Publications by authors named "Jayanta Kumar Saha"

10 Publications

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Potential of cotton for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Mar 13;193(4):186. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabi Bagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal, India.

The present research was conducted to study the potential of cotton for the remediation of soils contaminated with Cd, to understand the biochemical basis of its tolerance to, and to investigate the plant-microbe interaction in the rhizosphere for enhancement of phytoextraction of Cd. Cotton (Bt RCH-2) was exposed to four Cd levels (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg soil) in a completely randomised design and found that the plant could tolerate up to 200 mg/kg soil. Cd stress increased the total phenol, proline, and free amino acid contents in the plant leaf tissue compared with control but inhibited basal soil respiration, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, and activities of several enzymes viz. dehydrogenase, phosphatases, and β-glucosidase in the soil over control. The concentration of Cd in the shoot was less than the critical concentration of 100 µg/g dry weight, and bioconcentration and translocation factors were < 1 to classify the plant as a hyperaccumulator of Cd. This was further confirmed by another experiment in which the cotton plant was exposed various higher levels of Cd (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 mg/kg soil). Though the concentration of Cd in the shoot was > 100 µg g dw beyond 600 mg Cd/kg soil, the bioconcentration and translocation factors were < 1. The study on plant-microbe (Aspergillus awamori) interaction revealed that the fungus did not affect the absorption of Cd by cotton. It was concluded that the cotton was classified as an excluder of Cd and therefore could be suitable for the phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08976-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Preparation of novel biodegradable starch/poly(vinyl alcohol)/bentonite grafted polymeric films for fertilizer encapsulation.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 May 22;259:117679. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Division of Environmental Soil Science, ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, 462038, India. Electronic address:

Sufficient hydroxyl moiety, ease of accessibility, biodegradability and reaction compatibility with other molecules make starch a basic ingredient for polymeric synthesis and to prepare encapsulated controlled release fertilizers. This article aims to prepare biodegradable clay-polymeric (starch/PVA) blended encapsulating films (CPSBs) from starch/PVA and economically feasible clay-fractioned bentonite for CPSB-encapsulated diammonium phosphate (DAP) production. The XRD, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy recognized the compatibility of bentonite with starch/PVA blend; several micropores in CPSB surface was visible through SEM. Relative crystallinity index, density of CPSBs increased with increasing bentonite content (0-20 wt%); but, porosity, water absorption was decreased. Half-life of CPSB-10 was 37.4, 40.1 and 51.9 days with Aspergillus awamori, Trichoderma viride and uninoculated soil, respectively. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) release data from CPSB-encapsulated-DAP and uncoated DAP fitted well to Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Overall, greater bentonite content stabilizes the CPSB structure and CPSB-encapsulation reduced the N and P release from DAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117679DOI Listing
May 2021

Tolerance of cotton to elevated levels of Pb and its potential for phytoremediation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabi Bagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal, India.

Two experiments were conducted to determine the cotton plant's tolerance to Pb and its remediation potential. In the first experiment, the phytoremediation potential was determined by exposing the plant to four levels of Pb (0, 500, 750, and 1000 mg kg). The cotton plant exhibited an excellent tolerance index at Pb 1000 mg kg (root 78.65% and shoot 93.08%) and lower grade of growth inhibition (root 21.35% and shoot 6.92%). Pb stress resulted in higher leakage of electrolytes and increased the synthesis of higher proline, total phenol, and free amino acid contents to mitigate stress. The plant could not meet the criteria of a hyperaccumulator of Pb. The concentration of Pb in the shoot was a mere 96 μg g dry wt (< the critical judging concentration of 1000 μg g dry wt), and bioconcentration and translocation factors were <1. The study established that cotton exhibited an exclusion mechanism of Pb. Further, the translocation efficiency (TE %) was very low, i.e., <50% (ranged from 49% at 500 mg kg to 42% at 1000 mg kg ), and the % of Pb removed by the crop was too little (on an average 0.1%). Pb inhibited the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) by 76%, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis by 60%, and β-glucosidase activity by 20%. However, applied Pb increased the population of actinomycetes by 3.21 times, but significantly decreased heterotrophic bacteria by 3.40 times and N fixers by over 53% over control. In the second experiment, the plant was exposed to very high Pb (0, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 mg kg ) to determine the concentration up to which the plant will survive. The investigation revealed that plants could survive up to Pb 3000 mg kg. It confirmed the first experiment in the tolerance index, grade of growth inhibition, bioconcentration factor, translocation factor, and partitioning of Pb. Therefore, it was concluded that the cotton plant was an excluder of Pb and could be effectively cultivated for the phytostabilization of soils polluted with Pb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13067-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of Co-composting of Municipal Solid Waste and Pigeon Pea Biochar on Heavy Metal Mobility in Soil and Translocation to Leafy Vegetable Spinach.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Mar 27;106(3):536-544. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, 462 038, India.

