Publications by authors named "Jay P Ciezki"

70 Publications

Comparison of Multimodal Therapies and Outcomes Among Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Adverse Clinicopathologic Features.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2115312. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Urology, Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: The optimal management strategy for high-risk prostate cancer and additional adverse clinicopathologic features remains unknown.

Objective: To compare clinical outcomes among patients with high-risk prostate cancer after definitive treatment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients with high-risk prostate cancer (as defined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN]) and at least 1 adverse clinicopathologic feature (defined as any primary Gleason pattern 5 on biopsy, clinical T3b-4 disease, ≥50% cores with biopsy results positive for prostate cancer, or NCCN ≥2 high-risk features) treated between 2000 and 2014 at 16 tertiary centers. Data were analyzed in November 2020.

Exposures: Radical prostatectomy (RP), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or EBRT plus brachytherapy boost (BT) with ADT. Guideline-concordant multimodal treatment was defined as RP with appropriate use of multimodal therapy (optimal RP), EBRT with at least 2 years of ADT (optimal EBRT), or EBRT with BT with at least 1 year ADT (optimal EBRT with BT).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was prostate cancer-specific mortality; distant metastasis was a secondary outcome. Differences were evaluated using inverse probability of treatment weight-adjusted Fine-Gray competing risk regression models.

Results: A total of 6004 men (median [interquartile range] age, 66.4 [60.9-71.8] years) with high-risk prostate cancer were analyzed, including 3175 patients (52.9%) who underwent RP, 1830 patients (30.5%) who underwent EBRT alone, and 999 patients (16.6%) who underwent EBRT with BT. Compared with RP, treatment with EBRT with BT (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] 0.78, [95% CI, 0.63-0.97]; P = .03) or with EBRT alone (sHR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.53-0.92]; P = .01) was associated with significantly improved prostate cancer-specific mortality; there was no difference in prostate cancer-specific mortality between EBRT with BT and EBRT alone (sHR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.67-1.18]; P = .43). No significant differences in prostate cancer-specific mortality were found across treatment cohorts among 2940 patients who received guideline-concordant multimodality treatment (eg, optimal EBRT alone vs optimal RP: sHR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.52-1.09]; P = .14). However, treatment with EBRT alone or EBRT with BT was consistently associated with lower rates of distant metastasis compared with treatment with RP (eg, EBRT vs RP: sHR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.44-0.58]; P < .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that among patients with high-risk prostate cancer and additional unfavorable clinicopathologic features receiving guideline-concordant multimodal therapy, prostate cancer-specific mortality outcomes were equivalent among those treated with RP, EBRT, and EBRT with BT, although distant metastasis outcomes were more favorable among patients treated with EBRT and EBRT with BT. Optimal multimodality treatment is critical for improving outcomes in patients with high-risk prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.15312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8251338PMC
July 2021

Patterns of Clinical Progression in Radiorecurrent High-risk Prostate Cancer.

Eur Urol 2021 Aug 10;80(2):142-146. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The natural history of radiorecurrent high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) is not well-described. To better understand its clinical course, we evaluated rates of distant metastases (DM) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in a cohort of 978 men with radiorecurrent HRPCa who previously received either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT, n = 654, 67%) or EBRT + brachytherapy (EBRT + BT, n = 324, 33%) across 15 institutions from 1997 to 2015. In men who did not die, median follow-up after treatment was 8.9 yr and median follow-up after biochemical recurrence (BCR) was 3.7 yr. Local and systemic therapy salvage, respectively, were delivered to 21 and 390 men after EBRT, and eight and 103 men after EBRT + BT. Overall, 435 men developed DM, and 248 were detected within 1 yr of BCR. Measured from time of recurrence, 5-yr DM rates were 50% and 34% after EBRT and EBRT + BT, respectively. Measured from BCR, 5-yr PCSM rates were 27% and 29%, respectively. Interval to BCR was independently associated with DM (p < 0.001) and PCSM (p < 0.001). These data suggest that radiorecurrent HRPCa has an aggressive natural history and that DM is clinically evident early after BCR. These findings underscore the importance of further investigations into upfront risk assessment and prompt systemic evaluation upon recurrence in HRPCa. PATIENT SUMMARY: High-risk prostate cancer that recurs after radiation therapy is an aggressive disease entity and spreads to other parts of the body (metastases). Some 60% of metastases occur within 1 yr. Approximately 30% of these patients die from their prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.04.035DOI Listing
August 2021

EDITORIAL COMMENT.

Authors:
Jay P Ciezki

Urology 2020 02;136:188-189

Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland, OH.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.09.042DOI Listing
February 2020

Validation of the NCCN prostate cancer favorable- and unfavorable-intermediate risk groups among men treated with I-125 low dose rate brachytherapy monotherapy.

Brachytherapy 2020 Jan - Feb;19(1):43-50. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

Purpose: To validate the 2019 NCCN subgroups of favorable- and unfavorable-intermediate risk (IR) prostate cancer among patients treated with brachytherapy, who are underrepresented in the studies used to develop the 2019 NCCN classification.

Methods: We included all 2,705 men treated with I-125 LDR brachytherapy monotherapy at a single institution, and who could be classified into the 2019 NCCN risk groups. Biochemical failure and distant metastasis rates were calculated using cumulative incidence analysis.

Results: Of 1,510 IR patients, 756 (50%) were favorable-IR, and 754 (50%) were unfavorable-IR. Median follow up was 48 months (range, 3-214). As compared to favorable-IR, the unfavorable-IR group was associated with significantly higher rates of biochemical failure (HR, 2.87; 95% CI, 2.00-4.10; p < 0.001) and distant metastasis (HR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.78-5.50, p < 0.001). For favorable-IR vs. unfavorable-IR groups, 5-year estimates of biochemical failure were 4.3% (95% CI, 2.6-6.1%) vs. 17.0% (95% CI, 13.6-20.5%; p < 0.001), and for distant metastasis were 1.6% (95% CI, 0.5-2.6%) vs. 5.4% (95% CI, 3.3-7.4%; p < 0.001), respectively. Patients with one unfavorable-intermediate risk factor (unfavorable-IRF; HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.54-3.36; p < 0.001) and 2-3 unfavorable-IRFs (HR, 4.42; 95% CI, 2.89-6.76; p < 0.001) had higher biochemical failure rates; similar findings were observed for distant metastasis (1 unfavorable-IRF: HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.34-4.53, p = 0.004; 2-3 unfavorable-IRFs: HR, 4.76; 95% CI, 2.49-9.10, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: These findings validate the prognostic utility of the 2019 NCCN favorable-IR and unfavorable-IR prostate cancer subgroups among men treated with brachytherapy. Androgen deprivation was not beneficial in any subgroup. Alternative treatment intensification strategies for unfavorable-IR patients are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2019.10.005DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of Cribriform Pattern and Intraductal Carcinoma on Gleason 7 Prostate Cancer Treated with External Beam Radiotherapy.

