Publications by authors named "Jayesh Mudgal"

47 Publications

Pd-catalysed general access to 7-membered N/O-heterocyclic compounds as potential agents against inflammation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Dr. Reddy's Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, India.

A Pd-catalysed regioselective synthesis of 4,5-disubstituted 7-membered N/O-heterocycles was achieved the 7- cyclization followed by C-C bond formation of 2-(1-alkynyl)phenylacetamide. The ligand/additive free cascade reaction proceeded in the presence of PdCl in aqueous MeCN when the separate and individual use of methyl vinyl ketone and allyl bromide generally afforded an O- and N-heterocycle, respectively. The pharmacological assay was performed to identify the first example of a 1-benzo[]azepin-2(3)-one based novel inhibitor of PDE4B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc04140aDOI Listing
September 2021

CuCl-catalyzed inexpensive, faster and ligand/additive free synthesis of isoquinolin-1(2H)-one derivatives via the coupling-cyclization strategy: Evaluation of a new class of compounds as potential PDE4 inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Oct 13;115:105265. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Dr. Reddy's Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, India. Electronic address:

In spite of possessing a wide range of pharmacological properties the anti-inflammatory activities of isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones were rarely known or explored earlier. PDE4 inhibitors on the other hand in addition to their usefulness in treating inflammatory diseases have been suggested to attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19 especially TNF-α. In our effort, a new class of isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones derivatives containing an aminosulfonyl moiety were designed and explored as potential inhibitors of PDE4. Accordingly, for the first time a CuCl-catalyzed inexpensive, faster and ligand/additive free approach has been developed for the synthesis of these predesigned isoquinolin-1(2H)-one derivatives via the coupling-cyclization strategy. Thus, the CuCl-catalyzed reaction of 2-iodobenzamides with appropriate terminal alkynes proceeded with high chemo and regioselectivity affording the desired compounds in 77-84% yield within 1-1.5 h. The methodology also afforded simpler isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones devoid of aminosulfonyl moiety showing a broader generality and scope of this approach. Several of the synthesized compounds especially 3c, 3k and 3s showed impressive inhibition (83-90%) of PDE4B when tested at 10 µM in vitro whereas compounds devoid of aminosulfonyl moiety was found to be less active. In spite of high inhibition showed at 10 µM these compounds did not show proper concertation dependent inhibition below 1 µM that was reflected in their IC values e.g. 2.43 ± 0.32, 3.26 ± 0.24 and 3.63 ± 0.80 µM for 3k, 3o and 3s respectively. The anti-inflammatory potential of these compounds was indicated by their TNF-α inhibition (60-50% at 10 µM). The in silico docking studies of these molecules suggested good interactions with PDE4B and selective inhibition of PDE4B by 3k over PDE4D that was supported by in vitro assay results. These observations together with the favorable ADME and safety predicted for 3kin silico not only suggested 3k as an interesting hit molecule for further studies but also reveal the first example of isoquinolin-1(2H)-one based inhibitor of PDE4B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105265DOI Listing
October 2021

In silico screening of neurokinin receptor antagonists as a therapeutic strategy for neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Divers 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Neuroinflammation is one of the detrimental factors leading to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The activation of microglial neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) by substance P (SP) enhances neuroinflammation which is mediated through pro-inflammatory pathways involving NFkB, ERK1/2, and P38 and thus projects the scope and importance of NK1R inhibitors. Emphasizing the inhibitory role of N Acetyl L Tryptophan (L-NAT) on NK1R, this is the first in silico screening of L-NAT mediated NK1R antagonism. In addition, FDA- approved ligands were screened for their potential NK1R antagonism. The L-NAT was docked in XP (Extra Precision) mode while FDA-approved ligands were screened in HTVS (High Throughput Virtual Screening), SP (Standard Precision), and XP mode onto NK1R (PDB:6HLO). The L-NAT and top 3 compounds FDA-approved ligands were subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) studies of 100 ns simulation time. The XP docking of L-NAT, indacaterol, modafinil and alosetron showed good docking scores. Their 100 ns MD showed brief protein-ligand interactions with an acceptable root mean square deviation. The protein-ligand contacts depicted pi-pi stacking, pi-cation, hydrogen bonds, and water bridges with the amino acids necessary for NK1R inhibition. The variable colour band intensities on the protein-ligand contact map indicated their binding strength with amino acids. The molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA) scores suggested favourable binding free energy of the complexes. Thus, our study predicted the ability of L-NAT, indacaterol, modafinil, and alosetron as capable NK1R inhibitors that can aid to curb neuroinflammation in conditions of AD which could be further ascertained in subsequent studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-021-10276-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Molecular mechanisms of cordycepin emphasizing its potential against neuroinflammation: An update.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Oct 21;908:174364. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, 576104, India. Electronic address:

