Publications by authors named "Jean Hars"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessment of the impact of forestry and leisure activities on wild boar spatial disturbance with a potential application to ASF risk of spread.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 21;67(3):1164-1176. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Research Unit for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis applied to veterinary sciences (UREAR-ULg), Centre of Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals and Health (FARAH), University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

In Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious transboundary diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar. In September 2018, ASF was detected in wild boar in the South of Belgium. France, as a bordering country, is extremely concerned about the ASF situation in Belgium, and an active preparedness is ongoing in the country. One of the questions raised by this situation relates to disturbing activities that may affect wild boar movements and their possible impact on the spread of ASFV. Despite evidence of disturbance related to hunting practices, there is a paucity of information on the impact of forestry and human leisure activities. To assess this impact on wild boar movements, a systematic review was first conducted but very few useful data were obtained. For this reason, an expert elicitation was carried out by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety in order to deal with this knowledge gap. A total of 30 experts originating from France and adjacent neighbouring countries (Spain, Belgium and Switzerland) were elicited about the relative importance of six factors of spatial disturbance of wild boar (noise, smell, invasion of space, modification of the environment, duration and frequency of the activity). Then, for each factor of disturbance, they were asked about the impact of 16 different commercial forestry and human leisure activities. A global weighted score was estimated in order to capture the variability of a wide range of territorial conditions and the uncertainty of expert elicitation. This estimate permitted ranking all 16 activities and aggregating them in three groups according to their potential for disturbance of wild boar, using a regression tree analysis. The results of this expert elicitation provide a methodological approach that may be useful for French and other European decision makers and stakeholders involved in the crisis management of ASF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13447DOI Listing
May 2020

Infection of Wildlife by in France Assessment Through a National Surveillance System, Sylvatub.

Front Vet Sci 2018 30;5:262. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Anses, Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, Malzéville, France.

infection was first described in free-ranging wildlife in France in 2001, with subsequent detection in hunter-harvested ungulates and badgers in areas where outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis (TB) were also detected in cattle. Increasing concerns regarding TB in wildlife led the French General Directorate for Food (DGAL) and the main institutions involved in animal health and wildlife management, to establish a national surveillance system for TB in free-ranging wildlife. This surveillance system is known as "Sylvatub." The system coordinates the activities of various national and local partners. The main goal of Sylvatub is to detect and monitor infection in wildlife through a combination of passive and active surveillance protocols adapted to the estimated risk level in each area of the country. Event-base surveillance relies on identification (molecular detection) () in gross lesions detected in hunter-harvested ungulates, () in ungulates that are found dead or dying, and () in road-killed badgers. Additional targeted surveillance in badgers, wild boars and red deer is implemented on samples from trapped or hunted animals in at-risk areas. With the exception of one unexplained case in a wild boar, infection in free-living wildlife has always been detected in the vicinity of cattle TB outbreaks with the same genotype of the infectious strains. Since 2012, was actively monitored in these infected areas and detected mainly in badgers and wild boars with apparent infection rates of 4.57-5.14% and 2.37-3.04%, respectively depending of the diagnostic test used (culture or PCR), the period and according to areas. Sporadic infection has also been detected in red deer and roe deer. This surveillance has demonstrated that infection, in different areas of France, involves a multi-host system including cattle and wildlife. However, infection rates are lower than those observed in badgers in the United Kingdom or in wild boars in Spain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220493PMC
October 2018

RECENT CHANGES IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN EUROPEAN WILDLIFE.

J Wildl Dis 2019 01 4;55(1):3-43. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