J Urol 2019 10 6;202(4):710-716. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Purpose: We assessed the impact of cribriform pattern and/or intraductal carcinoma on Gleason 7 prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy.

Methods: We evaluated men with Gleason 7 (Grade Groups 2 and 3) prostate cancer treated with dose escalated external beam radiotherapy with or without androgen deprivation. We reviewed biopsies for the presence of cribriform pattern and/or intraductal carcinoma. Study end points included biochemical recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free and disease specific survival.

Results: In the 237 patients median followup was 117 months (range 3 to 236). According to National Comprehensive Cancer Network® risk groups 24% of patients were at favorable intermediate risk, 53% were at unfavorable intermediate risk and 23% were at high risk. The rate of cribriform pattern without intraductal carcinoma, cribriform pattern with intraductal carcinoma, intraductal carcinoma without cribriform pattern and none of these morphologies was 36%, 13%, 0% and 51%, respectively. On multivariable analysis cribriform pattern with intraductal carcinoma (HR 4.22, 95% CI 2.08-8.53, p <0.0001), prostate specific antigen 10 to 20 ng/ml (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.03-3.79, p=0.04) and prostate specific antigen greater than 20 ng/ml (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.21-4.23, p=0.01) were associated with worse biochemical recurrence-free survival. On multivariable analysis only cribriform pattern with intraductal carcinoma was associated with inferior distant metastasis-free survival (HR 4.18, 95% CI 1.43-12.28, p=0.01) and disease specific survival (HR 14.26, 95% CI 2.75-74.04, p=0.0016). Factors associated with cribriform pattern with or without intraductal carcinoma included Grade Group 3, high risk group and 50% or more positive biopsy cores. When stratified by neither morphology present, cribriform pattern without intraductal carcinoma and cribriform pattern with intraductal carcinoma the differences in biochemical recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free and disease specific survival were statistically significant (p=0.00042, p=0.017 and p <0.0001, respectively).

Conclusions: Cribriform pattern with intraductal carcinoma was associated with adverse outcomes in men with Gleason 7 prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy while cribriform pattern without intraductal carcinoma was not so associated. Future studies may benefit from dichotomizing these 2 histological entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000316DOI Listing
October 2019

Prostate-only Versus Whole-pelvis Radiation with or Without a Brachytherapy Boost for Gleason Grade Group 5 Prostate Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis.

Eur Urol 2020 01 13;77(1):3-10. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: The role of elective whole-pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) remains controversial. Few studies have investigated it in Gleason grade group (GG) 5 prostate cancer (PCa), known to have a high risk of nodal metastases.

Objective: To assess the impact of WPRT on patients with GG 5 PCa treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or EBRT with a brachytherapy boost (EBRT+BT).

Design, Setting, And Participants: We identified 1170 patients with biopsy-proven GG 5 PCa from 11 centers in the United States and one in Norway treated between 2000 and 2013 (734 with EBRT and 436 with EBRT+BT).

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) were compared using Cox proportional hazards models with propensity score adjustment.

Results And Limitations: A total of 299 EBRT patients (41%) and 320 EBRT+BT patients (73%) received WPRT. The adjusted 5-yr bRFS rates with WPRT in the EBRT and EBRT+BT groups were 66% and 88%, respectively. Without WPRT, these rates for the EBRT and EBRT+BT groups were 58% and 78%, respectively. The median follow-up was 5.6yr. WPRT was associated with improved bRFS among patients treated with EBRT+BT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-0.9, p=0.02), but no evidence for improvement was found in those treated with EBRT (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.2, p=0.4). WPRT was not significantly associated with improved DMFS or PCSS in the EBRT group (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7-1.7, p=0.8 for DMFS and HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1, p=0.1 for PCSS), or in the EBRT+BT group (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.4, p=0.2 for DMFS and HR 0.5 95% CI 0.2-1.2, p=0.1 for PCSS).

Conclusions: WPRT was not associated with improved PCSS or DMFS in patients with GG 5 PCa who received either EBRT or EBRT+BT. However, WPRT was associated with a significant improvement in bRFS among patients receiving EBRT+BT. Strategies to optimize WPRT, potentially with the use of advanced imaging techniques to identify occult nodal disease, are warranted.

Patient Summary: When men with a high Gleason grade prostate cancer receive radiation with external radiation and brachytherapy, the addition of radiation to the pelvis results in a longer duration of prostate-specific antigen control. However, we did not find a difference in their survival from prostate cancer or in their survival without metastatic disease. We also did not find a benefit for radiation to the pelvis in men who received radiation without brachytherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2019.03.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521828PMC
January 2020

Ten-Year Outcomes of Moderately Hypofractionated (70 Gy in 28 fractions) Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 06 2;104(2):325-333. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Purpose: Long-term outcomes with hypofractionated radiation therapy for prostate cancer are limited. We report 10-year outcomes for patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer with 70 Gy in 28 fractions at 2.5 Gy per fraction.

Methods And Materials: The study included 854 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer treated with moderately hypofractionated IMRT and daily image guidance at a single institution between 1998 and 2012. Patients with a single intermediate risk factor were considered to have favorable intermediate-risk (FIR) disease, and those with multiple intermediate risk factors were considered unfavorable (UIR). Biochemical relapse-free survival, clinical relapse-free survival, and overall survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was analyzed using competing risk regression. All grade ≥3 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were recorded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event version 4.03, and cumulative incidence rates of GU and GI toxicity were calculated.

Results: The median follow-up was 11.3 years (maximum, 19 years). For patients with low-risk (LR), FIR, UIR, and high-risk (HR) disease, the 10-year biochemical relapse free survival rates were 88%, 78%, 71%, and 42%, respectively, (P < .0001). The 10-year clinical relapse free survival were 95%, 91%, 85%, and 72% for patients with LR, FIR, UIR, and HR, respectively, (P < .0001). For all patients, the 10-year actuarial overall survival rate was 69% (95% confidence interval, 66%-73%), and the 10-year PCSM was 6.8% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%-8.6%) overall. For patients with LR, FIR, UIR and HR disease, the 10-year PCSM rates were 2%, 5%, 5%, and 15%. Long-term grade ≥3 GU or GI toxicity remained low with 10-year cumulative incidences of 2% and 1%, respectively.

