Publications by authors named "Jean Nana"

5 Publications

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NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP OF CHRONIC INFECTION WITH HEPATITIS B VIRUS.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101773. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Saint Joseph & INSERM UMR 1252 IRD SESSTIM Aix Marseille Université, Marseille.

Diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, initial staging of infection and monitoring of treated and untreated patients are mainly based on clinical, biological and imaging criteria allowing a complete non-invasive management for the majority of patients. Along to the conventional virological tools, rapid diagnostic tests and blotting paper tests for HBV DNA are validated alternatives. After diagnosis, the initial work-up should include HIV, HCV and HDV serologies, HBeAg status, and HBsAg and HBV DNA quantification. Assessment of severity (inflammation and fibrosis) is based on ALT serum levels and non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis by elastography or blood tests, which must be interpreted cautiously using specific cut-offs and taking into account ALT levels. Taken together, these parameters allow disease classification and treatment decision. Decision of hepatocellular carcinoma screening by ultra-sound every six months may be difficult in non-cirrhotic patients and the use of risk-scores such as PAGE-B is encouraged. Chronic HBV infection often has a dynamic and often unpredictable profile and regular monitoring is mandatory. In untreated patients, regular (3-12 months) follow-up should include ALT and HBV DNA serum levels. Periodical HBsAg quantification and non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis may refine disease outcome and prognosis. In treated patients, checking efficacy is mainly based on HBV DNA negativity. In patients with advanced fibrosis, evolution of liver stiffness can be useful for portal hypertension evaluation, but its improvement should not be considered to stop hepatocellular carcinoma screening. Finally, new parameters (HBV RNA, HBcrAg) are promising but their use is still restricted for research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101773DOI Listing
July 2021

EASL-ALEH 2015 algorithm for the use of transient elastography in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B: An independent validation.

J Viral Hepat 2021 Aug 26;28(8):1169-1176. Epub 2021 May 26.

Clinique Universitaire d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie, Pôle DIGIDUNE, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes Hôpital Michallon, La Tronche, France.

Various non-invasive methods have been evaluated in chronic hepatitis B, but none of them have been fully validated for the assessment of liver fibrosis. The issued EASL-ALEH 2015 guidelines provide detailed algorithms based on LSM and ALT serum levels. The aim of our study was to validate the diagnostic accuracy of this algorithm and to better understand discrepancies. Four hundred and thirteen patients from 3 centres were retrospectively included. All included patients were classified for fibrosis stage according to results of a liver biopsy. The overall diagnostic value was expressed with AUROCs given with 95% confidence intervals for the diagnostic targets. For each diagnostic target, optimal cut-offs were determined according to the Youden method. For the population of patients with ALT9 kPa, respectively. For patients with ALT>N but ≤5N (n = 306), AUROCs of transient elastography were 0.79 (0.73-0.84) and 0.84 (0.75-0.92) for F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 diagnostic targets. The prevalence of significant fibrosis was, respectively, 15%, 52% and 85% when LSM was <6kPa, between 6 and 12 kPa or >12 kPa. Our study independently validates the EASL-ALEH algorithm based on ALT levels and LSM assessed by transient elastography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13548DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical utility of quantifying hepatitis B surface antigen in African patients with chronic hepatitis B.

J Viral Hepat 2021 Jul 26;28(7):1003-1010. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Division of Digestive Diseases, Hepatology Section, Imperial College London, St Mary's campus, London, UK.

The clinical utility of quantifying hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) levels in African subjects with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been poorly documented. From a multicentre cohort of 944 HBV-infected African patients, we aimed to assess whether qHBsAg alone can accurately identify i) those in a HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection phase at low risk of liver disease progression and ii) those in need of antiviral therapy according to the 2017 EASL guidelines. We analysed 770 HBV mono-infected treatment-naïve patients, mainly males (61%) from West Africa (92%), median age 35 years (IQR: 30-44), median HBV DNA: 95.6 IU/ml (10.0-1,300.0), median qHBsAg 5,498 IU/ml (1,171-13,000) and HBeAg-pos 38 (5%). A total of 464/770 (60.2%) patients were classified as HBeAg-negative chronic infection (median age 36 years (31-46), median ALT 23 IU/l (18-28), median HBV-DNA 33.5 IU/ml (3.8-154.1), median LSM 4.8 kPa (4.1-5.8)) and qHBsAg levels had poor accuracy to identify these subjects with an AUROC at 0.58 (95%CI: 0.54-0.62), sensitivity 55.0% and specificity 55.6%; 118/770 (15.3%) patients were eligible for treatment according to the 2017 EASL criteria. qHBsAg correlated poorly with HBV DNA and had poor accuracy to select patients for antiviral therapy with an AUROC at 0.54 (0.49-0.60), sensitivity 46.6% and specificity 46.9%. In African treatment-naïve HBV-infected subjects, the clinical utility of qHBsAg to identify subjects in HBeAg-negative infection phase or subjects eligible for antiviral therapy seems futile. Whether qHBsAg levels can be used as a predictor of long-term liver complications in Africa needs to be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13499DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of a simple score based on HBeAg and ALT for selecting patients for HBV treatment in Africa.

