Publications by authors named "Javier Escaned"

439 Publications

Prevalence and Disease Spectrum of Extracoronary Arterial Abnormalities in Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Importance: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has been associated with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and other extracoronary arterial abnormalities. However, the prevalence, severity, and clinical relevance of these abnormalities remain unclear.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and spectrum of FMD and other extracoronary arterial abnormalities in patients with SCAD vs controls.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case series included 173 patients with angiographically confirmed SCAD enrolled between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019. Imaging of extracoronary arterial beds was performed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Forty-one healthy individuals were recruited to serve as controls for blinded interpretation of MRA findings. Patients were recruited from the UK national SCAD registry, which enrolls throughout the UK by referral from the primary care physician or patient self-referral through an online portal. Participants attended the national SCAD referral center for assessment and MRA.

Exposures: Both patients with SCAD and healthy controls underwent head-to-pelvis MRA (median time between SCAD event and MRA, 1 [IQR, 1-3] year).

Main Outcome And Measures: The diagnosis of FMD, arterial dissections, and aneurysms was established according to the International FMD Consensus. Arterial tortuosity was assessed both qualitatively (presence or absence of an S curve) and quantitatively (number of curves ≥45%; tortuosity index).

Results: Of the 173 patients with SCAD, 167 were women (96.5%); mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 44.5 (7.9) years. The prevalence of FMD was 31.8% (55 patients); 16 patients (29.1% of patients with FMD) had involvement of multiple vascular beds. Thirteen patients (7.5%) had extracoronary aneurysms and 3 patients (1.7%) had dissections. The prevalence and degree of arterial tortuosity were similar in patients and controls. In 43 patients imaged with both computed tomographic angiography and MRA, the identification of clinically significant remote arteriopathies was similar. Over a median 5-year follow-up, there were 2 noncardiovascular-associated deaths and 35 recurrent myocardial infarctions, but there were no primary extracoronary vascular events.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this case series with blinded analysis of patients with SCAD, severe multivessel FMD, aneurysms, and dissections were infrequent. The findings of this study suggest that, although brain-to-pelvis imaging allows detection of remote arteriopathies that may require follow-up, extracoronary vascular events appear to be rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.4690DOI Listing
November 2021

Respiration-related variations in Pd/Pa ratio and fractional flow reserve in resting conditions and during intravenous adenosine administration.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Amsterdam UMC, Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: We evaluated the occurrence and physiology of respiration-related beat-to-beat variations in resting Pd/Pa and FFR during intravenous adenosine administration, and its impact on clinical decision-making.

Methods And Results: Coronary pressure tracings in rest and at plateau hyperemia were analyzed in a total of 39 stenosis from 37 patients, and respiratory rate was calculated with ECG-derived respiration (EDR) in 26 stenoses from 26 patients. Beat-to-beat variations in FFR occurred in a cyclical fashion and were strongly correlated with respiratory rate (R  = 0.757, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between respiratory rate and variations in resting Pd/Pa. When single-beat averages were used to calculate FFR, mean ΔFFR was 0.04 ± 0.02. With averaging of FFR over three or five cardiac cycles, mean ΔFFR decreased to 0.02 ± 0.02, and 0.01 ± 0.01, respectively. Using a FFR ≤ 0.80 threshold, stenosis classification changed in 20.5% (8/39), 12.8% (5/39) and 5.1% (2/39) for single-beat, three-beat and five-beat averaged FFR. The impact of respiration was more pronounced in patients with pulmonary disease (ΔFFR 0.05 ± 0.02 vs 0.03 ± 0.02, p = 0.021).

Conclusion: Beat-to-beat variations in FFR during plateau hyperemia related to respiration are common, of clinically relevant magnitude, and frequently lead FFR to cross treatment thresholds. A five-beat averaged FFR, overcomes clinically relevant impact of FFR variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.30012DOI Listing
November 2021

Angiographic quantitative flow ratio-guided coronary intervention (FAVOR III China): a multicentre, randomised, sham-controlled trial.

Lancet 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Compared with visual angiographic assessment, pressure wire-based physiological measurement more accurately identifies flow-limiting lesions in patients with coronary artery disease. Nonetheless, angiography remains the most widely used method to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In FAVOR III China, we aimed to establish whether clinical outcomes might be improved by lesion selection for PCI using the quantitative flow ratio (QFR), a novel angiography-based approach to estimate the fractional flow reserve.

Methods: FAVOR III China is a multicentre, blinded, randomised, sham-controlled trial done at 26 hospitals in China. Patients aged 18 years or older, with stable or unstable angina pectoris or patients who had a myocardial infarction at least 72 h before screening, who had at least one lesion with a diameter stenosis of 50-90% in a coronary artery with a reference vessel of at least 2·5 mm diameter by visual assessment were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to a QFR-guided strategy (PCI performed only if QFR ≤0·80) or an angiography-guided strategy (PCI based on standard visual angiographic assessment). Participants and clinical assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the 1-year rate of major adverse cardiac events, a composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or ischaemia-driven revascularisation. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03656848).

Findings: Between Dec 25, 2018, and Jan 19, 2020, 3847 patients were enrolled. After exclusion of 22 patients who elected not to undergo PCI or who were withdrawn by their physicians, 3825 participants were included in the intention-to-treat population (1913 in the QFR-guided group and 1912 in the angiography-guided group). The mean age was 62·7 years (SD 10·1), 2699 (70·6%) were men and 1126 (29·4%) were women, 1295 (33·9%) had diabetes, and 2428 (63·5%) presented with an acute coronary syndrome. The 1-year primary endpoint occurred in 110 (Kaplan-Meier estimated rate 5·8%) participants in the QFR-guided group and in 167 (8·8%) participants in the angiography-guided group (difference, -3·0% [95% CI -4·7 to -1·4]; hazard ratio 0·65 [95% CI 0·51 to 0·83]; p=0·0004), driven by fewer myocardial infarctions and ischaemia-driven revascularisations in the QFR-guided group than in the angiography-guided group.