Conclusions: High-dose moderately hypofractionated IMRT with daily image guidance for localized prostate cancer demonstrates favorable 10-year oncologic outcomes with a low incidence of toxicity. This fractionation schedule appears to be acceptable for patients across all risk groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.01.091DOI Listing
June 2019

An Approach to Identify Delivery of Palliative Radiation Therapy Using Health Care Claims Data: A Proof-of-Concept Application of a Visual Analytics Tool.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2018 12;2:1-12

Eberechukwu Onukwugha, Jinani Jayasekera, James Gardner, C. Daniel Mullins, Arif Hussain, and Young Kwok, University of Maryland; Arif Hussain, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore; Sana Malik, University of Maryland, College Park, MD; Jay P. Ciezki and Chandana A. Reddy, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH; and Brian Seal and Adriana Valderrama, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Pine Brook, NJ.

Purpose: There is limited information on the use of data visualization tools for health services research applications. We provide a proof-of-concept application that focuses on claims-based measures of palliative radiation therapy. We investigate whether a guided, data-driven investigation contributes information for subsequent statistical analysis and algorithm development.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used linked registry and claims data on men who were diagnosed with stage IV M0 or stage IV M1b prostate cancer between 2005 and 2009, with associated claims from 2005 through 2010, and receiving radiation therapy. Preprocessing of data was accomplished by using EventFlow software to investigate longitudinal patterns in claims for radiation therapy in the 13 months after cancer diagnosis. Guided by results from EventFlow, we developed descriptive statistics to investigate the length of radiation therapy, use of bone metastasis coding, and mortality between M1b and M0 patients.

Results: A total of 1,151 patients met the inclusion criteria. Taking advantage of the novel aggregation capability of EventFlow, we observed differences in the length of radiation therapy and the use of bone metastasis coding between men with (M1b) and without (M0) a diagnosis of bone metastasis. Seventy-nine percent of M1b patients received radiation for a duration ≤ 4 weeks, which suggested palliative radiation (to the bone). Seventy-six percent of M0 patients received radiation for ≥ 6 weeks, which suggested radiation to the prostate. Mortality was higher among those who received a shorter duration of radiation therapy compared with those who received a longer duration of therapy.

Conclusion: Use of EventFlow, followed by statistical analysis of the linked registry and claims data, identified useful components of a claims-based measure of radiation to the bone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.17.00075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010427PMC
December 2018

Outcomes in Organ Transplant Recipients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2019 Feb 18;17(1):e162-e166. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

Background: Few data exist in the literature regarding outcomes of men with prostate cancer (CaP) who are receiving immunosuppression from prior organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical disease-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity in patients with organ transplants who were later treated with definitive radiotherapy for CaP.

Patients And Methods: Our institutional CaP registry was reviewed to identify patients who had undergone an organ transplantation before CaP diagnosis. Between 1999 and 2013, a total of 28 organ transplant recipients treated with definitive radiotherapy for CaP were identified. Treatment consisted of either I-125 low-dose-rate brachytherapy or external-beam radiotherapy. All patients were receiving immunosuppressive medications.

Results: The median age was 66 years. Median follow-up time was 30 months. Twenty-four patients (86%) were treated with brachytherapy, and 4 patients (14%) were treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Nine patients (32%) had low-risk CaP, 14 (50%) had intermediate-risk CaP, and 5 (18%) had high-risk CaP. At the time of last follow-up, 2 patients had died, 1 from metastatic CaP and 1 from other causes. The 3-year biochemical disease-free survival was 95.8%. The 3-year distant metastasis-free survival was 93.1%. The 3-year overall survival was 93.8%. One patient developed grade 3 late gastrointestinal toxicity.

Conclusion: This represents one of the largest reported series of outcomes in patients with organ transplantation and CaP. Organ transplant recipients treated with prostate radiotherapy have excellent 3-year outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2018.10.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Clinical Outcomes for Patients With Gleason Score 10 Prostate Adenocarcinoma: Results From a Multi-institutional Consortium Study.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 07 5;101(4):883-888. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California.

Purpose: Gleason score (GS) 10 disease is the most aggressive form of clinically localized prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa). The long-term clinical outcomes and overall prognosis of patients presenting with GS 10 PCa are largely unknown because of its rarity.

Methods And Materials: The study included 112 patients with biopsy-determined GS 10 PCa who received treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP, n = 26), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT, n = 48), or EBRT with a brachytherapy boost (EBRT-BT, n = 38) between 2000 and 2013. Propensity scores were included as covariates for comparative analysis. Overall survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding.

Results: The median follow-up period was 4.9 years overall (3.9 years for RP, 4.8 years for EBRT, and 5.7 years for EBRT-BT). Significantly more EBRT patients than EBRT-BT patients received upfront androgen deprivation therapy (98% vs 79%, P < .01 by χ test), though the durations were similar (median, 24 months vs 22.5 months). Of the RP patients, 34% received postoperative EBRT, and 35% received neoadjuvant systemic therapy. The propensity score-adjusted 5-year overall survival rate was 80% for the RP group, 73% for the EBRT group, and 83% for the EBRT-BT group. The corresponding adjusted 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival rates were 87%, 75%, and 94%, respectively. The EBRT-BT group trended toward superior DMFS when compared with the RP group (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.1-1.06; P = .06) and had superior DMFS when compared with the EBRT group (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.99; P = .048).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest series ever reported on the clinical outcomes of patients with biopsy-determined GS 10 PCa. These data provide useful prognostic benchmark information for physicians and patients. Aggressive therapy with curative intent is warranted, as >50% of patients remain free of systemic disease 5 years after treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.03.060DOI Listing
July 2018

Radical Prostatectomy, External Beam Radiotherapy, or External Beam Radiotherapy With Brachytherapy Boost and Disease Progression and Mortality in Patients With Gleason Score 9-10 Prostate Cancer.

JAMA 2018 03;319(9):896-905

Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: The optimal treatment for Gleason score 9-10 prostate cancer is unknown.

Objective: To compare clinical outcomes of patients with Gleason score 9-10 prostate cancer after definitive treatment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective cohort study in 12 tertiary centers (11 in the United States, 1 in Norway), with 1809 patients treated between 2000 and 2013.

