Publications by authors named "Jean Chamoun"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The concerted movement of the switch region of Troponin I in cardiac muscle thin filaments as tracked by conventional and pulsed (DEER) EPR.

J Struct Biol 2017 12 31;200(3):376-387. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Electronic address:

The absence of a crystal structure of the calcium free state of the cardiac isoform of the troponin complex has hindered our understanding of how the simple binding of Ca triggers conformational changes in troponin which are then propagated to enable muscle contraction. Here we have used continuous wave (CW) and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) pulsed EPR spectroscopy to measure distances between TnI and TnC to track the movement of the functionally important regulatory 'switch' region of cardiac Tn. Spin labels were placed on the switch region of Troponin I and distances measured to Troponin C. Under conditions of high Ca, the interspin distances for one set (TnI151/TnC84) were 'short' (9-10Å) with narrow distance distribution widths (3-8Å) indicating the close interaction of the switch region with the N-lobe of TnC. Additional spin populations representative of longer interspin distances were detected by DEER. These longer distance populations, which were ∼16-19Å longer than the short distance populations, possessed notably broader distance distribution widths (14-29Å). Upon Ca removal, the interspin population shifted toward the longer distances, indicating the release of the switch region from TnC and an overall increase in disorder for this region. Together, our results suggest that under conditions of low Ca, the close proximity of the TnI switch region to TnC in the cardiac isoform is necessary for promoting the interaction between the regulatory switch helix with the N-lobe of cardiac Troponin C, which, unlike the skeletal isoform, is largely in a closed conformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2017.08.007DOI Listing
December 2017

Therapeutic Effects of FGF23 c-tail Fc in a Murine Preclinical Model of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia Via the Selective Modulation of Phosphate Reabsorption.

J Bone Miner Res 2017 Oct 25;32(10):2062-2073. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Center for Therapeutic Innovation, Pfizer, New York, NY, USA.

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is the causative factor of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), a genetic disorder effecting 1:20,000 that is characterized by excessive phosphate excretion, elevated FGF23 levels and a rickets/osteomalacia phenotype. FGF23 inhibits phosphate reabsorption and suppresses 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) biosynthesis, analytes that differentially contribute to bone integrity and deleterious soft-tissue mineralization. As inhibition of ligand broadly modulates downstream targets, balancing efficacy and unwanted toxicity is difficult when targeting the FGF23 pathway. We demonstrate that a FGF23 c-tail-Fc fusion molecule selectively modulates the phosphate pathway in vivo by competitive antagonism of FGF23 binding to the FGFR/α klotho receptor complex. Repeated injection of FGF23 c-tail Fc in Hyp mice, a preclinical model of XLH, increases cell surface abundance of kidney NaPi transporters, normalizes phosphate excretion, and significantly improves bone architecture in the absence of soft-tissue mineralization. Repeated injection does not modulate either 1,25D or calcium in a physiologically relevant manner in either a wild-type or disease setting. These data suggest that bone integrity can be improved in models of XLH via the exclusive modulation of phosphate. We posit that the selective modulation of the phosphate pathway will increase the window between efficacy and safety risks, allowing increased efficacy to be achieved in the treatment of this chronic disease. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816679PMC
October 2017

Complexation and Calcium-Induced Conformational Changes in the Cardiac Troponin Complex Monitored by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry.

Int J Mass Spectrom 2011 Apr;302(1-3):116-124

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306.

Cardiac muscle contraction is regulated by the heterotrimeric complex: troponin. We apply solution-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by FT-ICR mass spectrometry to study the structural dynamics and the Ca-induced conformational changes of the cardiac isoform of troponin, by comparing H/D exchange rate constants for TnC alone, the binary TnC:TnI complex, and the ternary TnC:TnI:TnT complex for Ca-free and Ca-saturated states. The wide range of exchange rate constants indicates that the complexes possess both highly flexible and very rigid domains. Fast exchange rates were observed for the N-terminal extension of TnI (specific to the cardiac isoform), the DE linker in TnC alone, and the mobile domain of TnI. The slowest rates were for the IT coiled-coil that grants stability and stiffness to the complex. Ca(2+) binding to site II of the N-lobe of TnC induces short-range allosteric effects, mainly protection for the C-lobe of TnC that transmits long-range conformational changes that reach the IT coiled-coil and even TnT1. The present results corroborate prior X-ray crystallography and NMR interpretations and also illuminate domains that were not resolved or truncated in those experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2010.08.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3134279PMC
April 2011

Broad disorder and the allosteric mechanism of myosin II regulation by phosphorylation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 May 2;108(20):8218-23. Epub 2011 May 2.