3   National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Ulls väg 2B, SE75189 Uppsala, Sweden.

Many infectious diseases originating from, or carried by, wildlife affect wildlife conservation and biodiversity, livestock health, or human health. We provide an update on changes in the epidemiology of 25 selected infectious, wildlife-related diseases in Europe (from 2010-16) that had an impact, or may have a future impact, on the health of wildlife, livestock, and humans. These pathogens were selected based on their: 1) identification in recent Europe-wide projects as important surveillance targets, 2) inclusion in European Union legislation as pathogens requiring obligatory surveillance, 3) presence in recent literature on wildlife-related diseases in Europe since 2010, 4) inclusion in key pathogen lists released by the Office International des Epizooties, 5) identification in conference presentations and informal discussions on a group email list by a European network of wildlife disease scientists from the European Wildlife Disease Association, or 6) identification as pathogens with changes in their epidemiology during 2010-16. The wildlife pathogens or diseases included in this review are: avian influenza virus, seal influenza virus, lagoviruses, rabies virus, bat lyssaviruses, filoviruses, canine distemper virus, morbilliviruses in aquatic mammals, bluetongue virus, West Nile virus, hantaviruses, Schmallenberg virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, African swine fever virus, amphibian ranavirus, hepatitis E virus, bovine tuberculosis ( Mycobacterium bovis), tularemia ( Francisella tularensis), brucellosis ( Brucella spp.), salmonellosis ( Salmonella spp.), Coxiella burnetii, chytridiomycosis, Echinococcus multilocularis, Leishmania infantum, and chronic wasting disease. Further work is needed to identify all of the key drivers of disease change and emergence, as they appear to be influencing the incidence and spread of these pathogens in Europe. We present a summary of these recent changes during 2010-16 to discuss possible commonalities and drivers of disease change and to identify directions for future work on wildlife-related diseases in Europe. Many of the pathogens are entering Europe from other continents while others are expanding their ranges inside and beyond Europe. Surveillance for these wildlife-related diseases at a continental scale is therefore important for planet-wide assessment, awareness of, and preparedness for the risks they may pose to wildlife, domestic animal, and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2017-07-172DOI Listing
January 2019

High Shedding Potential and Significant Individual Heterogeneity in Naturally-Infected Alpine ibex () With .

Front Microbiol 2018 28;9:1065. Epub 2018 May 28.

Wildlife Diseases Unit, French Hunting and Wildlife Agency (ONCFS), Gap, France.

Wildlife reservoirs of infectious diseases raise major management issues. In Europe, brucellosis has been eradicated in domestic ruminants from most countries and wild ruminants have not been considered important reservoirs so far. However, a high prevalence of infection has been recently identified in a French population of Alpine ibex (), after the emergence of brucellosis was confirmed in a dairy cattle farm and two human cases. This situation raised the need to identify the factors driving the persistence of infection at high prevalence levels in this ibex population. In the present paper, we studied the shedding pattern of in ibex from Bargy Massif, French Alps. Bacteriological examinations (1-15 tissues/samples per individual) were performed on 88 seropositive, supposedly infected and euthanized individuals. Among them, 51 (58%) showed at least one positive culture, including 45 ibex with at least one isolation from a urogenital sample or a lymph node in the pelvic area (active infection in organs in the pelvic area). Among these 45 ibex, 26 (30% of the total number of necropsied animals) showed at least one positive culture for a urogenital organ and were considered as being at risk of shedding the bacteria at the time of capture. We observed significant heterogeneity between sex-and-age classes: seropositive females were most at risk to excrete before the age of 5 years, possibly corresponding to abortion during the first pregnancy following infection such as reported in the domestic ruminants. The high shedding potential observed in young females may have contributed to the self-sustained maintenance of infection in this population, whereas males are supposed to play a role of transmission between spatial units through venereal transmission during mating. This heterogeneity in the shedding potential of seropositive individuals should be considered in the future to better evaluate management scenarios in this system as well as in others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985404PMC
May 2018

Sociospatial structure explains marked variation in brucellosis seroprevalence in an Alpine ibex population.

Sci Rep 2017 11 15;7(1):15592. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Unité Sanitaire de la Faune, 5 allée de Béthléem, F-38610, Gières, France.

In a context of (re)emerging infectious diseases with wildlife reservoirs, understanding how animal ecology shapes epidemiology is a key issue, particularly in wild ungulates that share pathogens with domestic herbivores and have similar food requirements. For the first time in Europe, brucellosis (Brucella melitensis), a virulent zoonosis, persisted in an Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) population and was transmitted to cattle and humans. To better understand disease dynamics, we investigated the relationships between the spatial ecology of ibex and the epidemiology of brucellosis. Combining home range overlap between 37 GPS-collared individuals and visual observations of 148 visually-marked individuals monitored during the 2013-2016 period, we showed that females were spatially segregated in at least 4 units all year round, whereas males were more prone to move between female units, in particular during the rutting period. In addition to ibex age, the spatial structure in females largely contributed to variation in seroprevalence in the whole population. These results suggest that non-sexual routes are the most likely pathways of intraspecific transmission, crucial information for management. Accounting for wildlife spatial ecology was hence decisive in improving our ability to better understand this health challenge involving a wildlife reservoir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15803-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688143PMC
November 2017

Wildlife Interactions on Baited Places and Waterholes in a French Area Infected by Bovine Tuberculosis.