Exposures: Radical prostatectomy (RP), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with androgen deprivation therapy, or EBRT plus brachytherapy boost (EBRT+BT) with androgen deprivation therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was prostate cancer-specific mortality; distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival were secondary outcomes.

Results: Of 1809 men, 639 underwent RP, 734 EBRT, and 436 EBRT+BT. Median ages were 61, 67.7, and 67.5 years; median follow-up was 4.2, 5.1, and 6.3 years, respectively. By 10 years, 91 RP, 186 EBRT, and 90 EBRT+BT patients had died. Adjusted 5-year prostate cancer-specific mortality rates were RP, 12% (95% CI, 8%-17%); EBRT, 13% (95% CI, 8%-19%); and EBRT+BT, 3% (95% CI, 1%-5%). EBRT+BT was associated with significantly lower prostate cancer-specific mortality than either RP or EBRT (cause-specific HRs of 0.38 [95% CI, 0.21-0.68] and 0.41 [95% CI, 0.24-0.71]). Adjusted 5-year incidence rates of distant metastasis were RP, 24% (95% CI, 19%-30%); EBRT, 24% (95% CI, 20%-28%); and EBRT+BT, 8% (95% CI, 5%-11%). EBRT+BT was associated with a significantly lower rate of distant metastasis (propensity-score-adjusted cause-specific HRs of 0.27 [95% CI, 0.17-0.43] for RP and 0.30 [95% CI, 0.19-0.47] for EBRT). Adjusted 7.5-year all-cause mortality rates were RP, 17% (95% CI, 11%-23%); EBRT, 18% (95% CI, 14%-24%); and EBRT+BT, 10% (95% CI, 7%-13%). Within the first 7.5 years of follow-up, EBRT+BT was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality (cause-specific HRs of 0.66 [95% CI, 0.46-0.96] for RP and 0.61 [95% CI, 0.45-0.84] for EBRT). After the first 7.5 years, the corresponding HRs were 1.16 (95% CI, 0.70-1.92) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.57-1.32). No significant differences in prostate cancer-specific mortality, distant metastasis, or all-cause mortality (≤7.5 and >7.5 years) were found between men treated with EBRT or RP (cause-specific HRs of 0.92 [95% CI, 0.67-1.26], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.70-1.14], 1.07 [95% CI, 0.80-1.44], and 1.34 [95% CI, 0.85-2.11]).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with Gleason score 9-10 prostate cancer, treatment with EBRT+BT with androgen deprivation therapy was associated with significantly better prostate cancer-specific mortality and longer time to distant metastasis compared with EBRT with androgen deprivation therapy or with RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.0587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5885899PMC
March 2018

In Reply to Morris and Tyldesley.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 09 7;99(1):242-243. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.04.028DOI Listing
September 2017

Skeletal-related events and mortality among men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer: The impact of alternative measures of radiation to the bone.

PLoS One 2017 18;12(4):e0175956. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Purpose/objective(s): Skeletal-related events (SREs), which include radiation to the bone (RtB), can occur among patients with bone metastasis (BM). There is a recognized potential for misclassification of RtB when using claims data. We compared alternative measures of RtB to better understand their impact on SRE prevalence and SRE-related mortality.

Methods And Materials: We analyzed data for stage IV prostate cancer (PCa) cases identified between 2005 and 2009 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry linked with Medicare claims. We created two measures of RtB: 1) a literature-based measure requiring the presence of a prior claim with a BM code; 2) a new measure requiring either that the BM code coincided with the radiation episode or that the duration of the radiation episode was less than or equal to 4 weeks. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios of an SRE using both measures among stratified samples: no metastasis (M0), metastasis to bone (M1b) and other sites (M1c).

Results: The study sample included 5,074 men with stage IV PCa (median age 77 years), of whom 22% had M0, 54% had M1b, and 24% had M1c disease at time of PCa diagnosis. Based on Approaches 1 and 2, the proportion with probable RtB was 5% and 8% among M0, 30% and 30% among M1b, and 25% and 27% among M1c patients. Among M0 patients, the adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) associated with an SRE was 1.27 when using Approach 1 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.95-1.7) and 1.49 when using Approach 2 (95% CI: 1.14-1.96). However, the impact of SREs on mortality did not differ between both approaches among M1b and M1c patients.

Conclusion: We found that alternative measures used to define RtB as SRE in claims data impact conclusions regarding the effect of SREs on mortality among M0 but not M1 patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0175956PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5395181PMC
May 2017

A Comparison Between Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy With or Without Androgen Deprivation, External Beam Radiation Therapy With or Without Androgen Deprivation, and Radical Prostatectomy With or Without Adjuvant or Salvage Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 04 18;97(5):962-975. Epub 2016 Dec 18.

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Department of Urology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Purpose: We compare the efficacy and toxicity among the 3 major modalities available used to treat high-risk prostate cancer (HRCaP).

Methods And Materials: From 1996 to 2012, 2557 HRCaP patients were treated: 734 received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), 515 received low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR) with or without ADT, and 1308 received radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without EBRT. Biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), clinical relapse-free survival (cRFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) were assessed. Toxicity was assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03. The log-rank test compared bRFS and cRFS among the modalities, and Cox regression identified factors associated with bRFS and cRFS. Gray's test compared differences in late toxicity and PSCM among the modalities. Competing risk regression identified factors associated with PCSM.

Results: The median follow-up time and age were 63.5 months and 65 years, respectively. The bRFS at 5 and 10 years, respectively, was 74% and 53% for EBRT, 74% and 52% for LDR, and 65% and 47% for RP (P=.0001). The cRFS at 5 and 10 years, respectively, was 85% and 73% for EBRT, 90% and 76% for LDR, and 89% and 75% for RP (P=.121). The PCSM at 5 and 10 years, respectively, was 5.3% and 11.2% for EBRT, 3.2% and 3.6% for LDR, and 2.8% and 6.8% for RP (P=.0004). The 10-year cumulative incidence of ≥grade 3 genitourinary toxicity was 8.1% for EBRT, 7.2% for LDR, and 16.4% for RP (P<.0001). The 10-year cumulative incidence of ≥grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was 4.6% for EBRT, 1.1% for LDR, and 1.0% for RP (P<.0001).

