Publications by authors named "Javier E Oesterheld"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ALK rearrangements in infantile fibrosarcoma-like spindle cell tumours of soft tissue and kidney.

Histopathology 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Pathology, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, OR, USA.

Aims: Recurrent alterations in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and downstream effectors are described in infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS)/cellular congenital mesoblastic nephroma (cCMN) and a subset of spindle cell sarcomas, provisionally designated 'NTRK-rearranged' spindle cell neoplasms. These two groups of tumours demonstrate overlapping morphologies and harbour alterations in NTRK1/2/3, RET, MET, ABL1, ROS1, RAF1 and BRAF, although their relationship is not fully elucidated. We describe herein a cohort of paediatric tumours with clinicopathological features not typical for inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, but rather with similarities to cCMN/IFS harbouring ALK fusions.

Methods And Results: Clinicopathological features were assessed and partner agnostic targeted RNA sequencing on clinically validated platforms were performed. Tumours occurred in patients aged from 2 to 10 years (median age 2 years) with a 2:2 male to female ratio and an average size of 8.4 cm. Two tumours arose in soft tissues and two in the kidney. Morphological features included spindle to ovoid cells arranged in long fascicles or haphazardly within a myxoid to collagenised stroma; a subset of cases had either dilated, ectatic vessels or focal perivascular hyalinosis. By immunohistochemistry, all cases tested showed cytoplasmic expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and one case demonstrated co-expression of CD34 and S100.

Conclusions: This series of ALK-rearranged IFS-like tumours expands the spectrum of targetable kinases altered in these tumours and reinforces the potential overlap between IFS/cCMN-like tumours and the provisional entity of 'NTRK-rearranged' spindle cell neoplasms.
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November 2021

Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Relapsed and Refractory Childhood Solid Tumors Reveals a Diverse Molecular Landscape and Mechanisms of Immune Evasion.

Cancer Res 2021 12 5;81(23):5818-5832. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), Phoenix, Arizona.

Children with treatment-refractory or relapsed (R/R) tumors face poor prognoses. As the genomic underpinnings driving R/R disease are not well defined, we describe here the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of R/R solid tumors from 202 patients enrolled in Beat Childhood Cancer Consortium clinical trials. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was elevated relative to untreated tumors at diagnosis, with one-third of tumors classified as having a pediatric high TMB. Prior chemotherapy exposure influenced the mutational landscape of these R/R tumors, with more than 40% of tumors demonstrating mutational signatures associated with platinum or temozolomide chemotherapy and two tumors showing treatment-associated hypermutation. Immunogenomic profiling found a heterogenous pattern of neoantigen and MHC class I expression and a general absence of immune infiltration. Transcriptional analysis and functional gene set enrichment analysis identified cross-pathology clusters associated with development, immune signaling, and cellular signaling pathways. While the landscapes of these R/R tumors reflected those of their corresponding untreated tumors at diagnosis, important exceptions were observed, suggestive of tumor evolution, treatment resistance mechanisms, and mutagenic etiologies of treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: Tumor heterogeneity, chemotherapy exposure, and tumor evolution contribute to the molecular profiles and increased mutational burden that occur in treatment-refractory and relapsed childhood solid tumors.
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December 2021

Phase II trial of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in patients with recurrent Ewing sarcoma: A report from the National Pediatric Cancer Foundation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 07 9;67(7):e28370. Epub 2020 May 9.

Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Duke Children's Hospital and Health Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: The combination of gemcitabine and docetaxel is often used to treat patients with recurrent sarcoma. Nab-paclitaxel is a taxane modified to improve drug exposure and increase intratumoral accumulation and, in combination with gemcitabine, is standard therapy for pancreatic cancer. Applying the dosages and schedule used for pancreatic cancer, we performed a phase II trial to assess the response rate of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in patients with relapsed Ewing sarcoma.

Procedure: Using a Simon's two-stage design to identify a response rate of ≥ 35%, patients received nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m followed by gemcitabine 1000 mg/m i.v. on days 1, 8, and 15 of four-week cycles. Immunohistochemical analysis of archival tissue was performed to identify possible biomarkers of response.

Results: Eleven patients from four institutions enrolled, with a median age of 22 years (range, 14-27). Patients were heavily pretreated (median 3 prior regimens, range, 1-7). Thirty-five cycles were administered (median 2, range, 1-8). Accrual was stopped after 11 patients, due to only one confirmed partial response. Two other patients had partial responses after two cycles, but withdrew because of adverse effects or progression before confirmation of continued response. The predominant toxicity was myelosuppression, and four (36%) patients were removed due to hematologic toxicity despite pegfilgrastim and dose reductions. Expression of secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and CAV-1 in archival tumors was not predictive of clinical benefit in this small cohort of patients.

Conclusions: In patients with heavily pretreated Ewing sarcoma, the confirmed response rate of 9% was similar to multi-institutional studies of gemcitabine and docetaxel.
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July 2020

Decitabine and Vorinostat with Chemotherapy in Relapsed Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A TACL Pilot Study.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 05 22;26(10):2297-2307. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Center for Pediatric Genomic Medicine, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri.

Purpose: Treatment failure from drug resistance is the primary reason for relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Improving outcomes by targeting mechanisms of drug resistance is a potential solution.

Patients And Methods: We report results investigating the epigenetic modulators decitabine and vorinostat with vincristine, dexamethasone, mitoxantrone, and PEG-asparaginase for pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell ALL (B-ALL). Twenty-three patients, median age 12 years (range, 1-21) were treated in this trial.

Results: The most common grade 3-4 toxicities included hypokalemia (65%), anemia (78%), febrile neutropenia (57%), hypophosphatemia (43%), leukopenia (61%), hyperbilirubinemia (39%), thrombocytopenia (87%), neutropenia (91%), and hypocalcemia (39%). Three subjects experienced dose-limiting toxicities, which included cholestasis, steatosis, and hyperbilirubinemia ( = 1); seizure, somnolence, and delirium ( = 1); and pneumonitis, hypoxia, and hyperbilirubinemia ( = 1). Infectious complications were common with 17 of 23 (74%) subjects experiencing grade ≥3 infections including invasive fungal infections in 35% (8/23). Nine subjects (39%) achieved a complete response (CR + CR without platelet recovery + CR without neutrophil recovery) and five had stable disease (22%). Nine (39%) subjects were not evaluable for response, primarily due to treatment-related toxicities. Correlative pharmacodynamics demonstrated potent modulation of epigenetic marks, and modulation of biologic pathways associated with functional antileukemic effects.

Conclusions: Despite encouraging response rates and pharmacodynamics, the combination of decitabine and vorinostat on this intensive chemotherapy backbone was determined not feasible in B-ALL due to the high incidence of significant infectious toxicities. This study is registered at as NCT01483690.
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May 2020