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of co-composted products of municipal solid waste (MSW) and pigeon pea biochar (PPB) on heavy metal mobility in soil and its uptake by spinach. Application of municipal solid waste biochar co-compost (MSWBC) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content in spinach leaves and roots compared to municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) amended soil. The percent decrease in spinach leaf following the application of MSWBC-10% PPB compared to MSWC was 20.62%, 28.95%, 36.02%, 41.88%, 41.50%, and 41.23% for Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn, respectively. The dry matter yield of spinach and soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil amended with MSWBC-10% PPB was significantly increased by 32.75% and 47.73%; and 17.62% and 27.45% relative to control and MSWC amended soil. The study concludes that co-composted product, MSWBC, stabilized heavy metals in MSW, reduced their uptake by spinach and thus making it a viable option for safe disposal of MSW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-03096-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of Furcraea foetida (L.)Haw. for phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 25;28(11):14177-14181. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, NabiBagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal, 462038, India.

In the present study, we evaluated Furcraea foetida for the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. We selected F. foetida because it is a drought-resistant plant, produces high biomass, and needs minimum maintenance. It belongs to the leaf fiber group of plants and therefore has economic importance. Since it is a non-edible crop, there is no danger of food chain contamination. Despite possessing these ideal characteristics, surprisingly, to date, the plant is underutilized for phytoremediation purposes. Therefore, to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of the plant, we exposed it to five levels of cadmium (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg Cd kg soil) and studied its influence on growth, dry matter production, uptake, and translocation efficiency. The plant showed good tolerance to Cd 200 mg kg soil without exhibiting any visible toxicity symptoms. The metal mainly accumulated in the roots (233 μg gdw), followed by leaf (51 μg g dw). The bioconcentration factor was > 1, but the translocation factor was < 1. The plant was not classified as a hyperaccumulator of Cd; however, because of its high uptake (897 μ g plant) and translocation efficiency (78%), we concluded that the plant could be utilized for phytoextraction of Cd from soils with low to moderately contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12534-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Accumulation of essential and non-essential trace elements in rice grain: Possible health impacts on rice consumers in West Bengal, India.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 5;706:135944. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal, Bhopal Bypass Road, Bhauri, Madhya Pradesh 462066, India.

Rice is the major staple food to the population in rural West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Depletion and excess accumulation of different trace elements, which are essential and non-essential to the human body, in rice can have a detrimental impact on the rice consumer. Therefore, this study has investigated the accumulation of different trace elements in rice consumed in rural households in West Bengal. The mean concentration (mg kg) of essential elements in rice follows the order of Fe (39.4) > Zn (9.79) > Mn (4.40) > Cu (3.26) > Se (0.28) > Co (0.03), while this order for non-essential elements is Pb (1.70) > As (0.34) > Ni (0.22) > Cd (0.04). In general, accumulation in rice is higher for elements that show higher mobility under reducing conditions (e.g. Fe, Mn, As, etc.) compared to elements with lower mobility under such conditions (e.g. Se, Cd, etc.). These orders of accumulation can be attributed to the irrigation practice of continuous flooding of the soil during rice cultivation and the abundance of these elements in the paddy soil itself. By combining these analytical results to the data obtained from questionnaire survey it is estimated that rice consumption can be either enough or a major source to fulfill the daily requirement of Fe, Cu, Se, Mn, and Zn necessary for different physiological functions in the human body for the population in rural Bengal. At the same time, it can be a potential route of As, Cd, Ni, and Pb exposure to develop their non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects among the population. This study highlights that attempts should be made to reduce the accumulation of other non-essential elements together with As in rice grain to ensure the health safety of the people who rarely get a balanced diet and relay on rice consumption to meet the daily calorific intake in rural Bengal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135944DOI Listing
March 2020

Effect of Soil Amendments on Microbial Resilience Capacity of Acid Soil Under Copper Stress.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2017 Nov 9;99(5):625-632. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal, 462038, India.