Conclusion: HRCaP treated with EBRT, LDR, or RP yields efficacy showing better bRFS for LDR and EBRT relative to RP, equivalence for cRFS, and a PCSM advantage of LDR and RP over EBRT. The toxicity is lowest for LDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.12.014DOI Listing
April 2017

Multinational Prospective Study of Patient-Reported Outcomes After Prostate Radiation Therapy: Detailed Assessment of Rectal Bleeding.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016 11 3;96(4):770-777. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

Purpose: The new short Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tool has removed the rectal bleeding question from the previous much longer version, EPIC-26. Herein, we assess the impact of losing the dedicated rectal bleeding question in 2 independent prospective multicenter cohorts.

Methods And Materials: In a prospective multicenter test cohort (n=865), EPIC-26 patient-reported HRQOL data were collected for 2 years after treatment from patients treated with prostate radiation therapy from 2003 to 2011. A second prospective multicenter cohort (n=442) was used for independent validation. A repeated-effects model was used to predict the change from baseline in bowel summary scores from longer EPIC instruments using the change in EPIC-CP bowel summary scores with and without rectal bleeding scores.

Results: Two years after radiation therapy, 91% of patients were free of bleeding, and only 2.6% reported bothersome bleeding problems. Correlations between EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP bowel scores were very high (r=0.90-0.96) and were statistically improved with the addition of rectal bleeding information (r=0.94-0.98). Considering all patients, only 0.2% of patients in the test cohort and 0.7% in the validation cohort reported bothersome bleeding and had clinically relevant HRQOL changes missed with EPIC-CP. However, of the 2.6% (n=17) of men with bothersome rectal bleeding in the test cohort, EPIC-CP failed to capture 1 patient (6%) as experiencing meaningful declines in bowel HRQOL.

Conclusions: Modern prostate radiation therapy results in exceptionally low rates of bothersome rectal bleeding, and <1% of patients experience bothersome bleeding and are not captured by EPIC-CP as having meaningful HRQOL declines after radiation therapy. However, in the small subset of patients with bothersome rectal bleeding, the longer EPIC-26 should strongly be considered, given its superior performance in this patient subset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.07.038DOI Listing
November 2016

Posttreatment Prostate-Specific Antigen 6 Months After Radiation With Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts for Distant Metastasis-Free Survival and Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016 11 17;96(3):617-23. Epub 2016 Jul 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Objectives/background: To determine whether a 6-month posttreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) treated with concurrent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) serves as an early predictor for biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM).

Methods: A retrospective review of intermediate-risk and high-risk PCa patients treated with EBRT and concurrent ADT at a single institution between 1996 and 2012. All patients received high-dose radiation with either 78 Gy in 39 fractions or 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate bRFS and DMFS, and cumulative incidence was used to estimate PCSM.

Results: 532 patients were identified. The median follow-up time was 7.5 years (range, 1-16.25 years). The median initial PSA (iPSA) was 13.0 ng/mL (range, 0.37-255 ng/mL), and the median duration of ADT was 6 months (range, 1-78 months). The median PSA 6 months after EBRT was 0.1 ng/mL (range, 0-19 ng/mL), and 310 patients (58.3%) had a 6-month PSA ≤0.1 ng/mL. Multivariable analysis (MVA) demonstrated that a 6-month post-EBRT PSA of >0.1 ng/mL was an independent predictor of worse bRFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.518; P<.0001), DMFS (HR=3.743; P<.0001), and PCSM (HR=5.435; P<.0001). On MVA, a Gleason score of 8 to 10 also correlated with worse DMFS and PCSM (P<.05). The duration of ADT (1-6 vs >6 months) was not predictive of any clinical endpoint.

Conclusions: A 6-month posttreatment PSA >0.1 ng/mL in intermediate-risk and high-risk PCa patients treated with concurrent high-dose EBRT and ADT is associated with worse bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM. The duration of ADT was not predictive of any clinical endpoint. A 6-month PSA after definitive EBRT and ADT helps identify patients at higher risk of disease progression and may serve as a predictive tool to select patients for early salvage therapy on future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.07.009DOI Listing
November 2016

Relief of Urinary Symptom Burden after Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment.

J Urol 2017 02 2;197(2):376-384. Epub 2016 Sep 2.

Department of Urology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Purpose: Harms of prostate cancer treatment on urinary health related quality of life have been thoroughly studied. In this study we evaluated not only the harms but also the potential benefits of prostate cancer treatment in relieving the pretreatment urinary symptom burden.

Materials And Methods: In American (1,021) and Spanish (539) multicenter prospective cohorts of men with localized prostate cancer we evaluated the effects of radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy or brachytherapy in relieving pretreatment urinary symptoms and in inducing urinary symptoms de novo, measured by changes in urinary medication use and patient reported urinary bother.

Results: Urinary symptom burden improved in 23% and worsened in 28% of subjects after prostate cancer treatment in the American cohort. Urinary medication use rates before treatment and 2 years after treatment were 15% and 6% with radical prostatectomy, 22% and 26% with external radiotherapy, and 19% and 46% with brachytherapy, respectively. Pretreatment urinary medication use (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0, p = 0.04) and pretreatment moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.6) predicted prostate cancer treatment associated relief of baseline urinary symptom burden. Subjects with pretreatment lower urinary tract symptoms who underwent radical prostatectomy experienced the greatest relief of pretreatment symptoms (OR 4.3, 95% CI 3.0-6.1), despite the development of deleterious de novo urinary incontinence in some men. The magnitude of pretreatment urinary symptom burden and beneficial effect of cancer treatment on those symptoms were verified in the Spanish cohort.

Conclusions: Men with pretreatment lower urinary tract symptoms may experience benefit rather than harm in overall urinary outcome from primary prostate cancer treatment. Practitioners should consider the full spectrum of urinary symptom burden evident before prostate cancer treatment in treatment decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2016.08.101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501938PMC
February 2017

High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer-What More Will It Take to Make This a Standard Therapy?

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016 Mar;94(4):655-6

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.12.375DOI Listing
March 2016

Outcomes for prostate glands >60 cc treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy.

Brachytherapy 2016 Mar-Apr;15(2):163-8. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

Purpose: We sought to analyze whether outcomes of biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), late genitourinary (GU), and late gastrointestinal toxicity are different for prostate cancer patients with small (≤60 cc) vs. large (>60 cc) prostates following low dose-rate brachytherapy.

Methods And Materials: The bRFS outcomes for 2076 low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients from 1996 to 2012 were determined from a review of a prospectively maintained database. All patients were treated with (125)I monotherapy without androgen deprivation therapy. Biochemical failure was defined per the Phoenix definition. Patient-related factors and dosimetric values were examined in Cox regression analyses for bRFS and late toxicity. Late toxicity was scored according to a modified Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 scale.

