Publications by authors named "Jayesh Sanmukhani"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the DNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (ZyCoV-D): the interim efficacy results of a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in India.

Lancet 2022 04;399(10332):1313-1321

BAPS Pramukh Swami Hospital, Adajan, Surat, India.

Background: ZyCoV-D, a DNA-based vaccine, showed promising safety and immunogenicity in a phase 1/2 trial. We now report the interim efficacy results of phase 3 clinical trial with ZyCoV-D vaccine in India.

Methods: We conducted an interim analysis of a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial at 49 centres in India. Healthy participants aged at least 12 years were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either ZyCov-D vaccine (Cadila Healthcare; 2 mg per dose) or placebo. An interactive web response system was used for randomisation (blocks of four) of participants as well as to enrol those aged 60 years and older with or without comorbid conditions, and those aged 12-17 years. It was also used to identify 600 participants for immunogenicity (blocks of six). Participants, investigators, and outcome assessors were masked to treatment assignment. Three doses of vaccine or placebo were administered intradermally via a needle-free injection system 28 days apart. The primary outcome was the number of participants with first occurrence of symptomatic RT-PCR-positive COVID-19 28 days after the third dose, until the targeted number of cases (interim analysis n=79, full analysis n=158) have been achieved. The analysis was done in the per-protocol population, which consisted of all participants with negative baseline SARS-CoV-2 status who received three doses of vaccine or placebo. Assessment of safety and tolerability was based on the safety population, which consisted of all enrolled participants who were known to have received at least one dose of study vaccine or placebo. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry India, CTRI/2021/01/030416, and is ongoing.

Findings: Between Jan 16, and June 23, 2021 (data cutoff), 33 194 individuals were screened, of whom 5241 did not meet screening criteria and 27 703 were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive ZyCoV-D (n=13 851) or placebo (n=13 852). Per-protocol, 81 cases were eligible and included in efficacy analysis (20 of 12 350 in the ZyCoV-D group and 61 of 12 320 in placebo group). The ZyCoV-D vaccine efficacy was found to be 66·6% (95% CI 47·6-80·7). The occurrence of solicited adverse events was similar between the treatment groups (623 [4·49%] in the ZyCoV-D group vs 620 [4·47%] in the placebo group). There were two deaths (one in each group) reported at the data cutoff, neither of which was considered related to the study treatments.

Interpretation: In this interim analysis, ZyCoV-D vaccine was found to be efficacious, safe, and immunogenic in a phase 3 trial.

Funding: National Biopharma Mission, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India and Cadila Healthcare, Ahmedabad, Gujarat India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00151-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8970574PMC
April 2022

Efficacy and safety of avanafil as compared with sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A randomized, double blind, multicenter clinical trial.

Int J Urol 2022 04 26;29(4):351-359. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs, Zydus Healthcare Limited, India.

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of avanafil as compared with sildenafil in the management of patients with erectile dysfunction.

Methods: It was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, two-arm, active-controlled, parallel, multicenter, non-inferiority clinical study carried out in patients with erectile dysfunction for at least 3 months and International Index of Erectile Function - Erectile Function domain score of <26 at enrolment.

Results: A total of 220 patients were randomized to receive either avanafil tablets 100 mg or sildenafil tablets 50 mg in 1:1 ratio. After 4 weeks of treatment, 40.0% of patients in the avanafil group and 45.6% of patients in the sildenafil group required dose escalation to a high dose (avanafil 200 mg/sildenafil 100 mg). The difference in the mean change of International Index of Erectile Function - Erectile Function score from baseline in the two groups increased from week 4 (1.1, 95% confidence interval -0.2 to 2.5) to week 8 (1.4, 95% confidence interval 0.1-2.7) and week 12 (2.1, 95% confidence interval 0.8-3.5), showing non-inferiority at week 4, and superiority at week 8 and week 12. Avanafil showed a faster onset of action as shown by a significantly better response to modified Sexual Encounter Profile 1 in the avanafil group (84.8%) as compared with that in the sildenafil group (28.2%; P < 0.001). Both avanafil and sildenafil were well tolerated by all the patients in the study; the most common adverse event reported during the study was headache in both the groups.

