polymerase chain reaction with the nested primers at the 5' untranslated region. Transaminases were measured from plasma samples using spectrophotometric method.

Results: Of women, 62.27% were infected with HIV. The prevalence of HCV was 2.14% in the screened pregnant women: 1.75% in HIV-negative women and 2.38% in HIV-positive ones. This prevalence is not significantly different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women (P = 0.81). HCV RNA was found in all women with anti-HCV. A significant transaminase increase was noted in women infected with HCV (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01 for glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, respectively). Risk factors significantly associated with HCV positivity in pregnant women included transfusion and genital excision. In addition, the infection was linked with the educational level of the women.

Conclusion: The issue of this study revealed that effort should be made to promote safe medical practices and fight against women genital excision that are found to be the main risk factors associated with the HCV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02845.xDOI Listing
November 2011

HIV-infected women of Burkina Faso: a "reservoir" of mycoplasma infection.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2011 Mar 21;5(3):176-81. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni CERBA/LABIOGENE, Centre Medical St Camille, 01 BP 364 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso.

Introduction: The objective of this work was to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasma colonization in 251 HIV-positive compared to 200 HIV-negative women at the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) service of Saint Camille Medical Center  Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

Methodology: After revealing the cervix with a speculum, we collected swabs of vaginal discharge for the detection of pathogenic bacteria.

Results: Among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, we identified respectively: Mycoplasma hominis (16.7% versus 5.5%); Ureaplasma urealyticum (16.3% versus 0.0%); co-infection M. hominis with U. urealyticum (13.14% versus 0.0%); Candida albicans (21.11% versus 41.5%); E. coli (9.96% versus 4.0%); and the presence of abundant vaginal discharge (27.5% versus 5.0%) respectively. The Nugent's score, utilized for the diagnosis of BV, was significantly higher in HIV-positive women (p < 0.001) associated with poor vaginal hygiene practices (p < 0.01) and no use of condoms (p < 0.01). Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumonia, Klebsiella oxitocica, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Gardnerella vaginalis were also isolated, but in a low prevalence ranging from 0% to 5%.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the HIV-positive women of Burkina Faso are frequently affected by BV and represent a reservoir for mycoplasma infection. Since these germs can lead to sterility and premature delivery, it is important to develop a policy of screening. 
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.950DOI Listing
March 2011

Medicinal plants in Baskoure, Kourittenga Province, Burkina Faso: an ethnobotanical study.

J Ethnopharmacol 2011 Jan 13;133(2):378-95. Epub 2010 Oct 13.

Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 42, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Aim Of The Study: The majority of people living in Kourittenga Province, Burkina Faso, are highly dependent on medicinal plants for their daily health care. Knowledge on the use of medicinal plants by traditional healers is being seriously threatened, due to the fact that it is commonly transferred from one generation to another only verbally. Moreover, recent environmental changes, deforestation, and unsustainable rates of exploitation, represent a serious risk for plant species diversity. Thus, there is a need to record and document indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants in this country. The aim of this study was to report on the use of medicinal plants by traditional healers to treat human diseases in a rural area located in the East-Centre Region of Burkina Faso (Baskoure Area), which has not yet been studied from an ethnobotanical point of view.

Materials And Methods: The research was carried out over a period of 8 months, by means of open-ended and semi-structured interviews. A total of 41 traditional healers were interviewed, and group meetings were organised with family members and other local inhabitants having knowledge of traditional medicine.

Results: A total of 190 plant species were recorded. Most medicinal plants used to prepare concoctions were herbs, and leaves were the most frequently used parts. A high percentage of plants were used against gastrointestinal diseases and malaria, which are the prevalent diseases in the study area. The major source of remedies came from wild plants, indicating that cultivation of medicinal plants is not a common practice.

Conclusions: Our study represents an inventory on medicinal plants used in a rural area of Burkina Faso, and confirms that wild plants are widely utilised as health remedies in this area. The collected data may help to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants detained by traditional healers, and represent the preliminary information required in view of a future phytochemical investigation on the most used plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.010DOI Listing
January 2011

Towards the complete eradication of mother-to-child HIV/HBV coinfection at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Burkina Faso, Africa.