Results: The median followup for all patients was 55 months. The 5-year bRFS rates for all patients, prostates >60 cc, and prostates ≤60 cc were 93.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.1%, 94.7%), 96.7% (95% CI: 94.4%, 98.9%), and 92.9% (95% CI: 91.4%, 94.3%), respectively. On multivariable analysis, prostate size >60 cc was significantly associated with improved bRFS (p = 0.01), as were initial prostate-specific antigen and biopsy Gleason score (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively). Patients with prostates >60 cc had significantly higher rates of Grade 3-4 late GU toxicity at 5 years than patients with smaller prostates; 7.2% (95% CI: 4.0%, 10.4%) and 3.2% (95% CI: 2.3%, 4.1%), respectively (p = 0.0007). The overall late gastrointestinal toxicity rate for all patients was 0.7% at 5 years with no significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusions: Implantation of large prostates >60 cc results in favorable bRFS outcomes and is associated with increased but acceptable rates of Grade 3 and higher late GU toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2015.12.002DOI Listing
November 2016

Safety and efficacy of salvage low-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate bed recurrences following radical prostatectomy.

J Contemp Brachytherapy 2015 Aug 14;7(4):241-6. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology.

Purpose: To report efficacy in our series of nodular recurrences in the post-surgical bed that underwent salvage low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy.

Material And Methods: Patients with radical prostatectomy (RP) who had biochemical failure with nodular recurrence detected by DRE, ultrasound, and pelvic CT and then salvaged with LDR (125)I brachytherapy were included. Nodular recurrences were biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma, and patients had no evidence of nodal or distant metastasis on imaging including bone scan. Follow up was at least every 6 months with a serial prostate specific antigen (PSA).

Results: Twelve patients had salvage LDR brachytherapy with median age 69 years (range 59-86) and median pre-salvage PSA of 4.22 ng/ml. Nodule biopsy Gleason score was 7, 8, or undifferentiated. Median rectal V100 was 0.00 cc. Compared to pre-salvage, patients reported no additional genitourinary (GU) toxicity. After a median 35 months post-salvage follow up (range 10-81 months), patients had a median PSA nadir of 0.72 ng/ml (range 0.01-22.4). At 6 months post salvage, 90% of patients had a PSA below pre-salvage levels. At last follow up, 4 patients had PSA control.

Conclusions: There was a trend to improved biochemical relapse free survival for lower Gleason score and pre-salvage PSA, which may be indicative of the lack of or only low volume metastatic disease. LDR brachytherapy is an effective salvage technique and can be considered in well selected patients allowing for dose escalation to the nodular recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/jcb.2015.54050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4643733PMC
August 2015

A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score.

Eur Urol 2016 Mar 10;69(3):428-35. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Despite revisions in 2005 and 2014, the Gleason prostate cancer (PCa) grading system still has major deficiencies. Combining of Gleason scores into a three-tiered grouping (6, 7, 8-10) is used most frequently for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The lowest score, assigned 6, may be misunderstood as a cancer in the middle of the grading scale, and 3+4=7 and 4+3=7 are often considered the same prognostic group.

Objective: To verify that a new grading system accurately produces a smaller number of grades with the most significant prognostic differences, using multi-institutional and multimodal therapy data.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Between 2005 and 2014, 20,845 consecutive men were treated by radical prostatectomy at five academic institutions; 5501 men were treated with radiotherapy at two academic institutions.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Outcome was based on biochemical recurrence (BCR). The log-rank test assessed univariable differences in BCR by Gleason score. Separate univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards used four possible categorizations of Gleason scores.

Results And Limitations: In the surgery cohort, we found large differences in recurrence rates between both Gleason 3+4 versus 4+3 and Gleason 8 versus 9. The hazard ratios relative to Gleason score 6 were 1.9, 5.1, 8.0, and 11.7 for Gleason scores 3+4, 4+3, 8, and 9-10, respectively. These differences were attenuated in the radiotherapy cohort as a whole due to increased adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormones for patients with high-grade disease but were clearly seen in patients undergoing radiotherapy only. A five-grade group system had the highest prognostic discrimination for all cohorts on both univariable and multivariable analysis. The major limitation was the unavoidable use of prostate-specific antigen BCR as an end point as opposed to cancer-related death.

Conclusions: The new PCa grading system has these benefits: more accurate grade stratification than current systems, simplified grading system of five grades, and lowest grade is 1, as opposed to 6, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of PCa.

Patient Summary: We looked at outcomes for prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy and validated a new grading system with more accurate grade stratification than current systems, including a simplified grading system of five grades and a lowest grade is 1, as opposed to 6, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.06.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5002992PMC
March 2016

Long-Term Efficacy and Toxicity of Low-Dose-Rate ¹²⁵I Prostate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy in Low-, Intermediate-, and High-Risk Prostate Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015 Jul 8;92(4):884-93. Epub 2015 May 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Purpose/objectives: To report long-term efficacy and toxicity for a single-institution cohort of patients treated with low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy permanent implant (PI) monotherapy.

Methods And Materials: From 1996 to 2007, 1989 patients with low-risk (61.3%), intermediate-risk (29.8%), high-intermediate-risk (4.5%), and high-risk prostate cancer (4.4%) were treated with PI and followed up prospectively in a registry. All patients were treated with (125)I monotherapy to 144 Gy. Late toxicity was coded retrospectively according to a modified Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 scale. The rates of biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) were calculated. We identified factors associated with late grade ≥3 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, bRFS, DMFS, OS, PCSM, and incontinence.

Results: The median age of the patients was 67 years, and the median overall and prostate-specific antigen follow-up times were 6.8 years and 5.8 years, respectively. The overall 5-year rates for bRFS, DMFS, OS, and PCSM were 91.9%, 97.8%, 93.7%, and 0.71%, respectively. The 10-year rates were 81.5%, 91.5%, 76.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. The overall rates of late grade ≥3 GU and GI toxicity were 7.6% and 0.8%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, age and prostate length were significantly associated with increased risk of late grade ≥3 GU toxicity. The risk of incontinence was highly correlated with both pre-PI and post-PI transurethral resection of the prostate.

