Publications by authors named "Jean Schmitt"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Protection Level and Reusability of a Modified Full-Face Snorkel Mask as Alternative Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 01 17;34(1):110-118. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Institute of Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093, Switzerland.

The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 has drastically increased pressure on medical resources and highlighted the need for rapidly available, large-scale, and low-cost personal protective equipment (PPE). In this work, an alternative full-face mask is adapted from a modified snorkel mask to be used as PPE with two medical-grade filters and a 3D-printed adapter. Since the mask covers the eyes, mouth, and nose, it acts as a full-face shield, providing additional protection to healthcare workers. The SARS-CoV-2 has a size between 60 nm and 140 nm, and airborne viral particles can be carried by larger droplets with sizes up to several millimeters. The minimum filtration efficiency of mechanical and electrostatic filters is usually reached between 30 nm and 300 nm. The filtration efficiency of different medical filters is measured for particles below 300 nm to cover the size of the SARS-CoV-2 and small virus-laden droplets, and determine the minimum efficiency. The filtration performance of the adapted full-face mask is characterized using NaCl particles below 500 nm and different fitting scenarios to determine the minimum protection efficiency. The mask is compared to a commercial respirator and characterized according to the EN 149 standard, demonstrating that the protection fulfills the requirements for the FFP2 level (filtering face-piece 2, stopping at least 94% of airborne particles). The device shows a good resistance to several cycles of decontamination (autoclaving and ethanol immersion), is easy to be produced locally at low cost, and helps to address the shortage in FFP2 masks and face shields by providing adequate protection to healthcare workers against particles <500 nm in size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.0c00371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771246PMC
January 2021

Self-aligned 3D microlenses in a chip fabricated with two-photon stereolithography for highly sensitive absorbance measurement.

Lab Chip 2020 06;20(13):2334-2342

Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich 8093, Switzerland.

Absorbance measurement is a widely used method to quantify the concentration of an analyte. The integration of absorbance analysis in microfluidic chips could significantly reduce the sample consumption and contribute to the system miniaturization. However, the sensitivity and limit of detection (LoD) of analysis in microfluidic chips with conventional configuration need improvements due to the limited optical pathway and unregulated light propagation. In this work, a 3D-microlens-incorporating microfluidic chip (3D-MIMC) with a greatly extended detection channel was innovatively fabricated using two-photon stereolithography. The fabrication was optimized with a proposed hierarchical modular printing strategy. Due to the incorporation of 3D microlenses, the light coupling efficiency and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were respectively improved approximately 9 and 4 times. An equivalent optical path length (EOL) of 62.9 mm was achieved in a 3.7 μl detection channel for testing tartrazine samples. As a result, the sensitivity and LoD of the 3D-MIMC assay were correspondingly improved by one order of magnitude, compared with those of the 96-well plate assay. Notably, the 3D-MIMC has the potential to be integrated into a general microanalysis platform for multiple applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc00235fDOI Listing
June 2020

Dual-Functional Plasmonic Photothermal Biosensors for Highly Accurate Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Detection.

ACS Nano 2020 May 13;14(5):5268-5277. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich 8093, Switzerland.

The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread globally and poses a threat to public health in more than 200 countries. Reliable laboratory diagnosis of the disease has been one of the foremost priorities for promoting public health interventions. The routinely used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is currently the reference method for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, it also reported a number of false-positive or -negative cases, especially in the early stages of the novel virus outbreak. In this work, a dual-functional plasmonic biosensor combining the plasmonic photothermal (PPT) effect and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing transduction provides an alternative and promising solution for the clinical COVID-19 diagnosis. The two-dimensional gold nanoislands (AuNIs) functionalized with complementary DNA receptors can perform a sensitive detection of the selected sequences from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through nucleic acid hybridization. For better sensing performance, the thermoplasmonic heat is generated on the same AuNIs chip when illuminated at their plasmonic resonance frequency. The localized PPT heat is capable to elevate the hybridization temperature and facilitate the accurate discrimination of two similar gene sequences. Our dual-functional LSPR biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity toward the selected SARS-CoV-2 sequences with a lower detection limit down to the concentration of 0.22 pM and allows precise detection of the specific target in a multigene mixture. This study gains insight into the thermoplasmonic enhancement and its applicability in the nucleic acid tests and viral disease diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c02439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158889PMC
May 2020