Publications by authors named "Jay-Shake Li"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Acute intranasal dopamine application counteracts the reversal learning deficit of spontaneously hypertensive rats in an attentional set-shifting task.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

M et P Pharma AG Emmetten Switzerland and Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.

Rationale: Studies on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have concluded that the disorder might be caused by a deficit in the inhibitory control of executive functions because of dopamine hypofunction. Recently, the intranasal route has emerged as an effective alternative means for sending dopamine directly to the brain. However, whether the treatment can ameliorate the deficits of inhibitory control in ADHD remains unknown.

Objectives: Investigating the effects of acute intranasal dopamine (IN-DA) on the inhibitory control of executive functions of an ADHD rodent model.

Methods: We trained an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and Wistar rats as controls, in an attentional set-shifting task (ASST) in which dopamine (0.15 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, or vehicle) was intranasally administered before the final test.

Results: IN-DA application dose-dependently improved the performance and reduced errors of SHR in the initial reversal learning. The effect size was comparable to that of a peripheral injection of 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate. In control Wistar rats, the highest dose of intranasal dopamine (0.3 mg/kg) induced deficits in the reversal learning of extradimensional discriminations.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that the IN-DA treatment has potential for use in the treatment of ADHD; however, caution must be exercised when determining the dosage to be administered, because too much dopamine may have negative effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05863-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Altered dopaminergic pathways and therapeutic effects of intranasal dopamine in two distinct mouse models of autism.

Mol Brain 2020 08 10;13(1):111. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, 1035 University Drive, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA.

The dopamine (DA) system has a profound impact on reward-motivated behavior and is critically involved in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although DA defects are found in autistic patients, it is not well defined how the DA pathways are altered in ASD and whether DA can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent for ASD. To this end, we employed a phenotypic and a genetic ASD model, i.e., Black and Tan BRachyury TItpr3/J (BTBR) mice and Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice, respectively. Immunostaining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to mark dopaminergic neurons revealed an overall reduction in the TH expression in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and dorsal striatum of BTBR mice, as compared to C57BL/6 J wild-type ones. In contrast, Fmr1-KO animals did not show such an alteration but displayed abnormal morphology of TH-positive axons in the striatum with higher "complexity" and lower "texture". Both strains exhibited decreased expression of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and increased spatial coupling between vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1, a label for glutamatergic terminals) and TH signals, while GABAergic neurons quantified by glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) remained intact. Intranasal administration of DA rescued the deficits in non-selective attention, object-based attention and social approaching of BTBR mice, likely by enhancing the level of TH in the striatum. Application of intranasal DA to Fmr1-KO animals alleviated their impairment of social novelty, in association with reduced striatal TH protein. These results suggest that although the DA system is modified differently in the two ASD models, intranasal treatment with DA effectively rectifies their behavioral phenotypes, which may present a promising therapy for diverse types of ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-020-00649-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418402PMC
August 2020

Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated liposomes incorporated with cardiolipin to improve neuronal survival in Alzheimer's disease treatment.

Int J Nanomedicine 2017 2;12:1757-1774. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Department of Accounting, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Curcumin (CRM) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were entrapped in liposomes (LIP) with surface wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to downregulate the phosphorylation of kinases in Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. Cardiolipin (CL)-conjugated LIP carrying CRM (CRM-CL/LIP) and also carrying NGF (NGF-CL/LIP) were used with AD models of SK-N-MC cells and Wistar rats after an insult with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). We found that CRM-CL/LIP inhibited the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and p-tau protein at serine 202 and prevented neurodegeneration of SK-N-MC cells. In addition, NGF-CL/LIP could enhance the quantities of p-neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 for neuronal rescue. Moreover, WGA-grafted CRM-CL/LIP and WGA-grafted NGF-CL/LIP significantly improved the permeation of CRM and NGF across the blood-brain barrier, reduced Aβ plaque deposition and the malondialdehyde level, and increased the percentage of normal neurons and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of AD rats. Based on the marker expressions and in vivo evidence, current LIP carriers can be promising drug delivery systems to protect nervous tissue against Aβ-induced apoptosis in the brain during the clinical management of AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S128396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340244PMC
May 2017

The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

Hippocampus 2016 May 5;26(5):633-45. Epub 2015 Nov 5.

Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Düsseldorf, Universitätsstr. 1, Düsseldorf, 40225, Germany.

The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22547DOI Listing
May 2016

Involvements of stress hormones in the restraint-induced conditioned place preference.

Behav Brain Res 2013 Nov 17;256:662-8. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, ROC.

The conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm is widely used when examining the reinforcing effects of drugs. Some previous studies have shown that an acute stressor, such as restraint could also induce CPP. Although the modulating effects of stress hormones on various forms of learning are well known, the finding that a stressor has a potentially direct role in the reinforcement mechanism is novel. This study focused on the function of stress hormones in restraint-induced CPP in Wistar rats administered agonist or antagonist of 2 critical stress hormones prior to conditioning. Results showed that peripheral applications of corticosterone (CORT, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) failed to induce CPP. Furthermore, a glucocorticoid (GC) antagonist (mifepristone, 10, 40, or 100 mg/kg, sc) failed to block the restraint-induced CPP. Intracerebroventricular injection of a selective corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) antagonist antalarmin (1 μg/5 μl), on the contrary, completely blocked the restraint-induced CPP. We concluded that CRFR1 plays an essential role in the neural mechanism of restraint-induced CPP. Negative feedback of CORT from peripheral sources may not be involved in this phenomenon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2013.09.008DOI Listing
November 2013

Conditioned taste aversion as instrumental punishment.

J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 2013 Jul 29;39(3):294-7. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is traditionally viewed as an instance of pavlovian conditioning. This interpretation rests on the lack of an instrumental contingency between the tastant and the gastric malaise in a standard procedure of CTA. To investigate a role for instrumental punishment in CTA, we present 2 tastants sequentially ("sucrose then NaCl" or "NaCl then sucrose") in a daily alternating and counterbalanced order to rats with an explicit positive contingency between the dosage of the lithium chloride (LiCl) administered and the amount of 1 tastant drunk on that trial. In the beginning of experiment, rats suppressed their intake of both tastants. With the increase of conditioning trials, rats gradually learned to resume the intake of noncontingent solution while selectively suppressing the intake of LiCl-contingent solution. This selective suppression in CTA is the first report indicating that rats are sensitive to the subtle cues related to the covariations between the magnitude of stimulus and the magnitude of responses in a punishment paradigm involving a long delay between the gustatory stimulus of tastant ingestion and the aversive effect of LiCl injection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031822DOI Listing
July 2013

Intra-orbitofrontal cortex injection of haloperidol removes the beneficial effect of methylphenidate on reversal learning of spontaneously hypertensive rats in an attentional set-shifting task.

Behav Brain Res 2013 Feb 14;239:148-54. Epub 2012 Nov 14.

Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia Yi,Taiwan, ROC.

Numerous studies suggest that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is caused by deficits in catecholaminergic systems. Furthermore, dysfunctions of prefrontal cortex can impair inhibitory controls of ADHD patients, resulting in their impulsive behaviors. Researchers also find that rats with lesions in the orbitofrontal cortex show deficits in the reversal learning of attentional set-shifting task (ASST), a behavioral test frequently used in human studies to asses the inhibition system. However, the role of orbitofrontal dopamine system in the mechanism responsible for the dysfunctions of inhibitory controls in ADHD patients and animal models remains unknown. In the present study, we manipulated orbitofrontal dopamine activities of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a widely used ADHD animal model, through intra-peritoneal injection of methylphenidate (MPH) and central infusion of haloperidol, and observed their performances in ASST. The results show that juvenile SHRs learned slower than Wistar controls in the first and second reversal learnings of ASST. The deficits could be removed by intra-peritoneal injections of MPH. Furthermore, central infusions of haloperidol in the orbitofrontal cortex blocked the effects of MPH. In conclusions, dopamine activity in orbitofrontal cortex might play a crucial role in the neural mechanism of reversal learning deficits in this animal model of ADHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2012.11.006DOI Listing
February 2013

Effects of medial prefrontal cortex lesions in rats on the what-where-when memory of a fear conditioning event.