Front Vet Sci 2016 16;3:122. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Lyon 1 University, CNRS, UMR 5558 LBBE, Villeurbanne, France; VetAgro-Sup, MIPIE, Veterinary Public Health Unit, Marcy-l'Etoile, France.

Interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as , which also affect livestock. Although France is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. We aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. We described the visits in terms of frequency, duration, and number of individuals and studied the influence of the season. Then, we estimated the frequency of intraspecies and interspecies interactions occurring at baited places and waterholes which may lead to bTB transmission, including direct and indirect contacts through the soil or water. We used camera traps placed on baited places and waterholes on 13 locations monitored during 21 months. The number of visits, their duration, and the number of individuals per visit were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models for each targeted species. The frequency of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions was also analyzed separately. The season, the type of site (baited place or waterhole), and the location were the explanatory variables. Badgers' visits and interactions were more frequent than for other species (mean: 0.60 visit/day and 5.42 interactions/day) especially on baited places. Red deer only visited waterholes. Wild boars visited most often baited places in spring-summer and waterholes in autumn-winter. They came in higher number than other species, especially on baited places. Direct interactions were uncommon. The most frequent interspecies interactions occurred between red deer and wild boar (mean: 4.02 interactions/day). Baited places and waterholes are important interfaces between the different wild species involved in the bTB multi-host system in this area. They can thus promote intraspecies and interspecies bTB transmission. Baiting ban should be carried on and management of waterholes should be considered as tool to limit the spread of bTB in wildlife.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2016.00122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5237639PMC
January 2017

Schmallenberg virus infection among red deer, France, 2010-2012.

Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Jan;20(1):131-4

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884713PMC
January 2014

Exposure of wild boar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in France since 2000 is consistent with the distribution of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in cattle.

PLoS One 2013 22;8(10):e77842. Epub 2013 Oct 22.

Anses, Nancy laboratory for rabies and wildlife, Malzéville, France.

The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is increasingly considered as a relevant actor in the epidemiology of animal tuberculosis (TB). Therefore, monitoring TB in wild boar becomes a key tool for establishing comprehensive control schemes for this disease. To estimate the exposure of free living wild boar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in France, a bovine-purified protein derivative based ELISA was used to test 2,080 archived serum samples of hunter-harvested animals in 58 French "départements". Two cut-off values were used for diagnostic interpretation: 0.2, recommended by the manufacturer (specificity: 96.43%; sensitivity: 72.6%), and 0.5 (specificity: 100%; sensitivity: 64%). During the same period, at the 0.2 cut-off, global true seroprevalence was 5.9% (IC95%: 4.3%-7.7%) and 76% of the sampled "départements" had seropositive wild boar, including seven cattle TB-free "départements. At the 0.5 cut-off, global true seroprevalence was 2.2% (IC95%: 1.5-3.2) and positive wild boar belonged to 21% of the "départements". All but one of these positive "départements" had reported at least one cattle TB outbreak since 2000. A good consistence between seropositive wild boar and TB outbreaks in cattle was found, especially at the 0.5 cut-off value (the mean distance to the nearest cattle TB outbreak was 13 km and 27 km for seropositive and seronegative wild boar, respectively; P<0.05). The use of an ELISA to detect MTC antibodies in wild boar has permitted the description of the geographic distribution of MTC contact in wild boar in France. Our results suggest that the ELISA could be used as a first screening tool to conduct TB surveillance in wild boar at a population level. High-risk wild boar populations (e.g. overabundant) could be tested and if identified positive by ELISA they should be surveyed in detail by combining pathology and culture.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077842PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3805591PMC
May 2014

Environmental factors associated with the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa), France.

