Publications by authors named "Jean S Deutsch"

17 Publications

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Developmental stability: a major role for cyclin G in drosophila melanogaster.

PLoS Genet 2011 Oct 6;7(10):e1002314. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Département Systématique et Evolution UMR 7205, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

Morphological consistency in metazoans is remarkable given the pervasive occurrence of genetic variation, environmental effects, and developmental noise. Developmental stability, the ability to reduce developmental noise, is a fundamental property of multicellular organisms, yet its genetic bases remains elusive. Imperfect bilateral symmetry, or fluctuating asymmetry, is commonly used to estimate developmental stability. We observed that Drosophila melanogaster overexpressing Cyclin G (CycG) exhibit wing asymmetry clearly detectable by sight. Quantification of wing size and shape using geometric morphometrics reveals that this asymmetry is a genuine-but extreme-fluctuating asymmetry. Overexpression of CycG indeed leads to a 40-fold increase of wing fluctuating asymmetry, which is an unprecedented effect, for any organ and in any animal model, either in wild populations or mutants. This asymmetry effect is not restricted to wings, since femur length is affected as well. Inactivating CycG by RNAi also induces fluctuating asymmetry but to a lesser extent. Investigating the cellular bases of the phenotypic effects of CycG deregulation, we found that misregulation of cell size is predominant in asymmetric flies. In particular, the tight negative correlation between cell size and cell number observed in wild-type flies is impaired when CycG is upregulated. Our results highlight the role of CycG in the control of developmental stability in D. melanogaster. Furthermore, they show that wing developmental stability is normally ensured via compensatory processes between cell growth and cell proliferation. We discuss the possible role of CycG as a hub in a genetic network that controls developmental stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3188557PMC
October 2011

Homeosis and beyond. What is the function of the Hox genes?

Authors:
Jean S Deutsch

Adv Exp Med Biol 2010 ;689:155-65

Developmental Biology, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France.

What is the function of the Hox genes? At first glance, it is a curious question. Indeed, the answer seems so obvious that several authors have spoken of 'the Hox function' about some of the Hox genes, namely Hox3/zen and Hox6/ftz that seem to have lost it during the evolution of Arthropods. What these authors meant is that these genes have lost their 'homeotic' function. Indeed, 'homeotic' refers to a functional property that is so often associated with the Hox genes. However, the word 'Hox' should not be used to refer to a function, but to a group of genes. The above examples of Hox3/zen (see Schmitt-Ott's chapter, this book) and Hox6/ftz show that the homeotic function may be not so tightly linked to the Hox genes. Reversely, many genes, not belonging to the Hox group, do present a homeotic function. In the present chapter, I will first give a definition of the Hox genes. I will then ask what is the 'function' of a gene, examining its various meanings at different levels of biological organization. I will review and revisit the relation between the Hox genes and homeosis. I will suggest that their morphological homeotic function has been secondarily derived during the evolution of the Bilateria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6673-5_12DOI Listing
September 2010

Hox genes: studies from the 20th to the 21st century. Preface.

Authors:
Jean S Deutsch

Adv Exp Med Biol 2010 ;689:ix-xi

Developmental Biology, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France.

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September 2010

Darwin and the cirripedes: Insights and dreadful blunders.

Authors:
Jean S Deutsch

Integr Zool 2009 Sep;4(3):316-22

UMR 7622 Developmental Biology, Pierre and Marie Curie University (Paris 6), Paris, France.

Charles Darwin's favorite animals were cirripedes (barnacles). Indeed, he worked intensively on cirripedes during the years he was maturing his thoughts regarding his theory, which eventually led to the publication of The Origin of Species. Here I present some of Darwin's achievements in the morphology, systematics and biology of these small marine invertebrates, and also, in light of our present knowledge, some mistakes he made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-4877.2009.00173.xDOI Listing
September 2009

Do acoels climb up the "Scale of Beings"?

Authors:
Jean S Deutsch

Evol Dev 2008 Mar-Apr;10(2):135-40

Biologie du Développement, UMR 7622, CNRS, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-142X.2008.00220.xDOI Listing
April 2008

Testing homology with morphology, development and gene expression: sex-specific thoracic appendages of the ant Diacamma.

Evol Dev 2006 Sep-Oct;8(5):433-45

Laboratoire d'Ecologie, UMR 7625 CNRS et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 7 quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France.

