Publications by authors named "Jean Louis Moyen"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Infection in Red Foxes in Four Animal Tuberculosis Endemic Areas in France.

Microorganisms 2020 Jul 17;8(7). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Tuberculosis National Reference Laboratory, Laboratory for Animal Health, ANSES, University Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

In France, animal tuberculosis (TB) due to () affects a multi-host community that include cattle and wildlife species such as wild boars (), badgers (), or wild deer (). The involvement of foxes in the epidemiology of TB is fairly described in countries facing multispecies concerns. After the discovery of grouped cases of TB in foxes in a French TB endemic region, a study was implemented in the core of four TB endemic areas in Dordogne, Charente, Landes (departments of Nouvelle-Aquitaine region), and Côte-d'Or (Burgundy-Franche-Comté region). No infected fox was found in Côte-d'Or (n = 146), where in parallel TB in cattle and other wild species became sparse in the last years. In contrast, in Dordogne, Charente, and Landes, 13 (n = 184), 9 (n = 98) and 7 (n = 140) foxes were found infected by , respectively, corresponding to 7.1% (CI 3.8-11.8%), 9.2% (4.3-16.7%) and 5.0% (CI 2.0-10.0%) prevalence rates, respectively. These infection rates are comparable with those observed in badgers and wild boar in these same three areas (ranging from 9 to 13.2% and 4.3 to 17.9%, respectively), where the number of cattle outbreaks has increased in the last 10-15 years. In each area, the genotypes of foxes' isolates were the same as those in local cattle and other wildlife species. None of the infected foxes presented TB-like gross lesions. was found in the mesenteric lymph nodes of 28 foxes (68%). For the 12 foxes where retropharyngeal and respiratory lymph nodes were analyzed separately, was present in the respiratory lymph nodes of eight individuals. With regard to excretion, appropriate samples were available for 12 infected foxes from Dordogne. DNA was detected in the feces of five of these animals, four of which were infected in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Combined with the knowledge on the biology and ecology of foxes, the results of this study suggest that in areas where infection in cattle is still active in France, foxes might play a role of spillover host in the epidemiology of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409206PMC
July 2020

Tuberculosis in the wild boar: Frequentist and Bayesian estimations of diagnostic test parameters when Mycobacterium bovis is present in wild boars but at low prevalence.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(9):e0222661. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

University Paris-Est, Laboratory for Animal Health, Tuberculosis National Reference Laboratory, ANSES, Maisons-Alfort, France.

The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is increasingly considered as a relevant actor in the epidemiology of animal tuberculosis (TB). Therefore, monitoring TB in this species is key when establishing comprehensive control schemes for this disease still present in Europe. No data are available on direct and indirect TB diagnostic methods in wild boars in epidemiological contexts where TB is endemic in cattle and detected in wild boars at low prevalence. We aimed to estimate and compare sensitivity and specificity values for bacterial culture, PCR and three commercial ELISAs, i.e. the TB ELISA-VK (using the bPPD antigen), INgezim TB Porcine and IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test (both using the MPB83 and MPB70 antigens), under field conditions in France. We used frequentist methods, with bacteriology as the gold standard, and a Bayesian formulation of the latent class analysis (LCA), without using a gold standard. Submandibular lymph nodes and sera from 495 wild boars hunter-harvested in three endemic areas (Aquitaine region, Côte d'Or region, and Corsica region) were collected between 2014 and 2016. Only eight individuals were positive for M. bovis by bacteriology (1.61%; CI95% 0.70-3.51%). The LCA method provided high specificities (99.2%; CI95% 98.2-99.8% for INgezim TB Porcine and 99.7%; CI95% 98.8-100% for IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test) and sensitivities (78.5%; CI95% 65.1-88.8% for INgezim TB Porcine and 83.9%; CI95% 58.9-97.2% for IDEXX M. bovis Ab Test) for both ELISAs using the MPB83 and MPB70 antigens. Bacterial culture showed limited sensitivity (42.8%; CI95% 19.0-70.6%), estimated as the probability of a positive result in an animal exposed to M. bovis. PCR and ELISA using the bPPD antigens demonstrated high specificities, and sensitivities intermediates between culture and the ELISAs using the MPB83 and MPB70 antigens. These results suggest that ELISA tests using the MPB83 and MPB70 antigens are useful to detect and monitor TB exposure of wild boar populations in field conditions in France.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222661PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759143PMC
March 2020

Second line molecular diagnosis for bovine tuberculosis to improve diagnostic schemes.