Interpretation: In FAVOR III China, among patients undergoing PCI, a QFR-guided strategy of lesion selection improved 1-year clinical outcomes compared with standard angiography guidance.

Funding: Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and the National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02248-0DOI Listing
November 2021

Performance of Thin-Strut Stents in Non-Left Main Bifurcation Coronary Lesions: A RAIN Subanalysis.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Nov;33(11):E890-E899

Department of Medical Sciences, Division of Cardiology, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza, University of Turin, Corso Bramante 88/90, 10126, Turin, Italy.

Objectives: This study assesses the safety and efficacy of thin-strut stents in non-left main (non-LM) bifurcation coronary lesions.

Background: Thinner struts of recent drug-eluting stent (DES) devices are associated with improved outcomes, but data about their performance in challenging scenarios are scant.

Methods: RAIN was a retrospective multicenter registry enrolling patients with coronary bifurcation lesions or left main (LM) disease treated with thin-strut DESs. Target-lesion revascularization (TLR) was the primary endpoint, while major adverse clinical event (MACE) rate, a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), target-vessel revascularization (TVR), TLR, and stent thrombosis (ST), and its single components were the secondary endpoints. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of TLR. Outcome incidences according to stenting strategy (provisional vs 2-stent technique), use of final kissing balloon (FKB), and intravascular ultrasound/optical coherence tomography optimization were further investigated in prespecified subanalyses.

Results: A total of 1803 patients (59% acute coronary syndrome, 41% stable coronary artery disease) with non-LM bifurcations were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 12 months, TLR incidence was 2.5% (2.2% for provisional stenting and 3.5% for 2-stent technique). MACE rate was 9.4% (all-cause death, 4.1%; MI, 3.2%; TVR, 3.7%; definite ST, 1.1%). After multivariable adjustment, postdilation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.71; P<.01) and provisional stenting (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89; P=.03) were associated with lower TLR rates. FKB was associated with a lower incidence of TLR in the 2-stent subgroup (P=.03). Intracoronary imaging had no significant impact on the primary endpoint.

Conclusions: Thin-strut DES options represent an effective choice in bifurcation lesions. Postdilation and provisional stenting are associated with a reduced risk of TLR. FKB should be recommended in 2-stent techniques.
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November 2021

Optical coherence tomography and coronary revascularization: from indication to procedural optimization.

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2021 Oct 30. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Cardiology, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Angiography alone is the most commonly used imaging modality for guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions. Angiography is limited, however, by several factors, including that it only portrays a low resolution, two-dimensional outline of the lumen and does not inform on plaque composition and functional stenosis severity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intracoronary imaging technique that has superior spatial resolution compared to all other imaging modalities. High-resolution imaging of the vascular wall enables precise measurement of vessel wall and luminal dimensions, more accurately informing about the anatomic severity of epicardial stenoses, and also provides input for computational models to assess functional severity. The very high-resolution images also permit plaque characterization that may be informative for prognostication. Moreover, periprocedural imaging provides valuable information to guide lesion preparation, stent implantation and to evaluate acute stent complications for which iterative treatment might reduce the occurrence of major adverse stent events. As such, OCT represent a potential future all-in-one tool that provides the data necessary to establish the indications, procedural planning and optimization, and final evaluation of percutaneous coronary revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2021.10.009DOI Listing
October 2021

Pre-dilation and Post-dilation in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Indications, Benefits and Risks.

Interv Cardiol 2021 Apr 12;16:e28. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Cardiovascular Institute, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, IdISSC Madrid, Spain.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established treatment for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. In recent years, an emphasis has been placed on simplification of the procedure. Balloon predilation was initially considered a mandatory step to cross and prepare the stenotic aortic valve, but several studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing TAVR without balloon valvuloplasty. Balloon postdilation of the implanted valve is sometimes required to optimise results, although many patients do not require this step. Contemporary consensus advocates an individualised approach to TAVR procedures and so balloon pre- and post-dilation are performed selectively. This review aims to outline the advantages and disadvantages of balloon pre- and post-dilation and to identify the scenarios in which they are required during TAVR procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/icr.2020.35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532006PMC
April 2021

In-vivo evidence of systemic endothelial vascular dysfunction in COVID-19.

Int J Cardiol 2021 12 24;345:153-155. Epub 2021 Oct 24.

Hospital Clínico San Carlos, IDISSC and Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Endothelial dysfunction is one of the underlying mechanisms to vascular and cardiac complications in patients with COVID-19. We sought to investigate the systemic vascular endothelial function and its temporal changes in COVID-19 patients from a non-invasive approach with reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT).

Methods: This is a prospective, observational, case-control and blinded study. The population was comprised by 3 groups: patients investigated during acute COVID-19 (group 1), patients investigated during past COVID-19 (group 2), and controls 1:1 matched to COVID-19 patients by demographics and cardiovascular risk factors (group 3). The natural logarithmic scaled reactive hyperemia index (LnRHI), a measure of endothelium-mediated dilation of peripheral arteries, was obtained in all the participants and compared between study groups.

Results: 144 participants were enrolled (72 COVID-19 patients and 72 matched controls). Median time from COVID-19 symptoms to PAT assessment was 9.5 and 101.5 days in groups 1 and 2, respectively. LnRHI was significantly lower in group 2 compared to both group 1 and controls (0.53 ± 0.23 group 2 vs. 0.72 ± 0.26 group 1, p = 0.0043; and 0.79 ± 0.23 in group 3, p < 0.0001). In addition, within group 1, it was observed a markedly decrease in LnRHI from acute COVID-19 to post infection stage (0.73 ± 0.23 vs. 0.42 ± 0.26, p = 0.0042).