Recent research emphasizes the central role of neuroinflammation in complex neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury. Multiple pathological variables with identical molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the development of CNS inflammatory diseases. Therefore, one of the most crucial tasks in the management of CNS disorders is the alleviation of neuroinflammation. However, there are many drawbacks of new pharmacological drugs used in the management of CNS disorders, including medication side effects, and treatment complications. There is a growing inclination towards bioactive constituents of natural origin to unearth the potential remedies. Cordycepin, an adenosine analogue, is one such bioactive constituent with multiple actions, viz., anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, antidepressant, anti-Alzheimer's, anti-Parkinsonian and immunomodulatory effects, along with the promotion of remyelination. This review highlights the converging neuroinflammatory targets of cordycepin in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and depression, to substantiate its anti-neuroinflammatory property. Cordycepin acts by downregulation of adenosine A receptor, inhibition of microglial activation, and subsequent inhibition of several neuroinflammatory markers (NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1β, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and HMGB1). Cordycepin mitigates LPS-mediated toll-like receptor activation by activating adenosine receptor A, thereby improving antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) levels. These pieces of evidence point to the probable anti-neuroinflammatory mechanisms of cordycepin, which could facilitate the development of new remedies against neuroinflammation-associated CNS disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174364DOI Listing
October 2021

PdCl-catalyzed synthesis of a new class of isocoumarin derivatives containing aminosulfonyl / aminocarboxamide moiety: First identification of a isocoumarin based PDE4 inhibitor.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Oct 6;221:113514. Epub 2021 May 6.

Dr. Reddy's Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, 500 046, India. Electronic address:

While anti-inflammatory properties of isocoumarins are known their PDE4 inhibitory potential was not explored previously. In our effort the non-PDE4 inhibitor isocoumarins were transformed into the promising inhibitors via introducing an aminosulfonyl/aminocarboxamide moiety to the C-3 benzene ring attached to the isocoumarin framework. This new class of isocoumarins were synthesized via a PdCl-catalyzed construction of the 4-allyl substituted 3-aryl isocoumarin ring starting from the appropriate 2-alkynyl benzamide derivative. Several compounds showed good inhibition of PDE4B in vitro and the SAR indicated superiority of aminosulfonamide moiety over aminocarboxamide in terms of PDE4B inhibition. Two compounds 3q and 3u with PDE4B IC = 0.43 ± 0.11 and 0.54 ± 0.19 μM and ≥ 2-fold selectivity over PDE4D emerged as initial hits. The participation of aminosulfonamide moiety in PDE4B inhibition and the reason for selectivity though moderate shown by 3q and 3u was revealed by the in silico docking studies. In view of potential usefulness of moderately selective PDE4B inhibitors the compound 3u (that showed PDE4 selectivity over other PDEs) was further evaluated in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. At an intraperitoneal dose of 30 mg/kg the compound showed a significant reduction in paw swelling (in a dose dependent manner), inflammation and pannus formation (in the knee joints) as well as pro-inflammatory gene expression/mRNA levels and increase in body weight. Moreover, besides its TNF-α inhibition and no significant toxicity in an MTT assay the compound did not show any adverse effects in a thorough toxicity studies e.g. teratogenicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish. Thus, the isocoumarin 3u emerged as a new, safe and moderately selective PDE4B inhibitor could be useful for inflammatory diseases possibly including COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113514DOI Listing
October 2021

An insight on promising strategies hoping to cure HIV-1 infection by targeting Rev protein-short review.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Oct 11;73(5):1265-1272. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection remains to be one of the major threats throughout the world. Many researchers are working in this area to find a cure for HIV-1. The group of the FDA approved drugs which are currently used against HIV-1 in the clinical practice include nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), integrase inhibitors (InIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs). Fixed dose combinations (FDCs) of these drugs are available and are used as per the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) guidelines. Despite these, unfortunately, there is no cure for HIV1 infection to date. The present review is focused upon describing the importance of a post-transcriptional regulatory protein "Rev", responsible for latent HIV-1 infection as a possible, and promising therapeutic target against HIV-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43440-021-00257-9DOI Listing
October 2021

Remedial effects of caffeine against depressive-like behaviour in mice by modulation of neuroinflammation and BDNF.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 5:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, MHIQ, QUM Network, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.

Caffeine (CAF) is one of the most commonly consumed nutritional stimulant in beverages. Interestingly, CAF produces varied effects in a dose-dependent manner, and that makes it one of the most controversial nutritional ingredients. Various studies have linked CAF consumption and reduced risk of depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CAF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviour. C57BL/6J male mice were divided into four groups consisting of saline (SAL), LPS, CAF and Imipramine (IMI). Animals were pretreated orally with CAF (10 mg/kg) and IMI (10 mg/kg) for 14 days once daily and all groups except SAL were challenged with LPS (0.83 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on day 14. LPS produced a biphasic behavioural response with a significantly high immobility time and weight loss after 24 h. The brain cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) levels were remarkably high, along with increased lipid peroxidation and reduced Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). These biochemical and behavioural changes were significantly alleviated by CAF and IMI chronic treatment. The results of this study implicate that mild-moderate consumption of CAF could impart anti-inflammatory properties under neuroinflammatory conditions by modulating the cytokine and neurotrophic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2021.1906393DOI Listing
April 2021

Sirtuins, a potential target in Traumatic Brain Injury and relevant experimental models.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 26;171:135-141. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, 576104, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can simply be defined as a violent external injury to the head causing brain dysfunction. The primary injury occurs immediately on impact whereas the secondary injury begins minutes to months after impact. TBI affects a vast majority of population worldwide yet, there isn't any therapeutic intervention available. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are important regulator proteins found in humans. In several neurodegenerative diseases, SIRTs have proven its neuroprotective actions. Owing to the pathophysiological similarities in these diseases and TBI, SIRTs may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in TBI. This review aims to describe the relevance of SIRTs as a potential pharmacological target in TBI. Also, the experimental animal model of TBI explored to understand the role of SIRTs in TBI have been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.03.016DOI Listing
June 2021

Neuroprotective effect of Mulmina™ against chemotherapy-induced cognitive decline in normal mice.