PLoS One 2018 26;13(11):e0207614. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

University Paris-Est, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses), Laboratory for Animal Health, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Surveillance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is partly based on the sanitary inspection of carcasses at the abattoir to detect bTB-like lesions which, in compliance with EU recommendations, are analysed by bacteriology and histopathology to disclose Mycobacterium bovis (or M. caprae) infection. Moreover, since 2012, a PCR method with similar sensitivity and specificity values of histopathology and bacteriology respectively is additionally employed in France, partially compensating for the weaknesses of classical diagnostic methods. We analysed a collection of bTB-like lesions from cattle presenting positive histological results albeit with negative PCR results. We present here the results of these samples, recovered from 292 animals culled between 2013 and 2016, analysed with a second line molecular diagnosis approach that consists in a combination of PCRs targeting the M. tuberculosis-M. avium complexes as well as the Mycobacterium genus and sequencing of hsp65 gene. These molecular analyses disclosed to identify the presence of non-tuberculous bacteria which could be responsible for most of these non-specific TB lesions: non tuberculous mycobacteria (24%) or Actinomycetales (56%) such as Rhodococcus equi (53%); 24% of the samples were negative. M. bovis -or any other MTBC members- was neither detected by molecular methods nor isolated in any of them at the end of the 3 months of culture. In conclusion, these results highlight the lack of specificity of histopathology and the usefulness of a first line PCR with a second line molecular diagnostic test to circumvent it. This diagnostic strategy makes it possible to reduce the number of suspect bTB cases raised at the abattoir or shortening their lock-up periods. By simplifying diagnostic schemes, the use of this tool could improve bTB surveillance and make eradication programs more efficient in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207614PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261039PMC
April 2019

Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 06;24(6):1150-1153

Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6004852PMC
June 2018

Successful Application of the Gamma-Interferon Assay in a Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Program: The French Bullfighting Herd Experience.

Front Vet Sci 2018 27;5:27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Unité Sanitaire de la Faune, Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage (ONCFS), Birieux, France.

In the French Camargue region, where bovine tuberculosis had been enzootic for several years in bullfighting cattle herds, the gamma-interferon (IFN) assay was used since 2003 in parallel with the intradermal test in order to increase overall disease detection sensitivity in infected herds. This study presents the results of a field-evaluation of the assay during a 10-year period (2004-2014) of disease control and surveillance program and explores the particular pattern of IFN assay results in bullfight herds in comparison to cattle from other regions of France. The low sensitivity [59.2% (50.6; 67.3)] of IFN assay using the tuberculin stimulation could be related to the poor gamma-IFN production from bullfight cattle blood cells which is significantly lower than in animals of conventional breeds. The characteristics of the assay were progressively adapted to the epidemiological situation and the desired strategic applications. Data analysis with a receiver operating characteristic curve based on a simple S/P value algorithm allowed for the determination of a new cutoff adapted for a global screening, giving a high specificity of 99.9% results and a high accuracy of the assay. Having regularly risen to above 5% since 2005, with a peak around 10% in 2010, the annual incidence dropped to under 1% in 2014. The positive predictive value relative to the bacteriological confirmation evolved during the years, from 33% in 2009 to 12% during the last screening period, a normal trend in a context of decreasing prevalence. The estimated rate of false-positive reactions during screening campaigns was 0.67%, confirming the high specificity of the test, measured in bTB negative herds, in this epidemiological context. The proportion of false-positive reactions decreased with the age and was higher in males than in females. Although these results indicate that the IFN assay is accurate in the field, it also emphasizes great differences between interferon quantities produced by bullfight cattle blood samples compared to those of classical bovine breeds, which underlines the necessity to adapt the algorithms and combinations of the assay according to local epidemiological contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5835129PMC
February 2018

Multilaboratory Evaluation of a Novel Lateral Flow Immunochromatographic Assay for Confirming Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from Veterinary Diagnostic Specimens.