Behav Brain Res 2011 Mar 27;218(1):94-8. Epub 2010 Nov 27.

Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Minhsiung, Chiayi 62102, Taiwan, ROC.

Previous animal studies have defined the ability to remember the details of what, where, and when of an event as an episodic-like memory to be used to model episodic memory in humans. Numerous findings indicate that the hippocampal-frontal cortical circuitry plays a major part in its neural mechanism. Researchers have intensively studied roles of diverse hippocampus sub-regions using animal models. By contrast, the impact of prefrontal cortex lesions on episodic-like memory in animals is still unknown. Here we show that Wistar rats with bilateral medial prefrontal cortex lesions failed to use the temporal-contextual information to retrieve memory of a fear-conditioning event, indicating impairments in their episodic-like memory. Subsequent experiments excluded alternative interpretations that the manipulation impaired the fear-conditioning per se, or interfered with the sensory preconditioning process. We concluded that damages in this area might impair temporal information processing, or interfere with integrating temporal and contextual elements of fear-conditioning events to form a conjunctive entity. These findings can help understand how the medial prefrontal cortex contributes to episodic-like memory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2010.11.044DOI Listing
March 2011

Frequency of network synchronization in the hippocampus marks learning.

Eur J Neurosci 2008 Jun;27(11):3035-42

Institute of Neurophysiology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf, Germany.

The synchronization of neuronal networks may be instrumental in plasticity and learning. Hippocampal high-frequency oscillations (140-200 Hz, 'ripples') characteristic of consummatory behaviours are thought to promote memory formation. We recorded ripple oscillations from the CA1 area in temporal learning tasks. Rats learned to adjust their operant response to the timing of food reward delivery [fixed interval schedule (FI)]. The intrinsic frequency of ripples was elevated following the switch in reinforcement timing. Learning, as assessed from the response pattern, correlated with fluctuations of intraripple frequency and amplitude. Changes in motor activity did not account for the variability of ripple oscillations. At the same time, features of ripples were unaltered when the fixed interval of reward delivery was changed but did not depend on the lever press response. Thus, in addition to the known replay of neuronal firing patterns during ripple oscillations, the rhythm itself appears to be modulated in an experience-specific way and represents a direct correlate of learning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06232.xDOI Listing
June 2008

Electrolytic lesions of dorsal CA3 impair episodic-like memory in rats.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2008 Feb 16;89(2):192-8. Epub 2007 Aug 16.

Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, 168, University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC.

Episodic memory is the ability to recollect one's past experiences occurring in an unique spatial and temporal context. In non-human animals, it is expressed in the ability to combine "what", "where" and "when" factors to form an integrated memory system. During the search for its neural substrates, the hippocampus has attracted a lot of attentions. Yet, it is not yet possible to induce a pure episodic-like memory deficit in animal studies without being confounded by impairments in the spatial cognition. Here, we present a lesion study evidencing direct links between the hippocampus CA3 region and the episodic-like memory in rats. In a spontaneous object exploration task, lesioned rats showed no interaction between the temporal and spatial elements in their memory associated with the objects. In separate tests carried out subsequently, the same animals still expressed abilities to process spatial, temporal, and object recognition memory. In conclusions, our results support the idea that the hippocampus CA3 has a particular status in the neural mechanism of the episodic-like memory system. It is responsible for combining information from different modules of cognitive processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2007.06.006DOI Listing
February 2008

Early androgen treatment influences the pattern and amount of locomotion activity differently and sexually differentially in an animal model of ADHD.