Females of the ants belonging to the queenless genus Diacamma have a pair of unique tiny thoracic appendages, called "gemmae," located on the mesothoracic segment. They are covered with sensory hairs, filled with exocrine glands and are involved in the behavioral regulation of reproduction. We report here a morphological, developmental, and genetic study of the development of the gemmae. Both male and female larvae have dorsal mesothoracic discs, although differing in shape and fate. In Diacamma ceylonense, we show that, contrary to butterflies, these discs specify parts of the adult thorax in addition to wing tissues, as in Drosophila. We have cloned and studied the expression of wingless (wg) and scalloped (sd), two genes known to play a critical role in wing morphogenesis in Drosophila. In the fly's mesothoracic dorsal disc, sd is specifically expressed in the wing pouch. In Diacamma, we show that sd is also expressed in male dorsal thoracic discs, whereas its expression was undetectable in females. From this result and observations of shape and growth of cultured isolated discs, we suggest that gemmae originate from a more ventral part of the dorsal disc than the wing pouch and discuss the pro and cons of gemma/wing homology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-142X.2006.00117.xDOI Listing
November 2006

Introduction--development and phylogeny of the arthropods: Darwin's legacy.

Authors:
Jean S Deutsch

Dev Genes Evol 2006 Jul-Aug;216(7-8):357-62. Epub 2006 Jun 1.

Développement et Evolution, UMR 7622, CNRS et Université P. et M. Curie, Paris, France.

In the present essay, I first recall the genealogical concept of classification settled by Charles Darwin in the "Origin of Species". Darwin tightly linked what we now call phylogeny and development. He often insisted to take into account embryonic and larval characters, most often using as examples his favourite animals, the cirripedes. Then I discuss remaining problems, and also perspectives, to address the link between phylogeny and development in the modern terms of molecular and cladistic phylogenetics and of molecular and genetic developmental biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-006-0089-0DOI Listing
April 2007

Are Cirripedia hopeful monsters? Cytogenetic approach and evidence for a Hox gene cluster in the cirripede crustacean Sacculina carcini.

Dev Genes Evol 2006 Jul-Aug;216(7-8):443-9. Epub 2006 Jun 14.

Développement et Evolution, UMR 7622, CNRS et Université P. et M. Curie, case 24, 9 quai St-Bernard, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France.

The "hopeful monster" has haunted evolutionary thinking since Richard Goldschmidt coined the phrase in 1933. The phrase is directly related to genetic mechanisms in development and evolution. Cirripedes are peculiar crustaceans in that they all lack abdomens as adults. In a previous study aimed at describing the repertoire of Hox genes of the Cirripedia, we failed to isolate the abdominal-A gene in three species representative of all three cirripede orders. To address the question of whether the cirripede ancestor could have been a "hopeful monster" arising from a rearrangement of the Hox complex, we have performed a cytogenetic analysis of the Hox complex of the cirripede Sacculina carcini. We present here molecular and cytogenetic evidence for the grouping of the Hox genes on a single chromosome. This is the first direct evidence reported for the grouping of Hox genes on the same chromosome in a non-insect arthropod species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-006-0088-1DOI Listing
April 2007

Unexpected variation of Hox genes' homeodomains in cephalopods.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2006 Sep 26;40(3):872-9. Epub 2006 Apr 26.

Développement et Evolution, UMR 7622, CNRS et Université P et M Curie, Paris 6, Case 24, 9 quai St Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.04.004DOI Listing
September 2006

Segments and parasegments in arthropods: a functional perspective.

Authors:
Jean S Deutsch

Bioessays 2004 Oct;26(10):1117-25

Equipe Evolution et Développement, CNRS et Universite P et M Curie, 9 quai St-Bernard, case 24, 75252 Paris cedex 05.

I review how both the parasegmental and segmental frames are used in constructing the body plan of the arthropods. The parasegment is the primary genetic unit, as shown by Hox gene expression, and the parasegmental design is maintained in the nerve cord. It is, however, not maintained in the epidermis, where the cuticle grooves are segmental, and in the musculature, which is segmental in organisation. This frame shift is reflected in the sensory and motor nerve connections between the ganglia and the periphery. I suggest that the need for movement in an organism equipped with a hard exoskeleton was the functional constraint that shaped this apparently complex mode of development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.20111DOI Listing
October 2004

The lysozyme of the starfish Asterias rubens. A paradygmatic type i lysozyme.

Eur J Biochem 2004 Jan;271(2):237-42

Equipe Développement et Evolution, UMR 7622 'Biologie du développement', CNRS et Université P and M Curie, Paris, France.