Conclusions: Prostate brachytherapy as monotherapy is an effective treatment for low-risk and low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer and appears promising as a treatment for high-intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. Significant long-term toxicities are rare when brachytherapy is performed as monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.02.047DOI Listing
July 2015

Safety and efficacy of iodine-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy in patients with J-pouch anastomosis after total colectomy for ulcerative colitis.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2015 Sep-Oct;5(5):e437-e442. Epub 2015 Apr 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Purpose: To ascertain the safety and efficacy of permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) in early prostate cancer patients who have undergone previous total proctocolectomy and J-pouch anastomosis for inflammatory bowel disease.

Methods And Materials: We identified 10 patients with a previous history of prostate cancer and J-pouch anastomosis from our institutional review board-approved database. Seven patients had PPB and 3 had prostatectomy. Only patients treated with PPB were included. Patient records were reviewed to collect data on treatment-related toxicity and oncological outcomes.

Results: All 7 patients who underwent PPB had low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The mean prostatic volume was 24.40 mL and the average number of iodine-125 seeds implanted was 84. Postimplant dosimetric calculations showed a mean prostate volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) of 88.76%, V150 of 45.23%, V200 of 16.79%, radiation dose delivered to 90% of the prostate of 147.89 Gy, volume of ileal pouch receiving 100% of the prescribed dose of 0.164 mL, and volume of ileal pouch receiving 50% of the prescribed dose of 1.38 mL. After a mean follow-up of 19 months, none of the patients had evidence of biochemical failure or clinical failure. There were no long-term genitourinary side effects detected. Two patients had Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 grade II gastrointestinal side effects, of which symptoms resolved to baseline in 1 patient, whereas the other patient progressed to chronic active enteritis (pouchitis).

Conclusion: Low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients with J-pouch anastomosis after total colectomy for inflammatory bowel disease are candidates for definitive treatment with PPB. Caution should be exercised while deploying the most posterior row of seeds to minimize enteral pouch radiation doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2015.03.002DOI Listing
June 2016

Influence of zonal dosimetry on prostate brachytherapy outcomes.

J Contemp Brachytherapy 2015 Feb 4;7(1):17-22. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Purpose: To examine the influence of zone-specific dosimetry on outcomes during permanent prostate implantation (PI), where the peripheral zone (PZ) and transitional zone (TZ) may receive varying radiation doses.

Material And Methods: Four hundred and sixteen patients treated with I-125 PI (target dose: 144 Gy) between 1996 and 2003 were included in this Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved, retrospective analysis. Whole prostate (WP), TZ, and PZ were contoured, and zone-specific D90 and V100 were computed. Their influence on biochemical failure (BF) was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards analysis.

Results: The median age and initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 68 years and 6.1 ng/ml, respectively, and the median follow-up time was 8.8 years. There were 329 subjects with Gleason score (GS) 6 disease (79.1%), and 82 subjects had GS 7 disease (19.7%). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was used in 20.4% of patients. Median D90 and V100% in the WP, PZ, and TZ were 141.2 Gy, 156.1 Gy, and 134.5 Gy; and 88.8%, 93.3%, and 84.2%, respectively. Ten-year rates for biochemical recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and prostate cancer-specific mortality were 82.4%, 92.4%, and 0.97% respectively. Only initial PSA, GS7+ disease, ADT, and PSA frequency were significant on multivariate analysis. Ten-year rates of grade 3 or higher GU and GI toxicity was 10.9% and 1.8%, respectively. TZ V200 and TZ V300 were significantly associated with late genitourinary toxicity.

Conclusions: The TZ received significantly lower doses of radiation compared to the PZ. On multivariate analysis, no dosimetric parameter was associated with efficacy. Higher TZ doses may be associated with higher late GU toxicity without improving efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/jcb.2015.48875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4371063PMC
February 2015

Nomogram Predicting Prostate Cancer-specific Mortality for Men with Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy.

Eur Urol 2015 Jun 6;67(6):1160-1167. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The natural history of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-defined biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa) after definitive local therapy is highly variable. Validated prediction models for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM) in this population are needed for treatment decision-making and clinical trial design.

Objective: To develop and validate a nomogram to predict the probability of PCSM from the time of BCR among men with rising PSA levels after radical prostatectomy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Between 1987 and 2011, 2254 men treated by radical prostatectomy at one of five high-volume hospitals experienced BCR, defined as three successive PSA rises (final value >0.2 ng/ml), single PSA >0.4 ng/ml, or use of secondary therapy administered for detectable PSA >0.1 ng/ml. Clinical information and follow-up data were modeled using competing-risk regression analysis to predict PCSM from the time of BCR.

Intervention: Radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer and subsequent PCa BCR.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: PCSM.

Results And Limitations: The 10-yr PCSM and mortality from competing causes was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16-21%) and 17% (95% CI 14-19%), respectively. A nomogram predicting PCSM for all patients had an internally validated concordance index of 0.774. Inclusion of PSA doubling time (PSADT) in a nomogram based on standard parameters modestly improved predictive accuracy (concordance index 0.763 vs 0.754). Significant parameters in the models were preoperative PSA, pathological Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, time to PCa BCR, PSA level at PCa BCR, and PSADT (all p<0.05).

Conclusions: We constructed and validated a nomogram to predict the risk of PCSM at 10 yr among men with PCa BCR after radical prostatectomy. The nomogram may be used for patient counseling and the design of clinical trials for PCa.

Patient Summary: For men with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy, we have developed a model to predict the long-term risk of death from prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.09.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4779062PMC
June 2015

Are biochemical recurrence outcomes similar after radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy? Analysis of prostate cancer-specific mortality by nomogram-predicted risks of biochemical recurrence.

Eur Urol 2015 Feb 5;67(2):204-9. Epub 2014 Oct 5.

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Due to the protracted natural history of the clinical progression of prostate cancer, biochemical recurrence (BCR) is often used to compare treatment modalities. However, BCR definitions and posttreatment prostate-specific antigen kinetics vary considerably among treatments, calling into the question the validity of such comparisons.

Objective: To analyze prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) according to treatment-specific nomogram-predicted risk of BCR for men treated by radical prostatectomy (RP), external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and brachytherapy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 13 803 men who underwent RP, EBRT, or brachytherapy at two US high-volume hospitals between 1995 and 2008.

Intervention: RP, EBRT, and brachytherapy.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The 5-yr progression-free probability (5Y-PFP) was calculated for each patient based on the treatment received using a validated treatment-specific nomogram. Fine and Gray competing risk analysis was then used to estimate PCSM by a patient's predicted 5Y-PFP. Multivariable competing risk regression analysis was used to determine the association of treatment with PCSM after adjusting for nomogram-predicted 5Y-PFP.