J Clin Microbiol 2017 12 27;55(12):3411-3425. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

A novel lateral flow immunochromatographic device (LFD) was evaluated in several veterinary diagnostic laboratories. It was confirmed to be specific for and cells. The performance of the novel LFD was assessed relative to the confirmatory tests routinely applied after culture (spoligotyping or quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in each laboratory; liquid (MGIT or BacT/Alert) and/or solid (Stonebrink, Coletsos, or Lowenstein-Jensen) cultures were tested. In comparison to spoligotyping of acid-fast-positive MGIT cultures, percent agreement between positive LFD and spoligotyping results was excellent in two United Kingdom laboratories (97.7 to 100%) but lower in the Spanish context (76%), where spoligotyping was applied to MGIT cultures previously confirmed to be positive for complex (MTBC) by qPCR. Certain spoligotypes of and were not detected by the LFD in Spanish MGIT cultures. Compared to qPCR confirmation, the agreement between positive LFD and qPCR results was 42.3% and 50% for BacT/Alert and MGIT liquid cultures, respectively, and for solid cultures, it ranged from 11.1 to 89.2%, depending on the solid medium employed (Coletsos, 11.1%; Lowenstein-Jensen, 55.6%; Stonebrinks, 89.2%). Correlation between the novel LFD and BD MGIT TBc Identification test results was excellent when 190 MGIT cultures were tested ( = 0.9791; < 0.0001), with the added benefit that was differentiated from another MTBC species in one MGIT culture by the novel LFD. This multilaboratory evaluation demonstrated the novel LFD's potential utility as a rapid test to confirm isolation of and from veterinary specimens following culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00728-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5703808PMC
December 2017

Interferon gamma response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific lipopentapeptide antigen L5P in cattle.

Res Vet Sci 2015 Oct 1;102:118-21. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

UMR1282, Infectiologie et Santé Publique (ISP-311), INRA Centre Val de Loire, F-37380 Nouzilly, France. Electronic address:

After Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response indicative of early Th1 activation may be detected using interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Currently, the purified protein derivatives (PPDs), i.e., the total extract of mycobacteria antigens are used to recall CMI responses against Map. This study aimed to assess the ability of the chemically synthesized Map specific cell wall lipopentapeptide L5P to induce CMI response in cows infected by Map compared to PPD. L5P and PPD elicited an IFN-γ response in 12 and 35 animals from two Map infected herds respectively, but IFN-γ was not detected in the 13 cows recruited from a non-infected herd. Levels of IFN-γ detected were higher with PPD than with L5P. There was no correlation between the IFN-γ response and the humoral response to Map or faecal culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.07.017DOI Listing
October 2015

Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of bacteriology, histopathology and PCR for the confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis using latent class analysis.

PLoS One 2014 13;9(3):e90334. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Paris-Est University, Anses, Laboratory for Animal Health, Bacterial Zoonoses Unit, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Bacteriology and histopathology are the most commonly used tests used for official confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in most countries. PCR is also being used increasingly because it allows a fast diagnosis. This test could be applied as a supplement to or replacement for current bTB confirmatory diagnostic tests but its characteristics have first to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare sensitivities and specificities of bacteriology, histopathology and PCR under French field conditions, in the absence of a gold standard using latent class analysis. The studied population consisted of 5,211 animals from which samples were subjected to bacteriology and PCR (LSI VetMAX™ Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex PCR Kit, Life Technologies) as their herd of origin was either suspected or confirmed infected with bTB or because bTB-like lesions were detected during slaughterhouse inspection. Samples from 697 of these animals (all with bTB-like lesions) were subjected to histopathology. Bayesian models were developed, allowing for dependence between bacteriology and PCR, while assuming independence from histopathology. The sensitivity of PCR was higher than that of bacteriology (on average 87.7% [82.5-92.3%] versus 78.1% [72.9-82.8%]) while specificity of both tests was very good (on average 97.0% for PCR [94.3-99.0%] and 99.1% for bacteriology [97.1-100.0%]). Histopathology was at least as sensitive as PCR (on average 93.6% [89.9-96.9%]) but less specific than the two other tests (on average 83.3% [78.7-87.6%]). These results suggest that PCR has the potential to replace bacteriology to confirm bTB in samples submitted from suspect cattle.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0090334PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3953111PMC
January 2016

Bovine tuberculosis in Europe from the perspective of an officially tuberculosis free country: trade, surveillance and diagnostics.

Vet Microbiol 2011 Jul 24;151(1-2):153-9. Epub 2011 Feb 24.