J Hepatol 2018 Oct 1;69(4):776-784. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Liver Unit, Imperial College London, UK. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: To eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, it is essential to scale up antiviral treatment through decentralized services. However, access to the conventional tools to assess treatment eligibility (liver biopsy/Fibroscan®/HBV DNA) is limited and not affordable in resource-limited countries. We developed and validated a simple score to easily identify patients in need of HBV treatment in Africa.

Methods: As a reference, we used treatment eligibility determined by the European Association for the Study of the Liver based on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver histology and/or Fibroscan and HBV DNA. We derived a score indicating treatment eligibility by a stepwise logistic regression using a cohort of chronic HBV infection in The Gambia (n = 804). We subsequently validated the score in an external cohort of HBV-infected Africans from Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Europe (n = 327).

Results: Out of several parameters, two remained in the final model, namely HBV e antigen (HBeAg) and ALT level, constituting a simple score (treatment eligibility in Africa for the hepatitis B virus: TREAT-B). The score demonstrated a high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91) in the validation set. The score of 2 and above (HBeAg-positive and ALT ≥20 U/L or HBeAg-negative and ALT ≥40 U/L) had a sensitivity and specificity for treatment eligibility of 85% and 77%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the World Health Organization criteria based on the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and ALT were 90% and 40%, respectively.

Conclusions: A simple score based on HBeAg and ALT had a high diagnostic accuracy for the selection of patients for HBV treatment. This score could be useful in African settings.

Lay Summary: Limited access to the diagnostic tools used to assess treatment eligibility (liver biopsy/Fibroscan/hepatitis B virus DNA) has been an obstacle to the scale up of hepatitis B treatment programs in low- and middle-income countries. Using the data from African patients with chronic HBV infection, we developed and validated a new simple diagnostic score for treatment eligibility, which only consists of hepatitis B virus e antigen and alanine aminotransferase level. The diagnostic accuracy of the score for selecting patients for HBV treatment was high and could be useful in African settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2018.05.024DOI Listing
October 2018

Treatment of autochthonous acute hepatitis E with short-term ribavirin: a multicenter retrospective study.

Liver Int 2016 Mar 30;36(3):328-33. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Service de Néphrologie et transplantation d'organes, Hôpital Rangueil, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, INSERM, UMR 1043, Toulouse, France.

Background & Aims: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 3 and 4 cause sporadic cases of infection in developed countries. Being elderly and having an underlying liver disease are the main risk factors for death in this population. Chronic infection has been described in immunocompromised patients. Ribavirin is now the antiviral treatment of choice in solid-organ-transplant recipients with chronic HEV infection. We hypothesized that early short-term treatment of acute HEV infection may be useful for patients with risk factors or undergoing chemotherapy.

Methods: Between July 2010 and January 2014, 21 patients diagnosed with acute HEV infection were treated with ribavirin, at 600-800 mg/day for up to 3 months. All serum samples were positive for HEV RNA.

Results: Nine patients were treated for severe hepatitis. Six patients were aged >70 years. Four patients were receiving an immunosuppressive therapy for an autoimmune disease and two patients were undergoing chemotherapy for a malignancy. Two patients received a fixed-dose regimen. For all other patients, ribavirin was stopped when HEV became undetectable in the serum. The median duration of ribavirin treatment was 26 days. Two patients developed severe anaemia. Two patients with encephalopathy died. One patient relapsed transiently. All patients were cleared of HEV and regained normalized liver-enzyme levels. Immunosuppressive treatment and chemotherapy could be resumed.

Conclusions: Treatment of acute HEV infection using ribavirin seems safe and effective. Short-term treatment tailored to viraemia may be the best regimen for this indication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.12911DOI Listing
March 2016
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