Results And Limitations: Men receiving EBRT had higher 10-yr PCSM compared with those treated by RP across the range of nomogram-predicted risks of BCR: 5Y-PFP >75%, 3% versus 0.9%; 5Y-PFP 51-75%, 6.8% versus 5.9%; 5Y-PFP 26-50%, 12.2% versus 10.6%; and 5Y-PFP ≤25%, 26.6% versus 21.2%. After adjusting for nomogram-predicted 5Y-PFP, EBRT was associated with a significantly increased PCSM risk compared with RP (hazard ratio: 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.0; p=0.006). No statistically significant difference in PCSM was observed between patients treated by brachytherapy and RP, although patient selection factors and lack of statistical power limited this analysis.

Conclusions: EBRT patients with similar nomogram-predicted 5Y-PFP appear to have a significantly increased risk of PCSM compared with those treated by RP. Comparison of treatments using nomogram-predicted BCR end points may not be valid.

Patient Summary: Biochemical recurrence (BCR) outcomes after external-beam radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are associated with different risks of subsequent prostate cancer-specific mortality. Physicians and patients should cautiously interpret BCR end points when comparing treatments to make treatment decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.09.017DOI Listing
February 2015

In reply to Jones and Menon.

Authors:
Jay P Ciezki

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2014 Jul;89(4):930-1

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.02.027DOI Listing
July 2014

Late toxicity after intensity modulated and image guided radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer and post-prostatectomy patients.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2013 Oct-Dec;3(4):323-8. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Purpose: To examine late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity profiles of patients treated for prostate cancer either definitively or post-prostatectomy with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT).

Methods And Materials: A total of 333 patients treated definitively and 104 patients treated postoperatively with IMRT and varying IGRT techniques were retrospectively examined to evaluate GI and GU toxicity profiles >1 year from treatment. Available dosimetric data were used for correlative analysis.

Results: The median follow-up time for the definitive patients was 41 months and the median follow-up time for the post-prostatectomy patients was 33 months. No late grade 4 or 5 GI or GU toxicities were observed. For definitive patients, the rates of grade ≥2 GI and GU toxicity at 3 years were 4.9% and 4.5%, respectively. In the postoperative cohort the rate of grade >2 GU toxicity was 11.6%, with no grade ≥2 GI toxicity. In the definitive cohort's Cox proportional hazards regression univariate analysis, use of anticoagulation was significantly associated with GI toxicity and age, bladder V50 and IGRT modality were associated with GU toxicity, and only age remained significant in the multivariate model. In univariate analysis for the postoperative cohort, no dosimetric value correlated with GU toxicity, nor did age or time from radical prostatectomy to radiation.

Conclusions: IMRT with IGRT achieved low rates of GI and GU toxicity in the definitive and postoperative setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2012.08.004DOI Listing
March 2014

Risk for developing myelodysplastic syndromes in prostate cancer patients definitively treated with radiation.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2014 Mar 27;106(3):djt462. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Affiliations of authors: Leukemia Program (SM, RVT, AAA, YS, KP, SH, JPM, BJB, MK, MAS), Department of Radiation Oncology (CAR, JPC, MA-W), and Department of Solid Tumor Oncology (RD), Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH; Levine Cancer Institute, Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC (EC); Glickman Urological & Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (EAK).

Background: Exposure to ionizing radiation has been linked to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); it is not clear whether therapeutic radiation doses used for prostate cancer pose an increased MDS risk.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of prostate cancer patients diagnosed between 1986 and 2011 at Cleveland Clinic, comparing those who underwent definitive treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP) to radiotherapy either external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or prostate interstitial brachytherapy (PI) and to population-based registries. Competing risk regression analyses were used to determine the cumulative risk of developing MDS. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Of 10924 patients, 5119 (47%) received radiation (n = 2183 [43%] in EBRT group and n = 2936 [57%] in PI group) and 5805 (53%) were treated with RP. Overall, 31 cases of MDS were observed, with age-adjusted incidence rates no higher than in population-based registries. In univariate analyses, advancing age (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.20; P < .001) and radiotherapy exposure (HR = 3.44; 95% CI = 1.41 to 8.37; P = .007) were statistically significantly associated with development of MDS. In multivariable analyses, although advanced age (HR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.19; P < .001) remained statistically associated with MDS, radiation did not, although a small non-statistically significant trend existed for PI-treated patients. MDS rates were no higher than in population-based registries.

Conclusions: With relatively short follow-up, prostate cancer patients definitively treated with radiation did not appear to have a statistically increased risk of subsequent MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt462DOI Listing
March 2014

Outcomes after photoselective vaporization of the prostate and transurethral resection of the prostate in patients who develop prostatic obstruction after radiation therapy.

Urology 2014 Feb 7;83(2):422-7. Epub 2013 Dec 7.

Cleveland Clinic Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the need for repeat treatment or urinary diversion in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) compared with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) after brachytherapy or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT).

Methods: The prostate cancer database of Cleveland Clinic includes 3600 patients who have undergone prostate brachytherapy and 2500 patients who have undergone EBRT. We cross-referenced these patients with the electronic medical record to identify patients who required PVP or TURP after radiation. The primary outcome was the need for any further intervention after PVP or TURP, including bladder neck incision, repeat TURP, or permanent supravesicular diversion.

Results: Sixty of the 3600 patients (1.7%) required prostate reduction surgery after brachytherapy. Of these 60 patients, 19 of 40 (47.5%) who underwent TURP required further intervention, and 10 of 20 patients (50%) who underwent PVP required subsequent intervention. Twenty-eight of the 2500 patients (1.1%) required prostate reduction surgery after EBRT. Of these 28 patients, 5 of 18 patients (27.8%) who underwent TURP required further intervention, and 5 of 10 patients (50%) who underwent PVP required subsequent intervention. Following either type of radiation there was not a significant difference in the need for further treatment based on the type of surgery (P >.999 for brachytherapy; P = .412 for EBRT). The median time between radiation and prostate reduction surgery is 20.2 months (range, 14.6-27.6) after brachytherapy and 53.3 months (range, 27.5-53.3) after EBRT (P = .0005).

Conclusion: This study suggests that PVP and TURP are comparable in treating prostatic obstruction after brachytherapy or EBRT. However, obstruction after brachytherapy occurs earlier compared with after EBRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2013.09.047DOI Listing
February 2014
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