Conclusion: Avanafil is superior to sildenafil in improving the International Index of Erectile Function - Erectile Function domain score at the end of 12 weeks of treatment with the added advantage of faster onset of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iju.14785DOI Listing
April 2022

Safety and Immunogenicity of a DNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (ZyCoV-D): Results of an open-label, non-randomized phase I part of phase I/II clinical study by intradermal route in healthy subjects in India.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 17;38:101020. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Zydus Discovery DMCC, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Background: ZyCoV-D is a DNA vaccine candidate, which comprises a plasmid DNA carrying spike-S gene of SARS-CoV-2 virus along with gene coding for signal peptide. The spike(S) region includes the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which binds to the human angiotensin converting Enzyme (ACE)-2 receptor and mediates the entry of virus inside the cell.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, open-label, non-randomized, Phase 1 trial in India between July 2020 and October 2020. Healthy adults aged between 18 and 55 years were sequentially enrolled and allocated to one of four treatment arms in a dose escalation manner. Three doses of vaccine were administered 28 days apart and each subject was followed up for 28 days post third dose to evaluate safety and immunogenicity.

Findings: Out of 126 individuals screened for eligibility. Forty-eight subjects (mean age 34·9 years) were enrolled and vaccinated in the Phase 1 study Overall, 12/48 (25%) subjects reported at least one AE (i.e. combined solicited and unsolicited) during the study. There were no deaths or serious adverse events reported in Phase 1 of the study. The proportion of subjects who seroconverted based on IgG titers on day 84 was 4/11 (36·36%), 4/12 (33·33%), 10/10 (100·00%) and 8/10 (80·00%) in the treatment Arm 1 (1 mg: Needle), Arm 2 (1 mg: NFIS), Arm 3 (2 mg: Needle) and Arm 4 (2 mg: NFIS), respectively.

Interpretation: ZyCoV-D vaccine is found to be safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic in the Phase 1 trial. Our findings suggest that the DNA vaccine warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285262PMC
August 2021

Immunogenicity and safety of the first indigenously developed Indian tetravalent influenza vaccine (split virion) in healthy children (6 months to 17 years of age): a randomized, multicenter, phase III clinical trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 03 26;17(3):681-689. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs, Cadila Healthcare Limited, India.

This phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the Tetravalent Influenza Vaccine (Split virion) I.P. (TetIV), containing two strains each of influenza A and B, developed indigenously in the country for the first time by M/s Cadila Healthcare Limited, India for use in the pediatric population (6 months -17 years of age), and compare it to that of a licensed seasonal Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (TriIV) of Sanofi Pasteur India Private Limited, containing two influenza A and one influenza B strains. Three hundred six subjects of either sex, 6 months to 17 years of age, were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either TetIV or TriIV. Immunogenicity assessments (antibodies against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Phuket, and B/Brisbane) were performed using the hemagglutination inhibition assay at baseline and 28 days after the last vaccination. TetIV was found to fulfill the criteria set by the United States Food and Drug Administration on the requirements of clinical data for licensure of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccines for the pediatric population. The seroconversion rates with TetIV were 94.6% for A/H1N1, 93.9% for A/H3N2, 91.2% for B/Brisbane, and 87.2% for B/Phuket strains. TetIV showed non-inferiority and superiority in immune response, as compared to TriIV, against the shared strains and an additional B strain, respectively. Both the vaccines were tolerated well by all the study participants, and an addition of the fourth strain in TetIV did not compromise the safety as compared to that of TriIV. The most common adverse event reported in both groups was fever.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1794683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993130PMC
March 2021

Immunogenicity and safety of the first indigenously developed Indian tetravalent influenza vaccine (split virion) in healthy adults ≥ 18 years of age: A randomized, multicenter, phase II / III clinical trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 06 21;14(6):1362-1369. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

l Chief Scientific Officer, Vaccine Technology Centre, Cadila Healthcare Limited , Ahmedabad , India.