Conclusions: This study suggests a deleterious effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on systemic vascular endothelial function. These findings open new venues to investigate the clinical implication and prognostic role of vascular endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and post-COVID syndrome using non-invasive techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.10.140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542397PMC
December 2021

Ticagrelor monotherapy in patients at high bleeding risk undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: TWILIGHT-HBR.

Eur Heart J 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1030, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA.

Aims: Patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) represent a prevalent subgroup among those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Early aspirin discontinuation after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has emerged as a bleeding avoidance strategy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT in a contemporary HBR population.

Methods And Results: This prespecified analysis of the TWILIGHT trial evaluated the treatment effects of early aspirin withdrawal followed by ticagrelor monotherapy in HBR patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. After 3 months of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomized to 12 months of aspirin or placebo in addition to ticagrelor. A total of 1064 (17.2%) met the Academic Research Consortium definition for HBR. Ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3, or 5 bleeding compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in HBR (6.3% vs. 11.4%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.82) and non-HBR patients (3.5% vs. 5.9%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.77) with similar relative (Pinteraction = 0.67) but a trend towards greater absolute risk reduction in the former [-5.1% vs. -2.3%; difference in absolute risk differences (ARDs) -2.8%, 95% CI -6.4% to 0.8%, P = 0.130]. A similar pattern was observed for more severe BARC 3 or 5 bleeding with a larger absolute risk reduction in HBR patients (-3.5% vs. -0.5%; difference in ARDs -3.0%, 95% CI -5.2% to -0.8%, P = 0.008). There was no significant difference in the key secondary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke between treatment arms, irrespective of HBR status.

Conclusions: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI who completed 3-month DAPT without experiencing major adverse events, aspirin discontinuation followed by ticagrelor monotherapy significantly reduced bleeding without increasing ischaemic events, compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin. The absolute risk reduction in major bleeding was larger in HBR than non-HBR patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab702DOI Listing
October 2021

Five-year outcomes after state-of-the-art percutaneous coronary revascularization in patients with de novo three-vessel disease: final results of the SYNTAX II study.

Eur Heart J 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Central Manchester University Hospitals, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Aims: The SYNTAX II study evaluated the impact of advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), integrated into a single revascularization strategy, on outcomes of patients with de novo three-vessel disease. The study employed decision-making utilizing the SYNTAX score II, use of coronary physiology, thin-strut biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents, intravascular ultrasound, enhanced treatments of chronic total occlusions, and optimized medical therapy. Patients treated with this approach were compared with predefined patients from the SYNTAX I trial.

Methods And Results: SYNTAX II was a multicentre, single-arm, open-label study of patients requiring revascularization who demonstrated clinical equipoise for treatment with either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or PCI, predicted by the SYNTAX score II. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), which included any revascularization. The comparators were a matched PCI cohort trial and a matched CABG cohort, both from the SYNTAX I trial. At 5 years, MACCE rate in SYNTAX II was significantly lower than in the SYNTAX I PCI cohort (21.5% vs. 36.4%, P < 0.001). This reflected lower rates of revascularization (13.8% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001), and myocardial infarction (MI) (2.7% vs. 10.4%, P < 0.001), consisting of both procedural MI (0.2% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.001) and spontaneous MI (2.3% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.004). All-cause mortality was lower in SYNTAX II (8.1% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.013) reflecting a lower rate of cardiac death (2.8% vs. 8.4%, P < 0.001). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events' outcomes at 5 years among patients in SYNTAX II and predefined patients in the SYNTAX I CABG cohort were similar (21.5% vs. 24.6%, P = 0.35).

Conclusions: Use of the SYNTAX II PCI strategy in patients with de novo three-vessel disease led to improved and durable clinical results when compared to predefined patients treated with PCI in the original SYNTAX I trial. A predefined exploratory analysis found no significant difference in MACCE between SYNTAX II PCI and matched SYNTAX I CABG patients at 5-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab703DOI Listing
October 2021

Invasive and non-invasive assessment of ischaemia in chronic coronary syndromes: translating pathophysiology to clinical practice.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

British Heart Foundation Centre of Excellence and National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at the School of Cardiovascular Medicine and Sciences, King's College London, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK.

Intracoronary physiology testing has emerged as a valuable diagnostic approach in the management of patients with chronic coronary syndrome, circumventing limitations like inferring coronary function from anatomical assessment and low spatial resolution associated with angiography or non-invasive tests. The value of hyperaemic translesional pressure ratios to estimate the functional relevance of coronary stenoses is supported by a wealth of prognostic data. The continuing drive to further simplify this approach led to the development of non-hyperaemic pressure-based indices. Recent attention has focussed on estimating physiology without even measuring coronary pressure. However, the reduction in procedural time and ease of accessibility afforded by these simplifications needs to be counterbalanced against the increasing burden of physiological assumptions, which may impact on the ability to reliably identify an ischaemic substrate, the ultimate goal during catheter laboratory assessment. In that regard, measurement of both coronary pressure and flow enables comprehensive physiological evaluation of both epicardial and microcirculatory components of the vasculature, although widespread adoption has been hampered by perceived technical complexity and, in general, an underappreciation of the role of the microvasculature. In parallel, entirely non-invasive tools have matured, with the utilization of various techniques including computational fluid dynamic and quantitative perfusion analysis. This review article appraises the strengths and limitations for each test in investigating myocardial ischaemia and discusses a comprehensive algorithm that could be used to obtain a diagnosis in all patients with angina scheduled for coronary angiography, including those who are not found to have obstructive epicardial coronary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab548DOI Listing
September 2021

Left main coronary disease at the bifurcation: should the pendulum swing back towards the provisional stenting approach?