Braz J Infect Dis 2010 May-Jun;14(3):219-24

University of Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

The coinfection of HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and their vertical transmission constitute a public health problem in sub-Saharan countries of Africa. The objectives of this research are: i) identify the pregnant women that are coinfected by HIV and HBV at Saint Camille Medical Centre; ii) use three antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, nevirapine and lamivudine) to interrupt the vertical transmission of HIV and HBV from infected mothers; and iii) use the PCR technique to diagnose children who are vertically infected by these viruses in order to offer them an early medical assistance. At Saint Camille Medical Centre, 115 pregnant women, aged from 19 to 41 years, were diagnosed as HIV-positive and, among them, 14 coinfected with HBV. They had at least 32 weeks of amenorrhoea and all of them received the HAART, which contained lamivudine. Two to six months after childbirth, the babies underwent PCR diagnosis for HIV and HBV. The results revealed that, among these mothers, 64.4% were housewives, 36.5% were illiterates, and only 1.7% had a university degree. The rate of vertical transmission of HIV and HBV was 0.0% (0/115) and 21.4% (3/14), respectively. The 3 mothers who transmitted the HBV to their children had all HBsAg, HbeAg, and HBV DNA positive. An antiretroviral therapy that in addition to zidovudine and nevirapine includes lamivudine could, as in the present study, block or reduce the vertical transmission in HIV positive pregnant women who are coinfected with HBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1413-8670(10)70047-7DOI Listing
December 2010

[Traditional medicine in kidney diseases in Burkina Faso].

Nephrol Ther 2010 Feb 2;6(1):35-9. Epub 2009 Oct 2.

Service de néphrologie et hémodialyse, CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso.

Kidney diseases are becoming public health problem worldwide, particularly in Africa. Kidney symptoms are frequent in African population witch have recourse to traditional medicine for primary cares. For a better knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of kidney symptoms, we conducted a prospective study from January to March 2007 to collect the opinion of traditional healers in the area of three towns (Ouagadougou, Ziniare, Fada NGourma) of Burkina Faso. Thirty traditional healers were interrogated and results showed that they had limited knowledge on the kidney, urine origin (70% do not know it) and kidney diseases symptoms. Eighty-three percent of traditional healers found that the origin of kidney symptoms was related to food supplementation. We identify 61 medicinal plants related to 30 families and 51 genders. Combretum micranthum, Chrysantellum americanum and Tamarindus indica were the most frequent species plants under use. This traditional use is justified par bibliographic data on few plants. In conclusion, although traditional healers have limited knowledge on kidney, they continue to provide medicinal plants to treat kidney symptoms. There is a great need, in Burkina Faso, for studies to define the medicinal plants inventory, their evaluation use, and their effects on the kidneys diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nephro.2009.07.011DOI Listing
February 2010

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell disease in Burkina Faso.

Pak J Biol Sci 2007 Feb;10(3):409-14

Centre Medical Saint Camille, 01 BP 364 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso, Italy.

Where malaria is endemic, there is an unexpected association between haemoglobinopathies and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. Their coexistence in a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD) can lead to hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, sepsis, renal failure and vaso-occlusive attacks (VOA). The aim of this research was to determine the impact of G-6-PD deficiency in SCD patients. That is why, we screened haemoglobinopathies and G-6-PD deficiency in 7 villages and at 10 primary schools in Kadiogo Province, Burkina Faso. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed on blood from 18,383 people. From these results, we chose 342 subjects for a hemogram and the measure of the G-6-PD activity. The results were analyzed with Epilnfo-6 and Spss-10. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. We found a prevalence of 28.9% of Sickle Cell Trait (SCT), 1.3% of Major Sickle Cell Syndromes (MSCS), 12.3% of G-6-PD deficiency among women and 20.5% among men. We did not detect a statistically significant difference for counts of erythrocytes (p = 0.773), leucocytes (p = 0.227) and reticulocytes (0.292); hemoglobin levels (p = 0.998); annual vasoocclusive attacks (p = 0.869) between persons with SCD having a G-6-PD deficiency and those with normal G-6-PD activity. According to this study, G-6-PD deficiency does not seem to increase the severity of SCD. However, these patients should know their G-6-PD genotype in order to avoid consuming oxidative drugs that might provoke oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.409.414DOI Listing
February 2007

Nutrition rehabilitation of HIV-infected and HIV-negative undernourished children utilizing spirulina.

Ann Nutr Metab 2005 Nov-Dec;49(6):373-80. Epub 2005 Oct 11.

Unit of Formation and of Research in Sciences of Life and of the Earth, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an alimentary integrator composed of spirulina (Spirulina platensis; SP), produced at the Centre Médical St Camille of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, on the nutritional status of undernourished HIV-infected and HIV-negative children. We compared two groups of children: 84 were HIV-infected and 86 were HIV-negative. The duration of the study was 8 weeks. Anthropometric and haematological parameters allowed us to appreciate both the nutritional and biological effect of SP supplement to traditional meals. Rehabilitation with SP shows on average a weight gain of 15 and 25 g/day in HIV-infected and HIV-negative children, respectively. The level of anaemia decreased during the study in all children, but recuperation was less efficient among HIV-infected children. In fact 81.8% of HIV-negative undernourished children recuperated as opposed to 63.6% of HIV-infected children (Z: 1.70 (95% CI -0.366, -0.002, p = 0.088)). Our results confirm that SP is a good food supplement for undernourished children. In particular, rehabilitation with SP also seems to correct anaemia and weight loss in HIV-infected children, and even more quickly in HIV-negative undernourished children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000088889DOI Listing
January 2006
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