Biomed Rep 2021 01 22;14(1). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate a marketed formulation against chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction. The formulation, Mulmina™, contains natural compounds which are known to help in improving function as well as in preventing cognitive decline. All of the phytoconstituents in the formulation have been tested individually but this is the first study where such a formulation has been evaluated against chemotherapy-induced cognitive decline (CICD) in a mouse model. CICD was induced by cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), methotrexate (5 mg/kg), and 5-fluorouracil (5 mg/kg) (CMF), administered intraperitonially. CMF was administered in three cycles, with one injection per week for three weeks. The decline in cognition of the mice was evaluated by a test of locomotor activity (Open Field Test) followed by a test for spatial memory (Morris Water Maze). Biochemical parameters evaluated include brain cytokine levels and BDNF levels via ELISA. Hematological counts were also performed to evaluate any changes in blood profile using a veterinary blood cell counter. Levels of oxidative stress markers with respect to catalase activity and lipid peroxidation were also evaluated in the brain using UV-spectrophotometric analysis. Mulmina™ was able to show significant improvement in cognitive function post chemotherapy when compared to the untreated animals. Apart from improvement in spatial memory, there was also an improvement in biochemical parameters. The particular combination of phytochemicals in Mulmina™ proved themselves successful in alleviating the CICD in this preliminary study and pave a path for future studies which can establish the solid grounds with respect to molecular and pharmacological basis for the mechanism of action of Mulmina™.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/br.2020.1377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678637PMC
January 2021

Inhibition of NLRP3-inflammasome mediated IL-1β release by phenylpropanoic acid derivatives: in-silico and in-vitro approach.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Feb 7;157:105637. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, India. Electronic address:

NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent release of IL-1β are being explored as a causal pathology for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Modulation of this pathway by the compounds from natural sources may provide a better targeted approach with improved therapeutic outcome. The study was carried out to test the ability of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and IL-1β release. The main purpose of the study was to test the active derivatives with respect to the possible molecular interactions in-silico, effect on mRNA expression of molecular markers and, effect on released cytokine. Autodock along with SwissADME was used to carry out the in-silico studies including the prediction studies as well as molecular docking studies. The effect of test compounds on mRNA expression of important proteins was evaluated against U87MG cells using RT-qPCR. The changes in released cytokine levels was evaluated using ELISA. The tested phenylpropanoic acid derivatives had a comparable molecular docking profile to that of selected standards. The prediction studies indicated that these compounds have suitable properties to be a drug candidate. mRNA expression studies showed that the derivatives can downregulate the proteins responsible for inflammasome activation and same was reflected in ELISA when the concentration of released cytokine was evaluated. Based on the above results, phenylpropanoic acid derivatives have potential to be developed as specific NLRP3-inflammasome inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105637DOI Listing
February 2021

Spermidine, an autophagy inducer, as a therapeutic strategy in neurological disorders.

Neuropeptides 2020 Oct 24;83:102083. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, India. Electronic address:

Spermidine is a naturally occurring endogenous polyamine synthesized from diamine putrescine. It is a well-known autophagy inducer that maintains cellular and neuronal homeostasis. Healthy brain development and function are dependent on brain polyamine concentration. Polyamines interact with the opioid system, glutamatergic signaling and neuroinflammation in the neuronal and glial compartments. Among the polyamines, spermidine is found highest in the human brain. Age-linked fluctuations in the spermidine levels may possibly contribute to the impairments in neural network and neurogenesis. Exogenously administered spermidine helps in the treatment of brain diseases. Further, current studies highlight the ability of spermidine to promote longevity by inducing autophagy. Still, the causal neuroprotective mechanism of spermidine in neuronal dysfunction remains unidentified. This review aims to summarize various neuroprotective effects of spermidine related to anti-aging/ anti-inflammatory properties and the prevention of neurotoxicity that helps in achieving beneficial effects in age-related neurological disorder. We also expose the signaling cascades modulated by spermidine which might result in therapeutic action. The present review highlights clinical studies along with in-vivo and in-vitro preclinical studies to provide a new dimension for the therapeutic potential of spermidine in neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2020.102083DOI Listing
October 2020

Neurodegenerative Pathways in Alzheimer's Disease: A Review.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 ;19(5):679-692