This phase II / III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the Tetravalent Influenza vaccine (Split virion) I.P. (TetIV) developed indigenously in the country for the first time by M/s Cadila Healthcare Limited, India containing two influenza A and two influenza B strains, one of each, Yamagata (B/Phuket) and Victoria (B/Brisbane) lineage and also compare it to that of an licensed seasonal Trivalent Influenza vaccine (TriIV) of Sanofi Pasteur India Private Limited, containing the two influenza A and only the Yamagata lineage (B/Phuket) strain. Three hundred and fifty subjects of either sex, aged more than 18 years of age, were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the TetIV or TriIV. Immunogenicity assessments (antibody against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Phuket and B/Brisbane) were done by Haemagglutination Inhibition assay at baseline and 21 d after vaccination. Solicited (local and systemic) and unsolicited adverse events were recorded for up to 42 d following vaccination. The TetIV was found to fulfill the criteria set by the European and the US regulatory authorities and WHO guidance on the requirements of clinical data for licensure of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccines. The seroconversion rates with TetIV were 93.5% for A/H1N1, 90.0% for A/H3N2, 70.0% for B/Phuket and 82.9% for B/Brisbane strain. There was no significant difference in the seroconversion and seroprotection rates at day 21 for A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B/Phuket in the two groups while the TetIV was superior to the TrivIV for the seroconversion and the seroprotection rate for the B/Brisbane strain (Victoria lineage). Both the vaccines were well tolerated by all the study participants; addition of the fourth strain in the TetIV did not compromise the safety as compared to TriIV. The most common systemic adverse event reported in both the groups was headache followed by fever.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1441654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037459PMC
June 2018

Immunogenicity and safety of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) containing the Edmonston-Zagreb measles strain, the Hoshino mumps strain, and the RA 27/3 rubella strain: Results of a randomized, comparative, active controlled phase III clinical trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 07 31;13(7):1523-1530. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

k Vaccine Technology Centre , Cadila Healthcare Limited , India.

This phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the single-dose and multi-dose formulations of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Cadila Healthcare Limited, India (Cadila MMR vaccine), containing the Hoshino mumps strain, compared to that of an existing MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Serum Institute of India Limited, India (Serum MMR vaccine). These two vaccines have similar measles and rubella strains, but different mumps strains (Hoshino in Cadila MMR vaccine, and L-Zagreb in Serum MMR vaccine). Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects of either sex, aged 15-18 months, were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either the Cadila or Serum MMR vaccine. Immunogenicity assessments (IgG antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella viruses) were done at baseline and 42 d after vaccination. Solicited (local and systemic) and unsolicited adverse events were recorded for up to 42 d following vaccination. The Cadila MMR vaccine was found to be non-inferior to the Serum MMR vaccine in terms of end-of-study proportion of subjects seropositive for anti-measles antibodies (100.0% in both groups), anti-mumps antibodies (94.5% vs. 94.0%), and anti-rubella antibodies (95.5% vs. 91.0%). Both vaccines were well tolerated by all study participants; the most common adverse event reported in both groups was fever, followed by rash. The results of this phase III clinical trial show that the novel Cadila MMR vaccine is non-inferior to the Serum MMR vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2017.1302629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5512778PMC
July 2017

Tretinoin Nanogel 0.025% Versus Conventional Gel 0.025% in Patients with Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Active Controlled, Multicentre, Parallel Group, Phase IV Clinical Trial.

J Clin Diagn Res 2015 Jan 1;9(1):WC04-9. Epub 2015 Jan 1.

Clinical Research Department, Cadila Healthcare Ltd ., Ahmedabad, India .