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA.

Double electron electron resonance EPR methods was used to measure the effects of the allosteric modulators, phosphorylation, and ATP, on the distances and distance distributions between the two regulatory light chain of myosin (RLC). Three different states of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) were studied: monomers, the short-tailed subfragment heavy meromyosin, and SMM filaments. We reconstituted myosin with nine single cysteine spin-labeled RLC. For all mutants we found a broad distribution of distances that could not be explained by spin-label rotamer diversity. For SMM and heavy meromyosin, several sites showed two heterogeneous populations in the unphosphorylated samples, whereas only one was observed after phosphorylation. The data were consistent with the presence of two coexisting heterogeneous populations of structures in the unphosphorylated samples. The two populations were attributed to an on and off state by comparing data from unphosphorylated and phosphorylated samples. Models of these two states were generated using a rigid body docking approach derived from EM [Wendt T, Taylor D, Trybus KM, Taylor K (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:4361-4366] (PNAS, 2001, 98:4361-4366), but our data revealed a new feature of the off-state, which is heterogeneity in the orientation of the two RLC. Our average off-state structure was very similar to the Wendt model reveal a new feature of the off state, which is heterogeneity in the orientations of the two RLC. As found previously in the EM study, our on-state structure was completely different from the off-state structure. The heads are splayed out and there is even more heterogeneity in the orientations of the two RLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014137108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3100986PMC
May 2011

Advantages of isotopic depletion of proteins for hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments monitored by mass spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2010 Apr;82(8):3293-9

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA.

Solution-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) monitored by mass spectrometry is an excellent tool to study protein-protein interactions and conformational changes in biological systems, especially when traditional methods such as X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance are not feasible. Peak overlap among the dozens of proteolytic fragments (including those from autolysis of the protease) can be severe, due to high protein molecular weight(s) and the broad isotopic distributions due to multiple deuterations of many peptides. In addition, different subunits of a protein complex can yield isomeric proteolytic fragments. Here, we show that depletion of (13)C and/or (15)N for one or more protein subunits of a complex can greatly simplify the mass spectra, increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the depleted fragment ions, and remove ambiguity in assignment of the m/z values to the correct isomeric peptides. Specifically, it becomes possible to monitor the exchange progress for two isobaric fragments originating from two or more different subunits within the complex, without having to resort to tandem mass spectrometry techniques that can lead to deuterium scrambling in the gas phase. Finally, because the isotopic distribution for a small to medium-size peptide is essentially just the monoisotopic species ((12)C(c)(1)H(h)(14)N(n)(16)O(o)(32)S(s)), it is not necessary to deconvolve the natural abundance distribution for each partially deuterated peptide during HDX data reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac100079zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878611PMC
April 2010

Distance and dynamics determination by W-band DEER and W-band ST-EPR.

Eur Biophys J 2010 Mar 9;39(4):711-9. Epub 2009 Dec 9.

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biological Science, Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA.

To explore high-field EPR in biological applications we have compared measurements of dynamics with X-band (9 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) saturation transfer EPR (ST-EPR) and distance determination by X and W-band DEER. A fourfold increase of sensitivity was observed for W-band ST-EPR compared with X-band. The distance measurements at both fields showed very good agreement in both the average distances and in the distance distributions. Multifrequency EPR thus provides an additional experimental dimension to facilitate extraction of distance populations. However, the expected orientational selectivity of W-band DEER to determine the relative orientation of spins has not been realized, most likely because of the large orientational disorder of spin labels on the protein surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00249-009-0565-3DOI Listing
March 2010

Myosin binding protein-C: enigmatic regulator of cardiac contraction.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007 20;39(12):2161-6. Epub 2007 Jan 20.

Pathology Discipline, School of Medical Science and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Myosin binding protein C (MyBPC) is a sarcomeric protein whose role in sarcomere structure and regulation of contraction is currently under investigation. It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is found in the C-zone of the A-band of the sarcomere. The elongated structure of MyBPC is composed of a series of immunoglobulin and fibronectin domains, with the C-terminal domains binding to the myosin thick filament and the N-terminal domains interacting with the myosin subfragment-2 (S2) neck region and possibly the actin thin filament. The functions of MyBPC are to stabilise the sarcomere structure and to regulate contraction. When phosphorylated near its N-terminus, MyBPC no longer binds myosin-S2, causing an increase in the ordering of the myosin heads, ATPase activity, F(max) and Ca(2+) sensitivity of contraction. Mutations in MyBPC have been found to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) and changes in MyBPC phosphorylation have been linked to cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2006.12.008DOI Listing
January 2008