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka- 576104, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease that leads to insidious deterioration of brain functions and is considered the sixth leading cause of death in the world. Alzheimer's patients suffer from memory loss, cognitive deficit and behavioral changes; thus, they eventually follow a low-quality life. AD is considered as a multifactorial disorder involving different neuropathological mechanisms. Recent research has identified more than 20 pathological factors that are promoting disease progression. Three significant hypotheses are said to be the root cause of disease pathology, which include acetylcholine deficit, the formation of amyloid-beta senile plaques and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. Apart from these crucial factors, pathological factors such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), glycogen synthase kinase 3β, notch signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, etc., are considered to play a role in the advancement of AD and therefore could be used as targets for drug discovery and development. As of today, there is no complete cure or effective disease altering therapies for AD. The current therapy is assuring only symptomatic relief from the disease, and progressive loss of efficacy for these symptomatic treatments warrants the discovery of newer drugs by exploring these novel drug targets. A comprehensive understanding of these therapeutic targets and their neuropathological role in AD is necessary to identify novel molecules for the treatment of AD rationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666200807130637DOI Listing
January 2021

COVID-19: Emergence, Spread, Possible Treatments, and Global Burden.

Front Public Health 2020 28;8:216. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.

The Coronavirus (CoV) is a large family of viruses known to cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to acute respiratory tract infection. The severity of the infection may be visible as pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, and even death. Until the outbreak of SARS, this group of viruses was greatly overlooked. However, since the SARS and MERS outbreaks, these viruses have been studied in greater detail, propelling the vaccine research. On December 31, 2019, mysterious cases of pneumonia were detected in the city of Wuhan in China's Hubei Province. On January 7, 2020, the causative agent was identified as a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and the disease was later named as COVID-19 by the WHO. The virus spread extensively in the Wuhan region of China and has gained entry to over 210 countries and territories. Though experts suspected that the virus is transmitted from animals to humans, there are mixed reports on the origin of the virus. There are no treatment options available for the virus as such, limited to the use of anti-HIV drugs and/or other antivirals such as Remdesivir and Galidesivir. For the containment of the virus, it is recommended to quarantine the infected and to follow good hygiene practices. The virus has had a significant socio-economic impact globally. Economically, China is likely to experience a greater setback than other countries from the pandemic due to added trade war pressure, which have been discussed in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270802PMC
January 2021

Synthesis of 11,12-dihydro benzo[c]phenanthridines via a Pd-catalyzed unusual construction of isocoumarin ring/FeCl-mediated intramolecular arene-allyl cyclization: First identification of a benzo[c]phenanthridine based PDE4 inhibitor.

Bioorg Chem 2020 04 25;97:103691. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Dr. Reddy's Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, India. Electronic address:

In spite of their various pharmacological properties the anti-inflammatory potential of benzo[c]phenanthridines remained underexplored. Thus, for the first time PDE4 inhibitory potential of 11,12-dihydro benzo[c]phenanthridine/benzo[c]phenanthridine was assessed in vitro. Elegant synthesis of these compounds was performed via a multi-step sequence consisting of a Pd-catalyzed unusual construction of 4-allyl isocoumarin ring and FeCl-mediated intramolecular regio- as well as site-selective arene-allyl cyclization as key steps. The overall strategy involved Sonogashira coupling followed by isocoumarin and isoquinolone synthesis, then chlorination and subsequent cyclization to afford a range of 11,12-dihydro derivatives. One of these dihydro compounds was converted to the corresponding benzo[c]phenanthridine that showed concentration dependent inhibition of PDE4B affording an initial hit molecule. The SAR study suggested that 11,12-dihydro analogs were less potent than the compound having unsaturation at the same part of the ring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.103691DOI Listing
April 2020

An Overview on Chemotherapy-induced Cognitive Impairment and Potential Role of Antidepressants.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2020 ;18(9):838-851

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India.

Background: Cognitive impairment is an adverse reaction of cancer chemotherapy and is likely to affect up to 75% of patients during the treatment and 35% of patients experience it for several months after the chemotherapy. Patients manifest symptoms like alteration in working ability, awareness, concentration, visual-verbal memory, attention, executive functions, processing speed, fatigue and behavioural dysfunctions. Post-chemotherapy, cancer survivors have a reduced quality of life due to the symptoms of chemobrain. Apart from this, there are clinical reports which also associate mood disorders, vascular complications, and seizures in some cases. Therefore, the quality of lifestyle of cancer patients/ survivors is severely affected and only worsens due to the absence of any efficacious treatments. With the increase in survivorship, it's vital to identify effective strategies, until then only symptomatic relief for chemobrain can be provided. The depressive symptoms were causally linked to the pathophysiological imbalance between the pro and antiinflammatory cytokines.

Conclusion: The common causative factor, cytokines can be targeted for the amelioration of an associated symptom of both depression and chemotherapy. Thus, antidepressants can have a beneficial effect on chemotherapy-induced inflammation and cognitive dysfunction via cytokine balance. Also, neurogenesis property of certain antidepressant drugs rationalises their evaluation against CICI. This review briefly glances upon chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI), and the modulatory effect of antidepressants on CICI pathomechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666200221113842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569321PMC
July 2021

Neprilysin, the kidney brush border neutral proteinase: a possible potential target for ischemic renal injury.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2020 Feb 10;30(2):88-99. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.