Background: Conventional topical tretinoin formulation is often associated with local adverse events. Nanogel formulation of tretinoin has good physical stability and enables good penetration of tretinoin into the pilo-sebaceous glands.

Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a nanogel formulation of tretinoin as compared to its conventional gel formulation in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face.

Materials And Methods: This randomized, active controlled, multicentric, phase IV clinical trial evaluated the treatment of patients with acne vulgaris of the face by the two gel formulations locally applied once daily at night for 12 wk. Acne lesion counts (inflammatory, non-inflammatory & total) and severity grading were carried out on the monthly scheduled visits along with the tolerability assessments.

Results: A total of 207 patients were randomized in the study. Reductions in the total (72.9% vs. 65.0%; p = 0.03) and inflammatory (78.1% vs. 66.9%; p = 0.02) acne lesions were reported to be significantly greater with the nanogel formulation as compared to the conventional gel formulation. Local adverse events were significantly less (p = 0.04) in the nanogel group (13.3%) as compared to the conventional gel group (24.7%). Dryness was the most common adverse event reported in both the treatment groups while peeling of skin, burning sensation and photosensitivity were reported in patients using the conventional gel only.

Conclusion: In the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face, tretinoin nanogel formulation appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the conventional gel formulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/10663.5469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4347160PMC
January 2015

Clindamycin 1% Nano-emulsion Gel Formulation for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: Results of a Randomized, Active Controlled, Multicentre, Phase IV Clinical Trial.

J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Aug 20;8(8):YC05-9. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Senior Vice-President, Department of Regulatory Affairs, Cadila Healthcare Ltd . Ahmedabad, India .

Background: Acne vulgaris of the face is a common dermatological disease with a significant impact on the quality of life, psychosocial development as well as self-esteem of the patients. Nano emulsion gel formulations are said to have various advantages over the conventional formulations.

Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion gel formulation of clindamycin with its conventional formulation in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face.

Materials And Methods: This prospective, active controlled, multicentric, phase IV clinical trial evaluated the treatment of patients with acne vulgaris of the face by a nano emulsion gel formulation or conventional gel formulation of clindamycin (as phosphate) 1% locally applied twice daily for 12 weeks as per random allocation. Acne lesion counts (inflammatory, non-inflammatory and total) and severity grading were carried out on the monthly scheduled visits along with tolerability assessments.

Results: A total of 200 patients (97 males) were included for Intention to Treat analysis in the trial with 100 patients in each group. Reductions in total (69.3 vs. 51.9%; p<0.001), inflammatory (73.4 vs. 60.6%; p<0.005) and non inflammatory (65.1 vs. 43.7%; p<0.001) acne lesions were reported to be significantly greater with the nano-emulsion gel formulation as compared to the conventional gel formulation. Significantly more reduction in the mean acne severity score was noticeable with the nano-emulsion gel formulation (-1.6 ± 0.9 vs. -1.0 ± 0.8; p<0.001) than the comparator. A trend towards better safety profile of the nano emulsion gel formulation was reported.

Conclusion: In the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face, clindamycin nano emulsion gel formulation appears to be more effective than the conventional gel formulation and is also well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/9111.4769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190779PMC
August 2014

Ramosetron hydrochloride for the prevention of cancer chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: The Indian experience.

South Asian J Cancer 2014 Apr;3(2):132-7

Department of New Product Development, Cadila Healthcare Ltd., Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Background: Despite the advent of 5-HT3 antagonists, control of delayed gastrointestinal adverse events with cancer chemotherapy is still not optimal. This open label, active controlled, multicentric clinical trial was undertaken to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of ramosetron with ondansetron for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with emetogenic cancer chemotherapy in adult patients in India.