Eur Heart J 2021 10;42(37):3840-3843

Cardiology Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab363DOI Listing
October 2021

Ticagrelor monotherapy in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: TWILIGHT-CKD.

Eur Heart J 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1030, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods And Results: In this prespecified subanalysis of the TWILIGHT trial, we evaluated the treatment effects of ticagrelor with or without aspirin according to renal function. The trial enrolled patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation who fulfilled at least one clinical and one angiographic high-risk criterion. Chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, was a clinical study entry criterion. Following a 3-month period of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomly assigned to aspirin or placebo on top of ticagrelor for an additional 12 months. Of the 6835 patients randomized and with available eGFR at baseline, 1111 (16.3%) had CKD. Ticagrelor plus placebo reduced the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in both patients with [4.6% vs. 9.0%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.80] and without (4.0% vs. 6.7%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47-0.75; Pinteraction = 0.508) CKD, but the absolute risk reduction was greater in the former group. Rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were not significantly different between the two randomized groups irrespective of the presence (7.9% vs. 5.7%; HR 1.40, 95% CI 0.88-2.22) or absence of (3.2% vs. 3.6%; HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68-1.20; Pinteraction = 0.111) CKD.

Conclusion: Among CKD patients undergoing PCI, ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the risk of bleeding without a significant increase in ischaemic events as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab533DOI Listing
August 2021

Global Chronic Total Occlusion Crossing Algorithm: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug;78(8):840-853

Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University Hospital Careggi, Florence, Italy.

The authors developed a global chronic total occlusion crossing algorithm following 10 steps: 1) dual angiography; 2) careful angiographic review focusing on proximal cap morphology, occlusion segment, distal vessel quality, and collateral circulation; 3) approaching proximal cap ambiguity using intravascular ultrasound, retrograde, and move-the-cap techniques; 4) approaching poor distal vessel quality using the retrograde approach and bifurcation at the distal cap by use of a dual-lumen catheter and intravascular ultrasound; 5) feasibility of retrograde crossing through grafts and septal and epicardial collateral vessels; 6) antegrade wiring strategies; 7) retrograde approach; 8) changing strategy when failing to achieve progress; 9) considering performing an investment procedure if crossing attempts fail; and 10) stopping when reaching high radiation or contrast dose or in case of long procedural time, occurrence of a serious complication, operator and patient fatigue, or lack of expertise or equipment. This algorithm can improve outcomes and expand discussion, research, and collaboration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.055DOI Listing
August 2021

Sustained safety and performance of a second-generation sirolimus-eluting absorbable metal scaffold: Long-term data of the BIOSOLVE-II first-in-man trial at 5 years.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Permanent drug-eluting stents are associated with a steady increase of late complications attributed to persistent inflammation and poor vessel remodelling. Bioresorbable scaffolds have been developed to overcome such long-term limitations by providing temporary vessel support and disappearing thereafter. We aimed to assess the long-term outcomes of an absorbable metallic scaffold at 5 years.

Methods: BIOSOLVE-II is an international, multi-centre, first-in-human study assessing the safety and performance of the sirolimus-eluting absorbable metal scaffold DREAMS 2G (commercial name Magmaris) in patients with a maximum of two de novo lesions. After 3 years, follow-up was extended to 5 years with the endpoints target lesion failure and rate of definite or probable stent thrombosis.

Results: 123 patients with 123 lesions were enrolled. Lesions were 12.6 ± 4.5 mm long and 2.7 ± 0.4 mm in diameter, 43.4% were class B2/C lesions, and calcification was moderate to severe in 10.6%. At 5 years, 5.4% of patients had stable angina and 94.6% had no symptoms or ischemia. Target lesion failure rate was 8.0% [95% CI:4.2;14.9], reflecting 2 cardiac deaths, 2 target-vessel myocardial infarction, and 6 clinically-driven target lesion revascularizations. Only one target lesion failure occurred beyond 3 years; a target-vessel myocardial infarction with clinically-driven TLR on post-procedure day 1157. One additional non-cardiac death beyond 3 years due to renal failure was reported on day 1777. No definite or probable scaffold thrombosis was observed.

Conclusion: The Magmaris scaffold showed favourable long-term safety and clinical performance with low target lesion failure rates and absence of definite or probable scaffold thrombosis throughout 5 years.

Annotated Table Of Contents: BIOSOLVE-II is a prospective, multi-centre, first-in-man trial enrolling 123 patients with de novo coronary artery lesions. Target lesion failure rate at 5 years was low (8.0%), including 2 cardiac deaths, 2 target-vessel myocardial infarction and 6 clinically-driven target lesion revascularizations. No definite or probable scaffold thrombosis was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.07.017DOI Listing
July 2021

Benefit of Extended Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Duration in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Treated with Drug Eluting Stents for Coronary Bifurcation Lesions (from the BIFURCAT Registry).

Am J Cardiol 2021 10 2;156:16-23. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular , Division of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria "Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele," Catania, Italy.

Optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary bifurcations is an unmet issue. The BIFURCAT registry was obtained by merging two registries on coronary bifurcations. Three groups were compared in a two-by-two fashion: short-term DAPT (≤ 6 months), intermediate-term DAPT (6-12 months) and extended DAPT (>12 months). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), target-lesion revascularization and stent thrombosis) were the primary endpoint. Single components of MACE were the secondary endpoints. Events were appraised according to the clinical presentation: chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) versus acute coronary syndrome (ACS). 5537 patients (3231 ACS, 2306 CCS) were included. After a median follow-up of 2.1 years (IQR 0.9-2.2), extended DAPT was associated with a lower incidence of MACE compared with intermediate-term DAPT (2.8% versus 3.4%, adjusted HR 0.23 [0.1-0.54], p <0.001), driven by a reduction of all-cause death in the ACS cohort. In the CCS cohort, an extended DAPT strategy was not associated with a reduced risk of MACE. In conclusion, among real-world patients receiving PCI for coronary bifurcation, an extended DAPT strategy was associated with a reduction of MACE in ACS but not in CCS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.07.005DOI Listing
October 2021

Thin-cap fibroatheroma predicts clinical events in diabetic patients with normal fractional flow reserve: the COMBINE OCT-FFR trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Cardiology and Structural Heart Diseases, Medical University of Silesia, Ziolowa 45, 40-635, Katowice, Poland.

Aims: The aim of this study was to understand the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-detected thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) on clinical outcomes of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with fractional flow reserve (FFR)-negative lesions.

Methods And Results: COMBINE OCT-FFR study was a prospective, double-blind, international, natural history study. After FFR assessment, and revascularization of FFR-positive lesions, patients with ≥1 FFR-negative lesions (target lesions) were classified in two groups based on the presence or absence of ≥1 TCFA lesion. The primary endpoint compared FFR-negative TCFA-positive patients with FFR-negative TCFA-negative patients for a composite of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, clinically driven target lesion revascularization or unstable angina requiring hospitalization at 18 months. Among 550 patients enrolled, 390 (81%) patients had ≥1 FFR-negative lesions. Among FFR-negative patients, 98 (25%) were TCFA positive and 292 (75%) were TCFA negative. The incidence of the primary endpoint was 13.3% and 3.1% in TCFA-positive vs. TCFA-negative groups, respectively (hazard ratio 4.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-10.89; P < 0.001). The Cox regression multivariable analysis identified TCFA as the strongest predictor of major adverse clinical events (MACE) (hazard ratio 5.12; 95% confidence interval 2.12-12.34; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Among DM patients with ≥1 FFR-negative lesions, TCFA-positive patients represented 25% of this population and were associated with a five-fold higher rate of MACE despite the absence of ischaemia. This discrepancy between the impact of vulnerable plaque and ischaemia on future adverse events may represent a paradigm shift for coronary artery disease risk stratification in DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab433DOI Listing
July 2021

Antiplatelet therapy in patients with conservatively managed spontaneous coronary artery dissection from the multicentre DISCO registry.

Eur Heart J 2021 08;42(33):3161-3171

Interventional Cardiology Unit, San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Aims: The role of antiplatelet therapy in patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) undergoing initial conservative management is still a matter of debate, with theoretical arguments in favour and against its use. The aims of this article are to assess the use of antiplatelet drugs in medically treated SCAD patients and to investigate the relationship between single (SAPT) and dual (DAPT) antiplatelet regimens and 1-year patient outcomes.

Methods And Results: We investigated the 1-year outcome of patients with SCAD managed with initial conservative treatment included in the DIssezioni Spontanee COronariche (DISCO) multicentre international registry. Patients were divided into two groups according to SAPT or DAPT prescription. Primary endpoint was 12-month incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and any unplanned percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Out of 314 patients included in the DISCO registry, we investigated 199 patients in whom SCAD was managed conservatively. Most patients were female (89%), presented with acute coronary syndrome (92%) and mean age was 52.3 ± 9.3 years. Sixty-seven (33.7%) were given SAPT whereas 132 (66.3%) with DAPT. Aspirin plus either clopidogrel or ticagrelor were prescribed in 62.9% and 36.4% of DAPT patients, respectively. Overall, a 14.6% MACE rate was observed at 12 months of follow-up. Patients treated with DAPT had a significantly higher MACE rate than those with SAPT [18.9% vs. 6.0% hazard ratios (HR) 2.62; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.22-5.61; P = 0.013], driven by an early excess of non-fatal MI or unplanned PCI. At multiple regression analysis, type 2a SCAD (OR: 3.69; 95% CI 1.41-9.61; P = 0.007) and DAPT regimen (OR: 4.54; 95% CI 1.31-14.28; P = 0.016) resulted independently associated with a higher risk of 12-month MACE.

Conclusions: In this European registry, most patients with SCAD undergoing initial conservative management received DAPT. Yet, at 1-year follow-up, DAPT, as compared with SAPT, was independently associated with a higher rate of adverse cardiovascular events (ClinicalTrial.gov id: NCT04415762).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab372DOI Listing
August 2021

Dual lumen microcatheters for recanalization of chronic total occlusions: A EuroCTO Club Expert Panel Report.

EuroIntervention 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Medizinische Klinik I, Klinikum Fürth, Fürth, Germany.

Dual lumen microcatheters (DLMC) have become indispensable tools in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of chronic total occlusion (CTO). Other than allowing preservation and treatment of bifurcated coronary branches within or in the proximity of the CTO-body, they enable the use of modified parallel wiring, antegrade dissection and re-entry, collateral selection and retrograde negotiation of the distal CTO-cap. This Euro-CTO consensus document describes current DLMCs and suggests a practical guide to anatomies and techniques in which these devices are applicable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00291DOI Listing
August 2021

Phasic Flow Patterns of Right versus Left Coronary Arteries in Patients Undergoing Clinical Physiological Assessment.

EuroIntervention 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Coronary blood flow in humans is known to be predominantly diastolic. Small studies in animals and humans suggest this is less pronounced or even reversed in the right coronary artery.