Federal Veterinary Office, Animal Health Division, Schwarzenburgstrasse 155, CH-3003 Bern, Switzerland.

Switzerland has been officially free of bovine tuberculosis (OTF) since 1960. Since 1980 the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) has been reduced to passive abattoir surveillance. Isolated cases of bTB, partly due to reactivation of human Mycobacterium bovis infections with subsequent transmission to cattle, have been noticed in the last years. In Europe, the overall prevalence of bTB is slightly increasing. Both OTF and non-OTF countries report increases in the proportion of bTB positive cattle herds. Current bTB eradication and control programs in Europe are facing a range of challenges. Whole herd depopulation is becoming a less attractive option for economic reasons and due to animal welfare concerns. Live animal trade is increasing both at national and international levels. Regarding these tendencies and taking into account the chronicity of bTB infection, pre-movement testing is becoming increasingly important as a central tool for eradication and for protection against re-introduction of bTB. Pre-movement testing, however specifically focuses on the infection status in individuals, requiring a high level of diagnostic accuracy to correctly diagnose infected animals. Current screening tests for bTB, however, have been designed to meet demands as herd tests. This illustrates that the modification of existing and/or the development of new diagnostics for bTB might be needed. The tuberculin skin test (TST), the primary screening test for bTB may in certain situations have low sensitivity. The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) assay is accepted to be more sensitive compared to TST. Reduced specificity, however, especially in areas of low bTB prevalence raises concerns. New antigen combinations including Rv3615c, OmpATb and others have been shown to complement ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in the whole blood IFN-γ assay and resulted in improved sensitivity (compared to ESAT-6 and CFP-10) and specificity (compared to tuberculins). Lesion detection after slaughter represents a cost-effective procedure for passive surveillance of bTB, especially in areas of low prevalence or in regions free of bTB; however, its sensitivity is very low. This illustrates that trade is linked with a certain risk to re-introduce bTB in OTF regions or countries and that there may be delays in detecting a re-introduction of bTB. In conclusion, regarding the fact that some parameters linked with bTB programs are changing, the development of improved diagnostic tests with a high reliability for use as individual animal tests will be important for future eradication of bTB, in line with international commitment to high standard animal health programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.02.039DOI Listing
July 2011

Determination of decisional cut-off values for the optimal diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis with a modified IFNγ assay (Bovigam®) in a low prevalence area in France.

Vet Microbiol 2011 Jul 24;151(1-2):60-7. Epub 2011 Feb 24.

Regional Analysis and Research Laboratory of Dordogne (LDAR24), 161 Av. Churchill, 24660 Coulounieix-Chamiers, France.

The Bovigam(®) gamma interferon (IFNγ) assay was used to complement official skin-test screening in a low bovine tuberculosis (bTB) prevalence region in France. The aim of our work was to determine decisional cut-off values for protein purified derivatives (PPD) and ESAT6-CFP10 antigens (R) in order to optimize the efficacy of the modified Bovigam(®) test, in this low-prevalence area, for optimal classification of infected or non-infected herds following positive skin tests. The sensitivity of the IFNγ assay relative to post-mortem bTB-positive animals (Se(r)) was studied in 60 cattle from 20 bTB-infected herds. Its absolute specificity (Sp) was studied in 492 cattle from 25 bTB-free herds from a bTB-free zone. Its operational specificity (relative to the positive skin test) (Sp(r)) was also studied in 547 skin-test positive cattle from 172 bTB-free herds from an infected zone. Using normalized interpretations for individual (PPD or R) results, the cut-off values at 0.02 for PPD and 0.01 for R were obtained with a view to employ them in low prevalence areas with no previously observed non-specific reactions to SITT. Concerning its use after positive skin tests, cut-off values were set at 0.05 for PPD and at 0.03 for R. The choice of an interpretation method considering positive results with PPD and/or R (PPDUR), justified in a high risk context, provided a test Se(r) of 93% [84-98] and Sp(r) of 71.8% [67.9-75.6]. Analysis of positive results with PPD and R (PPDUR), ideal for low-risk contexts, provided a test Sp(r) of 94.3% [92.0-96.1] and Se(r) of 77% [64-87]. Thus, adapting the criteria to the region's infection status and to the conditions for its application is essential for the appropriate use of the IFNγ assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.02.026DOI Listing
July 2011