Materials And Methods: Enrolled patients received treatment with ramosetron hydrochloride 0.1 mg or ondansetron hydrochloride 4 mg tablets once daily in the morning for 5 days starting 1 h before the start of chemotherapy. Severity grades of nausea and vomiting were recorded on a daily basis for a period of 5 days and complete response rate (CRR) and effective rate (ER) were calculated. Clinical adverse events were recorded and hematological and biochemical investigations were performed for safety assessment.

Results: A total of 114 patients in ramosetron group and 100 patients in ondansetron group completed the study and were eligible for efficacy and safety analysis. CRR and ERs show that while ramosetron is non-inferior to ondansetron in the control of early nausea and vomiting (occurring during the first 24 h) after the treatment with emetogenic chemotherapy, it is superior to ondansetron in the control of delayed nausea and vomiting (occurring after the first 24 h). The proportion of patients achieving a cumulative complete response (for the entire study period) is significantly greater in ramosetron group as compared to ondansetron group (27.2% vs. 7.0%; P < 0.001). Ramosetron was well tolerated by all the study participants.

Conclusions: Ramosetron is significantly more effective than ondansetron for the control of delayed nausea and vomiting induced by emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2278-330X.130466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014645PMC
April 2014

Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

Phytother Res 2014 Apr 6;28(4):579-85. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae), has shown potential antidepressant-like activity in animal studies. The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of curcumin with fluoxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, 60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination. The primary efficacy variable was response rates according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAM-D17 ). The secondary efficacy variable was the mean change in HAM-D17 score after six weeks. We observed that curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5025DOI Listing
April 2014

Epilepsy: Novel therapeutic targets.

J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2012 Apr;3(2):112-7

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India .

Despite of established and effective therapy for epilepsy, 20-25% patients develop therapeutic failure; this encourages finding newer drugs. Novel approaches target receptors which remain unaffected by conventional therapy or inhibit epileptogenesis. AMPA receptor antagonists have shown faster and complete protection compared to diazepam. Protein kinase (PK) plays an important role in the development of epilepsy. PK inhibitors such as K252a, VID-82925, and Herbimycin A have been found effective in inhibition of spread of epileptiform activity and epileptogenesis. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G protein-coupled receptors classified into three groups. Group 1 mGluRs antagonist and Groups 2 and 3 mGluRs agonists inhibited pentylenetetrazole-induced kindled seizures. Combined use of these agents has also shown favorable results. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in multiple mechanisms of epileptogenesis. mTOR causes transcription, induction of proapoptotic proteins, and autophagy inhibition. Rapamycin was effective in suppression of recurrent seizures as well as in tuberous sclerosis and acute brain injury model. 5% CO(2) showed potent effects on cortical epileptiform activity and convulsions in animal epilepsy models and in humans with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. It is found to be rapidly acting, safe and cheap, thus it can be a good option in emergency for suppression of seizure. Neurosteroids are considered as fourth generation neuromessengers, they act as positive allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors. Clinical trial of ganaxolone, an allopregnanolone analogue, has shown a beneficial role in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, most of these drugs are tested in early phases of development and the possible use and safety in epilepsy has to be proven in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-500X.95505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356950PMC
April 2012

Phenytoin induced chorea in a pediatric patient: An interaction between phenytoin, phenobarbital and clobazam.

Indian J Pharmacol 2011 Nov;43(6):731-2

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar- 364 001, Gujarat, India.

A 3-year-old female patient developed chorea possibly due to an interaction between phenytoin, phenobarbital and clobazam used for generalized tonic clonic seizures. Phenytoin withdrawal resulted in recovery within 24 hours. Post reaction computerized tomography (CT)-scan of brain was normal. Combined use of anti-seizure drugs and interactions between them may be responsible for the reaction. Therapeutic drug monitoring is important while prescribing two or more anti-seizure drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.89839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3229798PMC
November 2011

Evaluation of antidepressant like activity of curcumin and its combination with fluoxetine and imipramine: an acute and chronic study.

Acta Pol Pharm 2011 Sep-Oct;68(5):769-75

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar - 364001, Gujarat, India.