Neprilysin (NEP) is an endogenously induced peptidase for modulating production and degradation of various peptides in humans. It is most abundantly present in kidney and regulates the intrinsic renal homeostatic mechanism. Recently, drugs inhibiting NEP have been approved for the use in heart failure. In the context of increased prevalence of ischemia associated renal failure, NEP could be an attractive target for treating kidney failure. In the kidney, targeting NEP may possess potential benefits as well as adverse consequences. The unfavorable outcomes of NEP are mainly attributed to the degradation of the natriuretic peptides (NPs). NPs are involved in the inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and activation of the sympathetic system contributing to the tubular and glomerular injury. In contrary, NEP exerts the beneficial effect by converting angiotensin-1 (Ang I) to angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), thus activating MAS-related G-protein coupled receptor. MAS receptor antagonizes angiotensin type I receptor (AT-1R), reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation, thus ameliorating renal injury. However, the association of NEP with complex cascades of renal ischemia remains vague. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the putative mechanism of NEP and its overlap with other signaling cascades in conditions of renal ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2019.1669246DOI Listing
February 2020

Possible involvement of metformin in downregulation of neuroinflammation and associated behavioural changes in mice.

Inflammopharmacology 2019 Oct 3;27(5):941-948. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, 576104, India.

Metformin (MET), a biguanide oral hypoglycaemic agent, recently has been shown to be effective in various conditions other than type-2 diabetes including cancer, stroke, weight reduction, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, to name a few. MET has also possessed antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties by activation of AMPK . This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of MET on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and behavioural changes. The study consisted of six groups, where three selected doses of MET (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) were employed in male Swiss albino mice, with one group of imipramine (IMI), saline, and LPS each. Systemic inflammation was induced by injecting LPS (1.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal route. A battery of behavioural tests including open field, forced swim, and tail suspension tests were employed to assess the impact of systemic inflammation on exploratory behaviour and learned helplessness. LPS induced significant immobility with profound symptoms of sickness behaviour. Furthermore, LPS led to significant increase in serum and brain proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6; and also increased lipid peroxidation with reduced glutathione levels. Pretreatment of the animals with 100 and 200 mg/kg of MET significantly reduced both systemic and central inflammatory markers along with protecting against LPS-induced oxidative stress. The higher dose, 300 mg/kg of MET was not effective against most of LPS-induced biochemical changes. Our preliminary results from this study suggest the antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MET in LPS-induced model of sickness behaviour and neuroinflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-019-00638-wDOI Listing
October 2019

Improved in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of liposomal silymarin in alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

Pharmacol Rep 2019 Aug 26;71(4):703-712. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Background: Silymarin, a known hepatoprotectant, owing to its poor oral bioavailability, has limited pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to improve its in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotection and increase its oral bioavailability against alcohol intoxication by formulating it in four different liposomal formulations namely conventional, dicetyl phosphate, stearyl amine and PEGylated liposomes.

Method: The liposomes were prepared using phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and silymarin in addition to dicetyl phosphate, stearyl amine and DSPE mPEG 2000 by film hydration method with 5% sucrose as a cryo-protectant. The optimized formulations were studied for their release profile at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Liposomes were studied for in vitro protection on Chang liver cells and efficacious liposomes were selected for in vivo hepatoprotection study. Further, conventional liposomes were studied for bioavailability in alcohol intoxicated Wistar rats.

Results: The conventional liposomes increased in vitro release profile at pH 1.2 and 6.8 and also showed better in vitro protection compared to silymarin alone. Conventional and PEGylated liposomes showed better improvement in liver function, better efficacy in combating inflammatory conditions, better improvement in antioxidant levels and reversal of histological changes compared to silymarin alone. Conventional also showed an almost fourfold increase in area under the curve compared to silymarin suspension.

Conclusion: Conventional and PEGylated liposomes of silymarin were found to be more efficacious as hepatoprotective against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by its free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects. Conventional liposomes showed enhanced bioavailability compared to silymarin alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2019.03.013DOI Listing
August 2019

InCl mediated heteroarylation of indoles and their derivatization via CH activation strategy: Discovery of 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-quinoxaline derivatives as a new class of PDE4B selective inhibitors for arthritis and/or multiple sclerosis.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Jul 16;174:198-215. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Immunopathology Lab, School of BioSciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, India. Electronic address:

A new class of PDE4 inhibitors were designed and synthesized via the InCl mediated heteroarylation of indoles and their further derivatization through the Pd(II)-catalyzed CH activation strategy. This effort allowed us to discover a series of 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-quinoxaline based inhibitors possessing PDE4B selectivity over PDE4D and PDE4C. One of these compounds i.e. 3b (PDE4B IC = 0.39 ± 0.13 μM with ∼27 and > 250 fold selectivity for PDE4B over PDE4D and C, respectively) showed effects in Zebrafish experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis when dosed at 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Indeed, it halted the progression of the disease across all these doses tested. At an intraperitoneal dose of 30 mg/kg the compound 3b showed promising effects in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. The compound reduced paw volume, inflammation and pannus formation (in the knee joints) as well as pro-inflammatory gene expression/mRNA levels significantly in arthritic rats. Moreover, this compound was found to be selective towards PDE4 over other families of PDEs in vitro and safe when tested for its probable toxicity (e.g. teratogenicity, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity) in Zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.04.020DOI Listing
July 2019

Effect of Caffeic Acid on Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

Pharmacology 2019 14;103(5-6):315-319. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India,

Background: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-lipooxygenase (LOX) pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR).

Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the role of dietary phenol caffeic acid (CA), alone and in combination with selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (CEL) in IR-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats.

Materials And Methods: Renal IR was induced by bilateral occlusion of renal pedicels for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Rats were randomized into 4 groups: Sham, IR, CA + IR, and CA + CEL + IR, with 7 day treatment before IR. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), antioxidant enzymes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and histopathological changes were evaluated in the kidney after IR.

Results: Renal IR caused significant derangement in renal function and histology. In the IR group, an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant defense enzyme activity were observed. Pretreatment with CA and CA + CEL showed a significant decrease in the BUN, SCr, TNF-α, oxidative stress markers and corrected the histological changes in the kidney.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective potential of CA and combination of CA + CEL in IR-induced ARF in rats. The plausible mechanisms for the efficacy of CA could be attributed to its ability to modulate the -COX-LOX system in renal IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497474DOI Listing
April 2019

Cannabinoid receptor 2 activation mitigates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2019 Jun 22;236(6):1829-1838. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Rationale And Objectives: Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) signaling in the brain is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Sickness behavior, characterized by lessened mobility, social interaction, and depressive behavior, is linked with neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and immune system. The present study was aimed at evaluating 1-phenylisatin (PI), a CB2R agonist, in sickness behavior.

Methods: Influence of acute and 7-day activation of CB2R using PI in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behavior was assessed in mice. An acute injection of LPS (1.5 mg/kg) produced a fully developed sickness behavior in animals within 1 h of administration. The behavioral paradigm was assessed by open field test, forced swim test, and tail suspension test. Further, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation were measured in the brain to correlate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress with sickness behavior. Both treatments, PI (20 mg/kg) and imipramine (15 mg/kg), were administered orally (once for acute and once daily for 7-day protocols).

Results: LPS elevated the brain TNF-α level, augmented oxidative stress, and induced the sickness behavior in mice. Acute and 7-day treatment of mice with PI significantly reduced the LPS-induced sickness behavior. In addition, PI inhibited the neuroinflammation evidenced by a reduction in brain TNF-α and oxidative stress.

Conclusion: Our data propose that acute and long-term activation of CB2R might prevent neuroinflammation and oxidative stress-associated sickness behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-019-5166-yDOI Listing
June 2019

Immunomodulatory role of chitosan-based nanoparticles and oligosaccharides in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.

Scand J Immunol 2019 Apr 5;89(4):e12749. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Biotechnology, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, a natural polysaccharide, is known for its various biomedical applications. The present study aimed at exploring the immunomodulatory properties of chitosan (CSNP) and gallic acid-grafted chitosan (cGANP) nanoparticles in mice model of cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced immunosuppression. In addition, chitooligosaccharides, the hydrolysed form of chitin and chitosan, were also evaluated for its potential against immunosuppression in mice. CPA (80 mg/kg/ip) induced significant immunosuppression, which was reversed with cGANP treatment as indicated by a significant increase in the thymus and spleen indices compared to the CPA-treated group. The CSNP and chitooligosaccharides (chitin and chitosan) failed to reverse CPA-induced changes. ELISA revealed an elevation in the levels of IL-6 and a reduction in IFN-γ levels with CPA treatment. All the test compounds reduced the IL-6 levels, whereas only the nanoparticle formulations (CSNP and cGANP) exhibited a significant augmentation in the IFN-γ levels. Both the cytokines, IL-6 and IFN-γ, are secreted separately by two different types of T helper cells (Th cells), which mediate cellular and humoral immune responses in a coordinated manner. Th-1 cells release IFN-γ, facilitating cell-mediated immunity, whereas IL-6 is released by Th-2 cells, expediting humoral immune response. The nanoparticles (CSNP and cGANP) seemed to be better immune enhancers than the chitooligosaccharides owing to their ability to reverse the cytokine changes induced by CPA. Overall, it was evident that the nanoparticles, most likely, boosted the cell-mediated immunity through the induction of the Th-1 branch of the immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sji.12749DOI Listing
April 2019

Neuromodulatory potential of phenylpropanoids; para-methoxycinnamic acid and ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate on aluminum-induced memory deficit in rats.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2019 Jun 4;29(5):334-343. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

a Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Manipal Academy of Higher Education , Manipal , India.