An incubation study was undertaken to study microbial resilience capacity of acid soil amended with farmyard manure (FYM), charcoal and lime under copper (Cu) perturbation. Copper stress significantly reduced enzymatic activities and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in soil. Percent reduction in microbial activity of soil due to Cu stress was 74.7% in dehydrogenase activity, 59.9% in MBC, 48.2% in alkaline phosphatase activity and 15.1% in acid phosphatase activity. Soil treated with FYM + charcoal showed highest resistance index for enzymatic activities and MBC. Similarly, the highest resilience index for acid phosphatase activity was observed in soil amended with FYM (0.40), whereas FYM + charcoal-treated soil showed the highest resilience indices for alkaline, dehydrogenase activity and MBC: 0.50, 0.22 and 0.25, respectively. This investigation showed that FYM and charcoal application, either alone or in combination, proved to be better than lime with respect to microbial functional resistance and resilience of acid soil under Cu perturbation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-017-2173-8DOI Listing
November 2017

Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study.

Indian J Plast Surg 2014 Sep-Dec;47(3):381-5

Department of Plastic Surgery, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL) is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height.

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared.

Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05) in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment.

Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0358.146596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292116PMC
January 2015

Blast injuries to the hand: Pathomechanics, patterns and treatment.

J Emerg Trauma Shock 2013 Jan;6(1):29-36

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, India.

Purpose: To characterize the common patterns of injury in detail in cases of blast injuries to the hand and to outline the possible pathomechanics of these patterns of injury while describing the treatment modalities for the same as practiced in our center.

Materials And Methods: A review of admitted patients in our department from september 2009 through december 2010 of blast injuries to the hand was made. Each patient had a careful characterization of their injuries as mild, moderate or severe with the help of X-rays, clinical photographs and operative notes. The treatment of these patients during hospital stay was also documented.

Results: Of the 55 patients studied, 5 patients suffered mild injuries with no bony injuries or dislocations, 26 patients had moderate injuries characterized by fractures and dislocations in addition to soft tissue injuries and 24 patients had severe injuries characterized by variable degrees of amputations. The most common injury type was to the radial aspect of the hand characterized by a first web split and a dislocation of the CMC joint of the thumb associated with fracture of the central metacarpals and amputations of the index and long fingers in some cases. Injury to the ulnar aspect was rare. Injuries were treated by repair as well as replacement done mostly in a serial fashion.

Conclusion: Depending on the mode of injury, blast injuries to the hand can have varying patterns of injury, which can have important implications in the treatment and rehabilitation of a patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-2700.106322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3589855PMC
January 2013

Determination of lead and cadmium concentration limits in agricultural soil and municipal solid waste compost through an approach of zero tolerance to food contamination.

Environ Monit Assess 2010 Sep 7;168(1-4):397-406. Epub 2009 Aug 7.

Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal, India.

Cadmium and lead are important environmental pollutants with high toxicity to animals and human. Soils, though have considerable metal immobilizing capability, can contaminate food chain via plants grown upon them when their built-up occurs to a large extent. Present experiment was carried out with the objective of quantifying the limits of Pb and Cd loading in soil for the purpose of preventing food chain contamination beyond background concentration levels. Two separate sets of pot experiment were carried out for these two heavy metals with graded levels of application doses of Pb at 0.4-150 mg/kg and Cd at 0.02-20 mg/kg to an acidic light textured alluvial soil. Spinach crop was grown for 50 days on these treated soils after a stabilization period of 2 months. Upper limit of background concentration levels (C(ul)) of these metals were calculated through statistical approach from the heavy metals concentration values in leaves of spinach crop grown in farmers' fields. Lead and Cd concentration limits in soil were calculated by dividing C(ul) with uptake response slope obtained from the pot experiment. Cumulative loading limits (concentration limits in soil minus contents in uncontaminated soil) for the experimental soil were estimated to be 170 kg Pb/ha and 0.8 kg Cd/ha. Based on certain assumptions on application rate and computed cumulative loading limit values, maximum permissible Pb and Cd concentration values in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost were proposed as 170 mg Pb/kg and 0.8 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In view of these limiting values, about 56% and 47% of the MSW compost samples from different cities are found to contain Pb and Cd in the safe range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1122-3DOI Listing
September 2010
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