Curcumin is the active ingredient of commonly used spice Curuma longa Linn. In the present study, the antidepressant like activity of curcumin and its combination with fluoxetine and imipramine was studied in acute model (three doses 24, 5 and 1 h before test) of forced swimming test (FST) in glass jar and tail suspension test (TST) in mice and in chronic model (14 day study) of FST with water wheel in rats. All the tests were carried out in the following seven groups (n = 6 in each group), drugs being given orally (doses for mice): Group 1 (vehicle), group 2 (curcumin 50 mg/kg), group 3 (curcumin 100 mg/kg), group 4 (fluoxetine 20 mg/kg), group 5 (imipramine 15 mg/kg), group 6 (curcumin 100 mg/kg plus fluoxetine 20 mg/kg) and group 7 (curcumin 100 mg/kg plus imipramine 15 mg/kg). Equivalent doses for rats were used. Both the acute model of FST and TST, and the chronic model of FST with water wheel showed significant antidepressant like activity of curcumin in 100 mg/kg dose as compared to vehicle control (p < 0.05). The effect of curcumin (100 mg/kg) was similar to that of fluoxetine and imipramine (p > 0.05) but its addition to fluoxetine and imipramine did not improve their antidepressant activity (p > 0.05). Curcumin increased both the swimming and climbing behavior in FST, thus its antidepressant like activity could be due to an increase in serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the brain. Curcumin can be a useful antidepressant especially in cases which respond to drugs having mixed effects on serotonin and catecholamines levels in the brain.
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October 2011

Adverse drug reaction profile of oseltamivir in Indian population: A prospective observational study.

Indian J Pharmacol 2011 May;43(3):258-61

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

Objectives: To analyze the pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of oseltamivir and its comparison with available data.

Materials And Methods: Suspected or confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza A on therapeutic regimen and close contacts of cases H1N1 influenza A on prophylactic regimen of oseltamivir were included. Data were collected by personal interview after obtaining written informed consent. Causality, severity, and preventability assessments were done by using Naranjo's scale, modified Hartwig and Siegel's scale, and modified Schumock and Thornton Scale, respectively. Data were expressed in proportions. Frequency of ADRs in therapeutic and prophylactic groups were compared with phase III trial of oseltamivir by using Chi-square test.

Results: Total 294 patients were interviewed. In prophylactic group, 107 of 257 (41.63%) and in therapeutic, group 23 of 37 (62.16%) developed ADRs. ADRs reported in therapeutic group was significantly (P = 0.029) higher as compared with prophylactic group. Frequently observed ADRs in both the groups were gastritis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea weakness, sedation, loneliness, sadness, headache, and abdominal pain. Naranjo's algorithm showed all ADRs in probable category in prophylactic group, 27.78% probable and 72.22% possible reactions in therapeutic group. Severity assessment showed 76% mild and 24% moderate reactions in therapeutic group, 89% mild and 11% moderate reactions in prophylactic group. Severity of ADRs was significantly higher in therapeutic group. Most of ADRs were in nonpreventable category, except gastritis, nausea and vomiting were in definitely preventable category.

Conclusion: Oseltamivir is well tolerated in Indian population. Gastrointestinal side effects are most common and preventable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.81509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3113375PMC
May 2011

Five cases of Jatropha curcas poisoning.

J Assoc Physicians India 2010 Apr;58:245-6

Department of Medicine, Sir T. General Hospital and Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is found in the coastal areas of tropics. The leaves, fruits and seeds of the plant are used for various ailments. There are few reported cases of its poisoning in paediatric age but we didn't come across any case report for its poisoning in adults. However we found a family of 5 members (mother, father and three sons) affected by the poisoning of its seeds, who presented within a few minutes with complaints of vomiting and diarrhoea. The nature of illness was self limiting and no complications occurred during the entire hospital stay and follow up.
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April 2010
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