Para-methoxycinnamic acid (PMCA) and Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) are reported to possess neuroprotective effect in reversing an acute memory deficit. However, there is a dearth of evidence for their therapeutic effect in chronic memory deficit. Thus, there is a scope to study these derivatives against the chronic model of cognitive dysfunction. The present study was aimed to determine the cognitive enhancing activity of PMCA and EPMC in aluminum-induced chronic dementia. Cognitive enhancing property of PMCA and EPMC was assessed using Morris water maze by analyzing spatial memory parameters such as escape latency, D-quadrant latency, and island entries. To find a possible mechanism, the effect of test compounds on altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress was determined in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. Docking interaction of these derivatives with acetylcholinesterase enzyme and glutamate receptors was also studied. Treatment with PMCA and EPMC showed a significant improvement in spatial memory markers and altered hippocampal AChE activity in rats with cognitive dysfunction. The implication of hippocampal and cortical oxidative stress in memory impairment was confirmed with decreased catalase/increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in rats. PMCA and EPMC reversed the oxidative stress in the brain by negatively affecting TBARS levels. Against depleted catalase levels, PMCA was more effective than EPMC in raising the depleted catalase levels. In silico analysis revealed poor affinity of EPMC and PMCA with AChE enzyme and glutamate receptor. To conclude, PMCA and EPMC exerted cognitive enhancing property independent of direct AChE and glutamate receptor inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2018.1561779DOI Listing
June 2019

A novel synthetic small molecule DMFO targets Nrf2 in modulating proinflammatory/antioxidant mediators to ameliorate inflammation.

Free Radic Res 2018 Oct 13;52(10):1140-1157. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

d Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Manipal Academy of Higher Education , Manipal , India.

Inflammation is a protective immune response against invading pathogens, however, dysregulated inflammation is detrimental. As the complex inflammatory response involves multiple mediators, including the involvement of reactive oxygen species, concomitantly targeting proinflammatory and antioxidant check-points may be a more rational strategy. We report the synthesis and anti-inflammatory/antioxidant activity of a novel indanedione derivative DMFO. DMFO scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS) in radical scavenging assays and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In acute models of inflammation (carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat paw and air pouch), DMFO effectively reduced paw oedema and leucocyte infiltration with an activity comparable to diclofenac. DMFO stabilised mast cells (MCs) in A23187 and compound 48/80-induced assays. Additionally, DMFO stabilised MCs in an antigen (ovalbumin)-induced MC degranulation model , without affecting serum IgE levels. In a model of chronic immune-mediated inflammation, Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis, DMFO reduced arthritic score and contralateral paw oedema, and increased the pain threshold with an efficacy comparable to diclofenac but without being ulcerogenic. Additionally, DMFO significantly reduced serum TNFα levels. Mechanistic studies revealed that DMFO reduced proinflammatory genes (IL1β, TNFα, IL6) and protein levels (COX2, MCP1), with a concurrent increase in antioxidant genes (NQO1, haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1), Glo1, Nrf2) and protein (HO-1) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effect on gene expression was absent in primary macrophages isolated from Nrf2 KO mice suggesting an Nrf2-targeted activity, which was subsequently confirmed using siRNA transfection studies in RAW macrophages. Therefore, DMFO is a novel, orally-active, safe (even at 2 g/kg p.o.), a small molecule which targets Nrf2 in ameliorating inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2018.1533636DOI Listing
October 2018

Combined Administration of Monosodium Glutamate and High Sucrose Diet Accelerates the Induction of Type 2 Diabetes, Vascular Dysfunction, and Memory Impairment in Rats.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2018 ;37(1):63-80

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal - 576104, Karnataka, India.

In this study, we aimed to develop an experimental animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a combination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and high sucrose diet (HSD). Young male Wistar rats (20-30 g) were injected with MSG (2 or 4 mg/g, i.p. for 4 days). These rats were also fed an HSD, while the control group was fed a starch diet (SFD) for 150 days. Parameters assessed periodically were body weight, feed intake, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, skeletal muscle glucose uptake, cognitive function tests, and microvascular changes using isolated rat aorta. Histological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney tissue were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas brain tissue was assessed using cresyl violet stain. Feeding MSG in combination with HSD in rats significantly increased body weight, and produced hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Animals developed frank diabetic complications, which included insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, hypertension, vascular dysfunction, nephropathy, and dementia. Histological studies revealed neuronal loss with necrotic bodies in the brain, reduction in glomerular count in kidney, and severe hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the islets of Langerhans. These results indicate the successful induction of type-2 diabetes along with several diabetic complications by combining MSG with HSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2018017186DOI Listing
May 2018

Interplay between adenosine receptor antagonist and cyclooxygenase inhibitor in haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal effects in mice.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 08 7;33(4):1045-1051. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, 576104, India.

Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of psychotic disorders. The 'typical' antipsychotic agents are commonly employed for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, though at an expense of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In the present study, we employed haloperidol (HP)-induced catalepsy model in mice to evaluate the role of adenosine receptor antagonist and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitor in the amelioration of EPS. HP produced a full blown catalepsy, akinesia and a significant impairment in locomotion and antioxidant status. Pre-treatment with COX inhibitor; naproxen (NPx) and adenosine receptor antagonist; caffeine (CAF), showed a significant impact on HP-induced cataleptic symptoms. Adenosine exerts pivotal control on dopaminergic receptors and is also involved in receptor internalization and recycling. On the other hand, prostaglandins (PGs) are implicated as neuro-inflammatory molecules released due to microglial activation in both Parkinson's disease (PD) and antipsychotics-induced EPS. The involvement of these neuroeffector molecules has led to the possibility of use of CAF and COX inhibitors as therapeutic approaches to reduce the EPS burden of antipsychotic drugs. Both these pathways seem to be interlinked to each other, where adenosine modulates the formation of PGs through transcriptional modulation of COXs. We observed an additive effect with combined treatment of NPx and CAF against HP-induced movement disorder. These effects lead us to propose that neuromodulatory pathways of dopaminergic circuitry need to be explored for further understanding and utilizing the full therapeutic potential of antipsychotic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-018-0201-yDOI Listing
August 2018

N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, a substance-P receptor antagonist attenuates aluminum-induced spatial memory deficit in rats.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2018 Jun 8;28(5):328-334. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

a Department of Pharmacology , Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University , Manipal , India.

Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Neurokinin substance P is a key mediator which modulates neuroinflammation through neurokinin receptor. Involvement of substance P in Alzheimer's disease is still plausible and various controversies exist in this hypothesis. Preventing the deleterious effects of substance P using N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, a substance P antagonist could be a promising therapeutic strategy. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan on aluminum induced spatial memory alterations in rats. Memory impairment was induced using aluminum chloride (AlCl) at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 42 d. After induction of dementia, rats were exposed to 30 and 50 mg/kg of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan for 28 d. Spatial memory alterations were measured using Morris water maze. Acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant enzyme glutathione level were assessed in hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum. The higher dose of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (50 mg/kg) significantly improved the aluminum induced memory alterations. N-acetyl-L-tryptophan exposure resulted in significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and glutathione level in hippocampus. The neuroprotective effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan could be due to its ability to block substance P mediated neuroinflammation, reduction in oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic properties. To conclude, N-acetyl-L-tryptophan may be considered as a novel neuroprotective therapy in Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2017.1411412DOI Listing
June 2018

Heterocyclic homoprostanoid derivative attenuates monoarthritis in rats: An in vitro and in vivo preclinical paradigm.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Jan 13;111:320-329. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

From our lab, among the nineteen heterocyclic homoprostanoids (HHPs), three derivatives (compounds 3, 3b and 3c) exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Present study is an extension of the earlier work, and, is designed to establish their therapeutic potential in monoarthritis in rats. In addition, their possible mechanism of action would be investigated. A battery of in vitro tests such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrite (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO/interleukin (IL)-6 generation in murine macrophages and whole blood (WhB), respectively were conducted. Later, in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory activity was also evaluated. All the tested compounds showed comparable efficacy against ROS and NO in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages. However, compound 3 did not exert inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NO/IL-6 generation in WhB assay. Compounds (3b and 3c) inhibited the NO generation in LPS-stimulated WhB. However, only compound 3b reversed the raised IL-6 levels in this assay. None of the test compounds inhibited COX iso-enzymes in the in vitro assay. All three HHPs showed comparable efficacy against carrageenan-induced paw inflammation. However, none of them exhibited any dose-dependent effect in this model. Based upon previous reports, compound 3c was explored against adjuvant-induced monoarthritis (AIA) in male Sprague-Dawley rats, where it exerted promising therapeutic effect. In addition to radiological and histological examinations of tibio-tarsal joint, various parameters such as chronic inflammation/pain, clinical score, interleukin (IL)-6 levels and complete blood cell profile were evaluated in AIA rats. Chronic treatment with 3c halted the disease progression in rats, improved the overall health of animals, as demonstrated by haematological, clinical scoring and joint examinations (radiological and histopathological). Inhibitory effect on elevated IL-6 in AIA rats suggested the possible mechanism of 3c on cytokine signalling. Overall, the study supports the anti-arthritic potential of compound 3c.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2017.10.019DOI Listing
January 2018

Evaluation of Two Thiazolidin-4-one Derivatives in High Sucrose Diet Fed Pre-diabetic Mice and Their Modulatory Effect on AMPK, Akt and p38 MAP Kinase in L6 Cells.

Front Pharmacol 2016 14;7:381. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University Manipal, India.

We had previously demonstrated the anti-diabetic potential and pancreatic protection of two thiazolidin-4-one derivatives containing nicotinamide moiety (NAT-1 and NAT-2) in STZ-induced diabetic mice. However, due to the limitations of the STZ model, we decided to undertake a detailed evaluation of anti-diabetic potential of the molecules on a high sucrose diet (HSD) fed diabetic mouse model. Further, mechanistic studies on the phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and p38 MAP kinase in L6 myotubes and anti-inflammatory studies in RAW264.7 mouse monocyte macrophage cells were performed. 15 months of HSD induced fasting hyperglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in mice. Treatment with NAT-1 and NAT-2 (100 mg/kg) for 45 days significantly improved the glucose tolerance and lowered fasting blood glucose levels compared to untreated control. An improvement in the elevated triglycerides and total cholesterol levels, and favorable rise in HDL cholesterol were also observed with test drug treatment. Also, no major changes were observed in the liver (albumin, AST and ALT) and kidney (creatinine and urea) parameters. This was further confirmed in their respective histology profiles which revealed no gross morphological changes. In L6 cells, significant phosphorylation of Akt and p38 MAP kinase proteins were observed with 100 μM of NAT-1 and NAT-2 with no significant changes in phosphorylation of AMPK. The molecules failed to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity as observed by their effect on the generation of ROS and nitrite, and nuclear levels of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In summary, the molecules activated Akt and p38 MAP kinase which could have partly contributed to their anti-hyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5064669PMC
October 2016
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