Behav Brain Res 2006 Nov 18;175(1):176-82. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC.

Higher testosterone level in males is one of the most obvious possibilities for the development of a clear gender difference in ADHD. The present study focused on the influence of excessive androgen exposure in the developmental stage on the hyperactivity feature of ADHD. The study used the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model. The amount of locomotion activity previously used as an over-activity measure in the SHR has resulted in a complicated picture. While the general activity level of SHR was significantly higher than its progenitor-the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY), comparative differences with the Wistar rat could be observed only under certain experimental conditions. The present study applied the scaling approach to assess open field behaviors from a qualitative aspect. Although SHR and Wistar rats showed similar locomotion amounts, movement patterns differed significantly, as indicated by the spatial scaling exponent. Androgen treatment during the early postnatal developmental stage significantly increased total path lengths only in the male SHR. Effects of the hormone manipulation were not expressed in the scaling measurement. The scaling approach conclusively provides a different aspect of open field behaviors and also reacts differently as the total path length to excessive early testosterone exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2006.08.020DOI Listing
November 2006

Operant behavior of rats under fixed-interval reinforcement schedules: a dynamical analysis via the extended return map.

Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci 2006 Apr;10(2):215-40

Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, 160 San-Hsing, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi, 621, Taiwan, ROC.

The extended-return-map was employed to analyze the inter-response time data of operant experiments using fixed-interval schedules and food reinforcement. After intensive training over numerous sessions, rats gradually developed several types of temporal patterns of lever pressing behaviors, which were visualized through different patterns of data point distributions in the extended-return-map. Analyses with randomly shuffled data sets confirmed that these patterns depended on the sequential order of the inter-response time data, indicating that they reflected dynamics of the behavior. A procedure was developed to quantify the difference between patterns in the extended-return-maps, thus, enabling the comparison between sessions, and between animals. Simulations suggested that, in addition to the two-state break-and-burst responding, both multiple switches of behavioral states during the inter-reinforcement periods and the acceleration of lever pressing rate should be taken into consideration for the dynamics found in the data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2006

Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map.

Rev Neurosci 2002 ;13(1):31-57

Institute of Physiological Psychology, Center for Biological and Medical Research, University of Düsseldorf, Germany.

Previous efforts to apply non-linear dynamic tools to the analysis of operant behavior revealed some promise for this kind of approach, but also some doubts, since the complexity of animal behavior seemed to be beyond the analyzing ability of the available tools. We here outline a series of studies based on a novel approach. We modified the so-called 'return map' and developed a new method, the 'extended return map' (ERM) to extract information from the highly irregular time series data, the inter-response time (IRT) generated by Skinner-box experiments. We applied the ERM to operant lever pressing data from rats using the four fundamental reinforcement schedules: fixed interval (FI), fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI) and variable ratio (VR). Our results revealed interesting patterns in all experiment groups. In particular, the FI and VI groups exhibited well-organized clusters of data points. We calculated the fractal dimension out of these patterns and compared experimental data with surrogate data sets, that were generated by randomly shuffling the sequential order of original IRTs. This comparison supported the finding that patterns in ERM reflect the dynamics of the operant behaviors under study. We then built two models to simulate the functional mechanisms of the FI schedule. Both models can produce similar distributions of IRTs and the stereotypical 'scalloped' curve characteristic of FI responding. However, they differ in one important feature in their formulation: while one model uses a continuous function to describe the probability of occurrence of an operant behavior, the other one employs an abrupt switch of behavioral state. Comparison of ERMs showed that only the latter was able to produce patterns similar to the experimental results, indicative of the operation of an abrupt switch from one behavioral state to another over the course of the inter-reinforcement period. This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of IRT accompanying intermittent reinforcement schedules and for the study of the non-linear dynamics of operant behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/revneuro.2002.13.1.31DOI Listing
December 2002