Ecohealth 2012 Sep 21;9(3):303-9. Epub 2012 Jul 21.

INRA, UR346, Saint-Genes-Champanelle, France.

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite infecting humans and animals. Wild boars Sus scrofa are a potential source of human infection and an appropriate biological model for analyzing T. gondii dynamics in the environment. Here, we aimed to identify environmental factors explaining the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in French wild boar populations. Considering 938 individuals sampled from 377 'communes', overall seroprevalence was 23% (95% confidence interval: [22-24]). Using a Poisson regression, we found that the number of seropositive wild boars detected per 'commune' was positively associated with the presence of European wildcats (Felis silvestris) and moderate winter temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-012-0786-2DOI Listing
September 2012

New insights on the management of wildlife diseases using multi-state recapture models: the case of classical swine fever in wild boar.

PLoS One 2011 22;6(9):e24257. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Unité Sanitaire de la Faune, Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Gap, France.

Background: The understanding of host-parasite systems in wildlife is of increasing interest in relation to the risk of emerging diseases in livestock and humans. In this respect, many efforts have been dedicated to controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in the European Wild Boar. But CSF eradication has not always been achieved even though vaccination has been implemented at a large-scale. Piglets have been assumed to be the main cause of CSF persistence in the wild since they appeared to be more often infected and less often immune than older animals. However, this assumption emerged from laboratory trials or cross-sectional surveys based on the hunting bags.

Methodology/principal Findings: In the present paper we conducted a capture-mark-recapture study in free-ranging wild boar piglets that experienced both CSF infection and vaccination under natural conditions. We used multi-state capture recapture models to estimate the immunization and infection rates, and their variations according to the periods with or without vaccination. According to the model prediction, 80% of the infected piglets did not survive more than two weeks, while the other 20% quickly recovered. The probability of becoming immune did not increase significantly during the summer vaccination sessions, and the proportion of immune piglets was not higher after the autumn vaccination.

Conclusions/significance: Given the high lethality of CSF in piglets highlighted in our study, we consider unlikely that piglets could maintain the chain of CSF virus transmission. Our study also revealed the low efficacy of vaccination in piglets in summer and autumn, possibly due to the low palatability of baits to that age class, but also to the competition between baits and alternative food sources. Based on this new information, we discuss the prospects for the improvement of CSF control and the interest of the capture-recapture approach for improving the understanding of wildlife diseases.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0024257PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3178526PMC
January 2012

Unusual H5N2 avian influenza virus escapes current detection.

J Clin Microbiol 2011 Jun 6;49(6):2376-7. Epub 2011 Apr 6.

Anses, Ploufragan/Plouzané Laboratory, National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease , Avian and Rabbit Virology, Immunology and Parasitology Unit, BP 53, 22440 Ploufragan, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00479-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3122761PMC
June 2011

Bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wild boar on the Mediterranean island, Corsica.

J Wildl Dis 2010 Apr;46(2):627-31

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UR346 Epidémiologie Animale, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.

The zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted between domestic and wild animals, threatening wildlife populations and control programs for bTB in cattle. In Corsica, a French Mediterranean island where domestic and wild species have close interactions, bTB cases have been reported in cattle, pigs, and wild boar. Moreover, genotypes of M. bovis found in wild and domestic animals from the same area were identical. These data strongly suggest that wild and domestic animals are associated in an epidemiologic bTB-transmission cycle. More investigations are needed, not only to understand the role played by each species in order to implement appropriate control measures, but also to assess the risk of transmission to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-46.2.627DOI Listing
April 2010

Presence of serum antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5 and N1 in swans and ibises in French wetlands, irrespective of highly pathogenic H5N1 natural infection.

Avian Dis 2010 Mar;54(1 Suppl):502-8

AAFSSA (French Agency for Food Safety), Research Laboratory on Poultry, Swine and Fish, Poultry and Rabbit Virology, Immunology, and Parasitology Unit, National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease, B.P. 53, 22440 Ploufragan, France.

Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) subtype H5N1 (subclade 2.2) were detected in wild birds during outbreaks in France during winter 2006 and summer 2007 in la Dombes wetlands (eastern France) and in Moselle wetlands (northeastern France), respectively. Blood samples from apparently healthy wild birds were collected in 2006 and 2007 from the end of the outbreak to several weeks after the influenza A outbreak inside and outside the contaminated areas, and in 2008 outside the contaminated areas. The samples were tested for the presence and/or quantitation of serum antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5 and N1 using hemagglutination inhibition tests (HITs), a commercial N1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and virus neutralization assay. In the HIT, low pathogenicity (LP) and HP H5 AIVs (belonging to H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3 subtypes) were used as antigens. One hundred mute swans were bled in the la Dombes outbreak area in 2006. During 2007, 46 mallards, 69 common pochards, and 59 mute swans were sampled in the Moselle outbreak area. For comparison, blood samples were also collected in 2007 from 60 mute swans from the Marne department where no HP H5N1 influenza A cases have been reported, and in 2008 from 111 sacred ibises in western France where no HP H5N1 influenza A infections in wild birds have been reported either. Mute swans (irrespective of their origin and time of sampling) and sacred ibises (from an area with no known outbreaks) had the highest prevalence of positive sera in the H5 HIT (49-69% and 64%, respectively). The prevalence of anti-H5 antibodies in mallards and common pochards was lower (28% and 27%, respectively). Positive H5- and N1-antibody responses were also significantly associated in swans (irrespective of their origin and time of sampling) and in sacred ibises. However, in swans from the area without outbreaks, the HIT titer against an H5N1 LPAIV was significantly higher than against an H5N1 2.2.1 HPAIV, whereas no difference could be shown for swans from the outbreak areas sampled in 2006 and 2007. These results suggest that ibises and swans from areas without declared outbreaks had acquired humoral immunity after AIV infections with subtypes H5 and N1 but independently from HP H5N1 infection. However, for swans living in outbreak areas, it cannot be excluded that this immunity might result from either a subclinical or a nonlethal infection by HP H5N1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/8804-040109-ResNote.1DOI Listing
March 2010

The epidemiology of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) and other Anatidae in the Dombes region (France), 2006.

J Wildl Dis 2008 Oct;44(4):811-23

Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Unité Sanitaire de la Faune, 38610 Gières, France.

In February 2006, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was isolated from Common Pochards (Aythia ferina) in the Dombes region of France, an important migrating and wintering waterfowl area. Thereafter, HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from 39 swab pools collected from dead waterfowl found in the Dombes, but only from three pooled samples collected outside of this area but located on the same migration flyway. A single turkey farm was infected in the Dombes. The epizootic lasted 2 mo and was restricted to the Dombes area. Virus-positive pools were detected in 20 of 1,200 ponds and infected Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) represented 82% of the virus-positive pools. Other infected species included Common Pochard (n=4), Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea, n=1), Eurasian Buzzard (Buteo buteo, n=1), and Greylag Goose (Anser anser, n=1). Despite intensive monitoring during and after the outbreak, HPAI H5N1 virus was not isolated from healthy wild birds. Our results are consistent with an HPAI H5N1-virus introduction into the Dombes via migrating ducks. These birds could have been pushed west by a severe cold spell in central Europe where the virus had already been detected. The Mute Swan served as an excellent epidemiologic sentinel during this outbreak; swans appear to be highly sensitive to infection with these viruses and swan mortality was easy to detect. During the outbreak, the mortality rates for wild birds remained moderate and the virus affected a limited number of species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-44.4.811DOI Listing
October 2008

Mycobacterium bovis in wildlife in France.

J Wildl Dis 2008 Jan;44(1):99-108

Unité Epidémiologie, Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments, 23 avenue du Général-de-Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France.

In early 2001, tuberculosis-like lesions were detected in three hunter-killed red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Brotonne Forest (Normandy, France), and Mycobacterium bovis was isolated. In subsequent hunting seasons, two surveys were conducted in the area. In the first survey (2001-02 hunting season), nine (13%) of 72 red deer sampled were positive for M. bovis. In the 2005-06 hunting season, the prevalence of M. bovis infection increased to 24% (chi2=3.85, df=1, P=0.05; 33 positive among 138 sampled). The prevalence remained stable in juveniles, but it increased significantly in adults: from 13% in 2001-02 to 32% in 2005-06 (chi2=5.13, df=1, P=0.02). Wild boar (Sus scrofa) were heavily infected in both surveys. One roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and one red fox (Vulpes vulpes) also tested positive in the second survey. Mycobacterium bovis was not isolated from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). Spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat analysis demonstrated that all M. bovis strains isolated from wildlife were of the same genotype. Thus, the wildlife outbreak involved only a single strain, and this strain was the same as that circulating in nearby cattle herds since 1995. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the presence of macroscopic lesions as a diagnostic criterion were evaluated from the data obtained from red deer. Necropsy seems to be satisfactory as a routine tool to monitor the disease in wild red deer populations in which bovine tuberculosis has become established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-44.1.99DOI Listing
January 2008