On the basis of a partial N-terminal sequence, Jollès and Jollès previously proposed that the lysozyme from the starfish Asterias rubens represents a new form of lysozyme, called type i (invertebrate) lysozyme. Indeed, it differed from both the types c (chicken) and g (goose) known in other animals, as well as from plant and phage lysozymes. Recently, several proteins belonging to the same family have been isolated from protostomes. Here we report the complete mature protein sequence and cDNA sequence of the lysozyme from Asterias. These sequences vindicate the previously proposed homology between the starfish, a deuterostome, and protostome lysozymes. In addition, we present a structural analysis that allows us to postulate upon the function of several conserved residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03915.xDOI Listing
January 2004

Hox genes and the crustacean body plan.

Bioessays 2003 Sep;25(9):878-87

Equipe Evolution et Développement, Université P. et M. Curie, Paris, France.

The Crustacea present a variety of body plans not encountered in any other class or phylum of the Metazoa. Here we review our current knowledge on the complement and expression of the Hox genes in Crustacea, addressing questions related to the evolution of body architecture. Specifically, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the homeotic transformation of legs into feeding appendages, which occurred in parallel in several branches of the crustacean evolutionary tree. A second issue that can be approached by the comparative study of Hox genes and their expression in the Crustacea bears on the homology of the abdomen. We discuss whether the so-called "abdominal" tagma of the crustaceans is homologous to the abdomen of insects. In addition, the homology of the abdomen between malacostracan and non-malacostracan crustaceans has also been questioned. We also address the question of the molecular developmental basis of the apparent lack of an abdomen in barnacles. We discuss these issues in relation to the problem of constraint versus adaptation in evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.10319DOI Listing
September 2003

The Drosophila Corto protein interacts with Polycomb-group proteins and the GAGA factor.

Nucleic Acids Res 2003 Jun;31(11):2873-82

UMR 7622-Biologie du Développement, CNRS et Université Paris VI, 9 Quai Saint-Bernard, F-75252 Paris cedex 05, France.

In Drosophila, PcG complexes provide heritable transcriptional silencing of target genes. Among them, the ESC/E(Z) complex is thought to play a role in the initiation of silencing whereas other complexes such as the PRC1 complex are thought to maintain it. PcG complexes are thought to be recruited to DNA through interaction with DNA binding proteins such as the GAGA factor, but no direct interactions between the constituents of PcG complexes and the GAGA factor have been reported so far. The Drosophila corto gene interacts with E(z) as well as with genes encoding members of maintenance complexes, suggesting that it could play a role in the transition between the initiation and maintenance of PcG silencing. Moreover, corto also interacts genetically with Trl, which encodes the GAGA factor, suggesting that it may serve as a mediator in recruiting PcG complexes. Here, we show that Corto bears a chromo domain and we provide evidence for in vivo association of Corto with ESC and with PC in embryos. Moreover, we show by GST pull-down and two-hybrid experiments that Corto binds to E(Z), ESC, PH, SCM and GAGA and co-localizes with these proteins on a few sites on polytene chromosomes. These results reinforce the idea that Corto plays a role in PcG silencing, perhaps by confering target specificity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC156716PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkg381DOI Listing
June 2003

Possible implication of Hox genes Abdominal-B and abdominal-A in the specification of genital and abdominal segments in cirripedes.

Dev Genes Evol 2003 Mar 1;213(2):90-6. Epub 2003 Feb 1.

Service de Biosystématique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, France.

The crustaceans cirripedes (barnacles) are characterised by the lack of fully developed abdominal segments at any stage of their life cycle. However, in nauplius larvae of the cirripede Sacculina carcini, we detected five small engrailed stripes in a postero-dorsal region behind the sixth thoracic segment, that we interpreted as a vestigial abdomen. Here, we present additional morphological and genetic data on Sacculina to further characterise this structure. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirms the existence of a segmented region in this part of the naupliar body. However, at the late naupliar stage, this structure stops its development and degenerates. This region expresses the Hox gene Abdominal-B, which may indicate that it actually corresponds to the posterior-most part of the Sacculina trunk. In addition, Abdominal-B expression differentiates two types of larvae that probably correspond to male and female larvae, respectively. In contrast, no abdominal-A expression can be detected in the vestigial abdomen. We discuss the possible implication of the loss or divergence of the Abdominal-A protein in the impaired development of abdominal segments in cirripedes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-003-0294-zDOI Listing
March 2003

Expression of a homologue of the fushi tarazu (ftz) gene in a cirripede crustacean.