Aims: This study aims to characterise the phasic patterns of coronary flow in the left versus right coronary arteries of patients undergoing invasive physiological assessment.

Methods: We analysed data from the Iberian-Dutch-English Collaborators (IDEAL) Study. 482 simultaneous pressure and flow measurements from 301 patients were included in our analysis.

Results: On average, coronary flow was higher in diastole both at rest and during hyperaemia both in the RCA and LCA (mean diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio was, respectively, 1.85±0.70, 1.76±0.58, 1.53±0.34 and 1.58±0.43 for LCArest , LCAhyp , RCArest and RCAhyp , p<0.001 for between vessel comparisons). Although the type of RCA dominance affected the DSVR magnitude (RCAdom = 1.55 ± 0.35, RCAco-dom =1.40 ± 0.27, RCAnon-dom = 1.35, (SD not reported as n=3), systolic flow was very rarely predominant (DSVR was greater than or equal to 1.00 in 472/482 cases (97.9%) overall), with equal prevalence in the LCA. Stenosis severity or microvascular dysfunction had negligible impact on DSVR in both RCA and LCA (DSVR x hyperaemic stenosis resistance R 2 = 0.018, p=0.03 and DSVR x coronary flow reserve R 2 <0.001, p=0.98).

Conclusions: In patients with CAD undergoing physiological assessment, diastolic flow predominance is seen in both left and right coronary arteries. Clinical interpretation of coronary physiological data should therefore not differ between the left and the right coronary systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00189DOI Listing
August 2021

Coronary microcirculation assessment using functional angiography: Development of a wire-free method applicable to conventional coronary angiograms.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 11 9;98(6):1027-1037. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Clínico San Carlos IDISSC and Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: We aimed to develop a novel wire- and adenosine-free microcirculatory resistive index from functional angiography (angio-IMR) to estimate coronary microcirculatory resistance, and to investigate how this method can improve clinical interpretation of physiological stenosis assessment with quantitative flow ratio (QFR).

Background: Hyperemic index of coronary microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is a widely used tool to assess microcirculatory dysfunction. However, the need of dedicated intracoronary wire and hyperemia limits its adoption in clinical practice.

Methods: We performed our study in two separate stages: (1) development of a formula (angio-IMR) to estimate IMR from resting angiograms and aortic pressure (Pa), and (2) validation of the method in a clinical population using invasively measured IMR as reference. Additionally, QFR diagnostic performance was assessed considering angio-IMR values.

Results: We developed the formula: angio-IMR = (Pa-[0.1*Pa])*QFR*e-Tmn (where e-Tmn is an estimation of hyperaemic mean transit time) and validated it in 115 vessels (104 patients). Angio-IMR correlated well with IMR (Spearman's rho = 0.70, p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, accuracy and area under the curve of angio-IMR to predict IMR were 87.5% (73.2-95.8), 85.3% (75.3-92.4), 76.1% (64.5-84.8), 92.8% (84.9-96.7), 85% and 0.90 (0.83-0.95), respectively. False positive QFR measurements decreased from 19.5% to 8.5% when angio-IMR was incorporated into the QFR interpretation workflow.

Conclusions: Estimation of IMR without physiology wire and adenosine is feasible. Coronary microcirculatory dysfunction causing high IMR can be ruled-out with high confidence in vessels with low angio-IMR. Awareness of angio-IMR contributes to a better clinical interpretation of functional stenosis assessment with QFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29863DOI Listing
November 2021

Impact of Age on the Safety and Efficacy of Ticagrelor Monotherapy in Patients Undergoing PCI.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 07;14(13):1434-1446

The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age on the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: As the risk for bleeding and ischemic complications after PCI increases with age, the authors conducted a pre-specified analysis of the TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention) trial to evaluate the possible benefits of ticagrelor monotherapy according to age.

Methods: The TWILIGHT trial enrolled patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents who fulfilled at least 1 clinical and 1 angiographic high-risk criterion. Age ≥65 years was a clinical entry criterion. After 3 months of dual-antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor, event-free patients were randomized to ticagrelor plus placebo or ticagrelor plus aspirin for an additional 12 months. The primary endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. The key secondary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke.

Results: A total of 3,113 patients (47.7%) were ≥65 years of age. At 1 year after randomization, ticagrelor monotherapy significantly reduced BARC type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding (4.5% vs. 8.2%; hazard ratio: 0.53; 95% confidence interval: 0.40 to 0.71) without increasing ischemic events (4.2% vs. 4.4%; hazard ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 1.35) compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin among patients ≥65 years of age. These findings were consistent in patients <65 years of age with respect to the primary (p = 0.62) and key secondary (p = 0.77) endpoints and across different age categories.

Conclusions: A strategy of ticagrelor monotherapy following 3 months of dual-antiplatelet therapy significantly reduced clinically relevant bleeding compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin without an increase in ischemic events, irrespective of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.04.043DOI Listing
July 2021

Reproducibility of Quantitative Flow Ratio: The QREP Study.

EuroIntervention 2021 07 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark.

Background: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a tool for physiological lesion assessment based on invasive coronary angiography.

Aims: We aimed to assess the reproducibility of QFR computed from the same angiograms as assessed by multiple observers from different, international sites.

Methods: We included 50 patients previously enrolled in dedicated QFR studies. QFR was computed twice, one month apart by five blinded observers. The main analysis was the coefficient of variation (CV) as a measure of intra- and interobserver reproducibility. Key secondary analysis was identification of clinical and procedural characteristics predicting reproducibility.