[Prevention of avian flu].

Rev Prat 2007 Jun;57(11 Suppl):33-6

CCMSA, 93547 Bagnolet.

Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza has evolved from an exclusively animal disease to a zoonosis. In 2003, the H5N1 HP virus developed in poultry in South-Eastern Asia, before spreading to European countries and Africa. Human cases are systematically associated with a close and intensive contact with infected poultry; their number is currently limited as compared to the total number of exposed people in the world. Many precautionary measures have been taken to prevent the extension of foci, as much in terms of animal health as in terms of protection of those potentially exposed to infected birds. Besides the zoonotic aspect, the genetic evolutionary potential of influenza viruses and the unusual world H5N1 HP virus circulation in birds have raised concerns about a potential new influenza pandemic. This is the reason why public authorities have initiated a large-scale preparedness plan to face this contingency.
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June 2007

Detection of a newly described pestivirus of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in France.

J Wildl Dis 2005 Jul;41(3):606-10

Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research Berlin, PO Box 601103, D-10252 Berlin, Germany.

A pestivirus was detected and characterized in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) originating from the French part of the Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analysis of the pestivirus was done on the basis of a fragment from the 5' noncoding region including 22 published nucleotide sequences of different pestivirus strains. Our strain was grouped within the clade of border disease viruses (BDV). However, it had an intermediate position between clade BDV and classical swine fever viruses representing a basal position to BDV strains of domestic sheep. Our strain was grouped as a sister unit to a novel pestivirus (Chamois-1) recently described from chamois in Spain. Therefore, we postulate that this virus occurs in the entire population of Pyrenean chamois. On the basis of the phylogenetic grouping of this isolate, a postulated cross-species transmission of pestivirus from domestic sheep to chamois via shared pastures seems to be unlikely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-41.3.606DOI Listing
July 2005

Long-term monitoring of classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.) using serological data.

Vet Res 2005 Jan-Feb;36(1):27-42

Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, Unité Microbiologie, Pathologie infectieuse et Epidémiologie, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy-l'Etoile, France.

In the European Community, epizootics of classical swine fever (CSF) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) are compulsorily monitored because transmission may occur between wild boars and domestic pigs, causing heavy economic losses to the pork industry. The estimation of incidence in populations of wild boars is generally based on viroprevalence. However, viral isolation becomes rare when the incidence is low because the virus cannot be detected for more than a few weeks following infection. On the contrary, seroprevalence is detectable at low incidence levels, because antibodies can be detected for the lifetime of the infected animal. We thus attempted to analyse the long-term evolution of CSF incidence using serological data. The data came from France, where CSF had been monitored from 1992 to 2002, and where the virus has not been detected since 1997. We assumed that the overall seroprevalence would estimate the proportion of immune wild boars, that seroprevalence in juveniles would approximate incidence and that seroprevalence in different age classes would show the evolution of incidence in a given cohort. Spatial and temporal trends of incidence and seroprevalence were explored using logistic modelling and the spatial trend was analysed using polynomial regression. In 1992, incidence peaked in the northern area. After 1993, incidence decreased but remained the highest in the northern area. After 2000, no seropositive juvenile was observed, suggesting the extinction of the epizootic. Our results support the reliability of serological monitoring since it allowed a longer detection of viral transmission and provided more information on the spatio-temporal evolution of incidence than did viral isolation. We advocate that the highest persistence of infection in northeastern France is not independent from infection persistence in Reinland-Pfalz (Germany). Such persistence may be due to favourable local conditions and/or the social organisation of wild boars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2004050DOI Listing
February 2005