Evol Dev 2002 Mar-Apr;4(2):76-85

Equipe Développement et Evolution, UMR 7622 Biologie du Développment CNRS et Université P. et M. Curie, Paris, France.

In Metazoa, Hox genes control the identity of the body parts along the anteroposterior axis. In addition to this homeotic function, these genes are characterized by two conserved features: They are clustered in the genome, and they contain a particular sequence, the homeobox, encoding a DNA-binding domain. Analysis of Hox homeobox sequences suggests that the Hox cluster emerged early in Metazoa and then underwent gene duplication events. In arthropods, the Hox cluster contains eight genes with a homeotic function and two other Hox-like genes, zerknullt (zen)/Hox3 and fushi tarazu (ftz). In insects, these two genes have lost their homeotic function but have acquired new functions in embryogenesis. In contrast, in chelicerates, these genes are expressed in a Hox-like pattern, which suggests that they have conserved their ancestral homeotic function. We describe here the characterization of Diva, the homologue of ftz in the cirripede crustacean Sacculina carcini. Diva is located in the Hox cluster, in the same position as the ftz genes of insects, and is not expressed in a Hox-like pattern. Instead, it is expressed exclusively in the central nervous system. Such a neurogenic expression of ftz has been also described in insects. This study, which provides the first information about the Hoxcluster in Crustacea, reveals that it may not be much smaller than the insect cluster. Study of the Diva expression pattern suggests that the arthropod ftz gene has lost its ancestral homeotic function after the divergence of the Crustacea/Hexapoda clade from other arthropod clades. In contrast, the function of ftz during neurogenesis is well conserved in insects and crustaceans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-142x.2002.01063.xDOI Listing
January 2003

Phylogenetic analysis of invertebrate lysozymes and the evolution of lysozyme function.

J Mol Evol 2002 May;54(5):652-64

UMR 7622, "Biologie du Développement," CNRS et Université P. et M. Curie, Paris, France.

We isolated and sequenced the cDNAs coding for lysozymes of six bivalve species. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that, together with recently described bivalve lysozymes, the leech destabilase, and a number of putative proteins from extensive genomic and cDNA analyses, they belong to the invertebrate type of lysozymes (i type), first described by Jollès and Jollès (1975). We determined the genomic structure of the gene encoding the lysozyme of Mytilus edulis, the common mussel. We provide evidence that the central exon of this gene is homologous to the second exon of the chicken lysozyme gene, belonging to the c type. We propose that the origin of this domain can be traced back in evolution to the origin of bilaterian animals. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that i-type proteins form a monophyletic family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-001-0061-6DOI Listing
May 2002

Heterospecific transgenesis in Drosophila suggests that engrailed.a is regulated by POU proteins in the crustacean Sacculina carcini.

Dev Genes Evol 2002 Feb 13;212(1):19-29. Epub 2002 Feb 13.

Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.

Almost all knowledge of the regulation of segmentation genes in arthropods comes from Drosophila. In order to study the regulation of the segment-polarity gene engrailed in a non-insect arthropod we focussed on putative regulatory regions of the engrailed.a (en.a) gene in the barnacle crustacean Sacculina carcini. In this animal, en.ais expressed in segmental stripes like the engrailed genes of other arthropods. As transgenesis in Sacculina is not possible at present, we have used Drosophila as a test tube. The Sacculina en.aintron is able to induce a specific expression of lacZin the Drosophila wing imaginal disc.This pattern is not an engrailed-like pattern, but does suggest that some Drosophila transcription factors interact with the Sacculina en.a intron. We show that two DrosophilaPOU proteins, Nubbin and VVL, and Engrailed itself bind to the Sacculina en.a intron in vitro and that they regulate this expression in vivo. The conservation of POU protein binding sites in metazoans suggests that Sacculina POU proteins could recognize the same sequences. Hence, we looked at the expression of nubbin and vvlhomologues in Sacculinalarvae. Indeed, their expression patterns are consistent with a putative regulatory function on en.a in segments and appendages. Remarkably, the vvl homologue is expressed in Sacculina in a striking striped pattern that is very different from the vvl pattern in Drosophila embryos, and is complementary to the Sacculina en.a pattern. These experiments suggest that the Sacculina engrailed.a gene is regulated by POU proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-002-0216-5DOI Listing
February 2002