Results: The intraobserver CV ranged from 2.3% (1.5-2.8) to 10.2% (6.6-12.0) among the observers. The interobserver CV was 9.4% (8.0-10.5). The QFR observer, low angiographic quality, and low FFR were independent predictors of a large absolute difference between repeated QFR measurements defined as a difference larger than the median difference (>0.03).

Conclusions: The inter- and intra-observer reproducibility for QFR computed from the same angiograms ranged from high to poor among multiple observers from different sites with an average agreement of 0.01±0.08 for repeated measurements. The reproducibility was dependent on the observer, angiographic quality and the coronary artery stenosis severity as assessed with FFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00425DOI Listing
July 2021

Long-term outcomes after deferral of revascularization of in-stent restenosis using fractional flow reserve.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Hospital Clínico San Carlos IDISSC, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: To investigate the outcomes of deferred coronary revascularization in patients with non-significant in-stent restenosis (ISR) by physiological assessment.

Background: The pathophysiology and natural history of ISR is markedly different from de-novo stenoses. There is a paucity of data on the safety of deferral of revascularization of ISR using physiological assessment.

Methods: In this single centre study, using a propensity-score matched analysis, we compared the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with ISR and de-novo disease deferred based on intracoronary physiology. Matching was on a 1:2 basis of ISR to de-novo stenosis. The primary end point was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) a composite of all-cause mortality, target lesion revascularization or target vessel myocardial infarction at 36 months.

Results: Matched cohorts of 56 ISR and 112 de-novo stenoses were analyzed. The median percentage stenosis was 50% in both groups (p = 0.403). Deferral was based on fractional flow reserve (FFR). The mean FFR was 0.86 across both groups (p = 0.942). At 36-months, freedom from MACE was similar between groups; 86.2% versus 92.8% log rank p=0.180 for ISR and de-novo lesions, respectively. Neither were there differences in the individual components of MACE.

Conclusions: Deferral of coronary revascularization in patients with ISR based on its functional impact is associated to similar long-term safety as in de-novo coronary stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29823DOI Listing
June 2021

Online Co-Registration Of IVUS and OCT.

Minerva Cardiol Angiol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Instituto Cardiovascular, Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain -

Intravascular imaging using both intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have become important tools in the Interventional Cardiologists armamentarium. However, in some centers, intravascular imaging is not widely employed. A number of reasons for this may exist, including lack of training in the use of intravascular imaging. Co-registration with angiography may be a helpful tool for those beginning to use both IVUS and OCT in the cath lab, and may reduce the learning curve associated with its use. For experienced operators, co-registration can shorten procedure time and lessen contrast use which may be particularly important when performing complex or multivessel PCI. As a research tool, co-registration can allow for accurate comparison of interval intravascular images. In this review, we will discuss how to acquire co-registered images using both IVUS and OCT systems, and the potential advantages of this technology over non-co-registered images, and indeed angiography alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5683.21.05519-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Correlation of Intravascular Ultrasound and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio in Patients With Intermediate Left Main Coronary Artery Disease.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 06 7;14(6):e009830. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (S.C.H., T.T., J.N., A.L.).

Background: There is great degree of interobserver variability in the visual angiographic assessment of left main coronary disease (LMCD). Fractional flow reserve and intravascular ultrasound are often used in this setting. The use of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) for evaluation of LMCD has not been well studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of iFR in the assessment of angiographically intermediate LMCD.

Methods: This is an international multicenter retrospective observational study of patients who underwent both iFR and intravascular ultrasound evaluation for angiographically intermediate LMCD. An independent core laboratory performed blinded off-line analysis of all intravascular ultrasound data. A minimum lumen area of 6 mm2 was used as the cutoff for significant disease.

Results: One hundred twenty-five patients (mean age, 68.4±9.5 years, 84.8% male) were included in this analysis. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that an iFR of ≤0.89 identified minimum lumen area <6 mm2 with an area under the curve of 0.77 (77% sensitivity, 66% specificity; P<0.0001). Among the 69 patients without ostial left anterior descending artery or left circumflex artery disease, receiver operating curve analysis showed that an iFR of ≤0.89 identified minimum lumen area <6 mm2 with an area under the curve of 0.84 (70% sensitivity, 84% specificity; P<0.0001). The correlation was not significantly different when the body surface area was considered.

Conclusions: In this study, in patients with intermediate LMCD, iFR of ≤0.89 correlates with intravascular ultrasound minimum lumen area <6 mm2 regardless of body surface area. The current study supports the use of iFR for the evaluation of intermediate LMCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206001PMC
June 2021

Impact of Morbid Obesity and Obesity Phenotype on Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 06 31;10(12):e019051. Epub 2021 May 31.

Quebec Heart and Lung InstituteLaval University Quebec City Quebec Canada.

Background There is a paucity of outcome data on patients who are morbidly obese (MO) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. We aimed to determine their periprocedural and midterm outcomes and investigate the impact of obesity phenotype. Methods and Results Consecutive patients who are MO (body mass index, ≥40 kg/m, or ≥35 kg/m with obesity-related comorbidities; n=910) with severe aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement in 18 tertiary hospitals were compared with a nonobese cohort (body mass index, 18.5-29.9 kg/m, n=2264). Propensity-score matching resulted in 770 pairs. Pre-transcatheter aortic valve replacement computed tomography scans were centrally analyzed to assess adipose tissue distribution; epicardial, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat. Major vascular complications were more common (6.6% versus 4.3%; =0.043) and device success was less frequent (84.4% versus 88.1%; =0.038) in the MO group. Freedom from all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were similar at 2 years (79.4 versus 80.6%, =0.731; and 88.7 versus 87.4%, =0.699; MO and nonobese, respectively). Multivariable analysis identified baseline glomerular filtration rate and nontransfemoral access as independent predictors of 2-year mortality in the MO group. An adverse MO phenotype with an abdominal visceral adipose tissue:subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio ≥1 (VAT:SAT) was associated with increased 2-year all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 3.06; 95% CI, 1.20-7.77; =0.019) and cardiovascular (hazard ratio, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.06-15.90; =0.041) mortality, and readmissions (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.07-3.07; =0.027). After multivariable analysis, a (VAT:SAT) ratio ≥1 remained a strong predictor of 2-year mortality (hazard ratio, 2.78; =0.035). Conclusions Transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who are MO has similar short- and midterm outcomes to nonobese patients, despite higher major vascular complications and lower device success. An abdominal VAT:SAT ratio ≥1 identifies an obesity phenotype at higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477858PMC
June 2021

Clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with microvascular angina: an international and prospective cohort study by the Coronary Vasomotor Disorders International Study (COVADIS) Group.

Eur Heart J 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Cardiology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Smidt Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Aims: To provide multi-national, multi-ethnic data on the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with microvascular angina (MVA).

Methods And Results: The Coronary Vasomotor Disorders International Study Group proposed the diagnostic criteria for MVA. We prospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients according to these criteria and their prognosis. The primary endpoint was the composite of major cardiovascular events (MACE), verified by institutional investigators, which included cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalization due to heart failure or unstable angina. During the period from 1 July 2015 to 31 December 2018, 686 patients with MVA were registered from 14 institutes in 7 countries from 4 continents. Among them, 64% were female and the main ethnic groups were Caucasians (61%) and Asians (29%). During follow-up of a median of 398 days (IQR 365-744), 78 MACE occurred (6.4% in men vs. 8.6% in women, P = 0.19). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis disclosed that hypertension and previous history of coronary artery disease (CAD), including acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris, were independent predictors of MACE. There was no sex or ethnic difference in prognosis, although women had lower Seattle Angina Questionnaire scores than men (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: This first international study provides novel evidence that MVA is an important health problem regardless of sex or ethnicity that a diagnosis of MVA portends a substantial risk for MACE associated with hypertension and previous history of CAD, and that women have a lower quality of life than men despite the comparable prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab282DOI Listing
May 2021

Transient ST-elevation myocardial infarction versus persistent ST-elevation myocardial infarction. An appraisal of patient characteristics and functional outcome.

Int J Cardiol 2021 08 15;336:22-28. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Up to 24% of patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) show resolution of ST-elevation and symptoms before revascularization. The mechanisms of spontaneous reperfusion are unclear. Given the more favorable outcome of transient STEMI, it is important to obtain further insights in differential aspects.

Methods: We compared 251 patients who presented with transient STEMI (n = 141) or persistent STEMI (n = 110). Clinical angiographic and laboratory data were collected at admission and in subset of patients additional index hemostatic data and at steady-state follow-up. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed at 2-8 days to assess myocardial injury.

Results: Transient STEMI patients had more cardiovascular risk factors than STEMI patients, including more arterial disease and higher cholesterol values. Transient STEMI patients showed angiographically more often no intracoronary thrombus (41.1% vs. 2.7%, P < 0.001) and less often a high thrombus burden (9.2% vs. 40.0%, P < 0.001). CMR revealed microvascular obstruction less frequently (4.2% vs. 34.6%, P < 0.001) and smaller infarct size [1.4%; interquartile range (IQR), 0.0-3.7% vs. 8.8%; IQR, 3.9-17.1% of the left ventricle, P < 0.001] with a better preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (57.8 ± 6.7% vs. 52.5 ± 7.6%, P < 0.001). At steady state, fibrinolysis was higher in transient STEMI, as demonstrated with a reduced clot lysis time (89 ± 20% vs. 99 ± 25%, P = 0.03).

Conclusions: Transient STEMI is a syndrome with less angiographic thrombus burden and spontaneous infarct artery reperfusion, resulting in less myocardial injury than STEMI. The presence of a more effective fibrinolysis in transient STEMI patients may explain these differences and might provide clues for future treatment of STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.05.018DOI Listing
August 2021

Risk Stratification of Patients With NonObstructive Coronary Artery Disease Using Resistive Reserve Ratio.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 06 15;10(11):e020464. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine Mayo Clinic Rochester MN.

Background Resistive reserve ratio (RRR), or the ratio of baseline to hyperemic microvascular resistance, has prognostic implications in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. However, its value in patients with angina or ischemia with nonobstructive coronary artery disease is unknown. Methods and Results We included 1692 patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease who underwent invasive coronary vasoreactivity testing. Abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR, the ratio of hyperemic and baseline resting flow velocities) and RRR were defined as <2.5 and <2.62, respectively. The mortality rate was marginally higher in patients with abnormal CFR (428 patients [25%]) than those with normal CFR (38 [9%] versus 81 [6%]; =0.08), and was significantly higher in patients with abnormal RRR (716 patients [42%]) than those with normal RRR (70 [10%] versus 49 [5%], =0.0002) over the median follow-up of 11.3 years. Patients with abnormal CFR had marginally lower survival than those with normal CFR (log-rank =0.08). In contrast, patients with abnormal RRR had significantly lower survival than those with normal RRR (log-rank =0.001). Abnormal RRR was associated with shorter time to death even after adjustment for other covariates (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.11-2.38; =0.01). Conclusions In patients with no obstructive coronary artery disease, RRR was superior to CFR in predicting long-term survival. An RRR <2.62 was associated with 1.6 times increased risk of death in patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease. Indices of coronary microcirculatory resistive reserve comprising flow- and pressure-derived values may reflect underlying microvascular pathology more faithfully than flow-alone indices like CFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483554PMC
June 2021
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