Publications by authors named "Javed Iqbal"

315 Publications

(leaves) supplementation exerts curative effects on promoting functional recovery in a mouse model of peripheral nerve injury.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 9;9(9):5016-5027. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Nutrition and Food Science University of Dhaka Dhaka Bangladesh.

Peripheral nerve injuries are among those complicated medical conditions, which are still waiting for their highly effective first-line therapies. In this study, the role of crude leaves was evaluated at different doses for their effectiveness in improving functional recovery following sciatic nerve injury-induced in the mouse model. Thirty-two healthy albino mice were divided into four groups as Normal chow group (control,  = 8) and chow groups (50 mg/kg ( = 8), 100 mg/kg ( = 8) and 200 mg/kg ( = 8)). Behavioral analyses were performed to assess and compare improved functional recovery along with skeletal muscle mass measurement in all groups. Serum samples were analyzed for oxidative stress markers. Results showed that leaves at dose-dependent manner showed statistically prominent ( < .05) increase in sensorimotor functions reclamation as confirmed by behavioral analyses along with muscle mass restoration and prominent decline in TOS and momentous increase in TAC along with the augmented activity of antioxidative enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441272PMC
September 2021

Investigating the nexus between critical success factors, despotic leadership, and success of renewable energy projects.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Guangdong Linzhi Science and Technology, Group Co., Ltd, Foshan, Guangdong Province, 528251, People's Republic of China.

The aim of this study to examine how critical success factors (CSFs) affect the project success (PS), directly and indirectly, using the despotic leadership (DL) as a mediating variable. Critical success factors with multiple dimensions, such as organizational factors, team factors, technical factors, and communication factors, were used in this study. In this study, we used a questionnaire survey approach. The data were collected from the project directors, project managers, functional managers, and team leaders working in the renewable energy project of Pakistan. For data analysis, we used the partial least squares structural equation modeling through SmartPLS 3.2. The outcomes indicate that team factors and communication factors have a positive and significant relationship with PS in the direct relationship. At the same time, organization factors and technical factors were insignificant in the direct relationship with PS. Moreover, to examine the mediating effects of despotic leadership, we have examined the indirect effects of critical success factors on PS. The findings of this study indicate that DL is not mediated between organizational factors and PS in the indirect relationship. However, DL negatively mediates between three factors (team, technical, and communication) of critical success factors on project success. This paper concludes that despotic leaders go beyond controlling and self-serving behaviour and are engaged in exploitative and unethical acts that can drain project resources, which reduce the success and sustainability of renewable energy projects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16441-6DOI Listing
September 2021

The impact of cow dung augmentation on soil restoration and bio-accumulation of metals (Lead and Cadmium) in Pheretima posthuma (Annelida: Clitellata).

Braz J Biol 2021 3;83:e247562. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The University of Lahore, Department of Zoology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Lahore, Pakistan.

To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.247562DOI Listing
September 2021

Chemical composition and pharmacological bio-efficacy of (Decne) Rehder for anticancer activity.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Sep 2;28(9):4969-4986. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh l1451, Saudi Arabia.

Consistent STAT3 (Single transducer and activator of transcription 3) activation is observed in many tumors and promotes malignant cell transformation. In the present investigation, we evaluated the anticancer effects of methanol fraction (PJM) on STAT3 inhibition in HCCLM3 and MDA-MB 231 cells. PJM suppressed the activation of upstream kinases i.e. JAK-1/2 (Janus kinase-1/2), and c-Src (Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase c-Src), and upregulated the expression levels of PIAS-1/3 (Protein Inhibitor of Activated STATs-1/3), SHP-1/2 (Src-homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1/2), and PTP-1β (Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 β) which negatively regulate STAT3 signaling pathway. PJM also decreased the levels of protein products conferring to various oncogenes, which in turn repressed the proliferation, migration, invasion, and induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The growth inhibitory effects of PJM on cell-cycle and metastasis were correlated with decreased expression levels of CyclinD1, CyclinE, MMP-2 (Matrix metalloproteinases-2), and MMP-9 (Matrix metalloproteinases-9). Induction of apoptosis was indicated by the cleavage and subsequent activation of Caspases (Cysteine-dependent Aspartate-directed Proteases) i.e. caspase-3, 7, 8, 9, and PARP (Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) as well as through the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins. These apoptotic effects of PJM were preceded by inhibition of STAT3 cell-signaling pathway. STAT3 was needed for PJM-induced apoptosis, and inhibition of STAT3 via pharmacological inhibitor (Stattic; SC-203282) abolished the apoptotic effects. Conclusively, our results demonstrate the capability of PJM to inhibit cancer cell-proliferation and induce apoptosis by suppressing STAT3 via upregulation of STAT3 inhibitors and pro-apoptotic proteins whereas the down-regulation of upstream kinases and anti-apoptotic protein expression. In future, one-step advance studies of PHM regarding its role in metastatic inhibition, immune response modulation for reducing tumor, and inducing apoptosis in suitable animal models would be an interesting and promising research area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.07.072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381063PMC
September 2021

Unfolding molecular switches in plant heat stress resistance: A comprehensive review.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

Key Message: Plant heat stress response is a multi-factorial trait that is precisely regulated by the complex web of transcription factors from various families that modulate heat stress responsive gene expression. Global warming due to climate change affects plant growth and development throughout its life cycle. Adds to this, the frequent occurrence of heat waves is drastically reducing the global crop yield. Molecular plant scientists can help crop breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. Plant heat stress response (HSR), however, is a multi-factorial trait and using a single stress resistance trait might not be ideal to develop thermotolerant crops. Transcription factors participate in regulation of plant biological processes and environmental stress responses. Recent studies have revealed that plant HSR is precisely regulated by the complex web of transcription factors from various families. These transcription factors enhance plant heat stress tolerance by regulating the expression level of several stress-responsive genes independently or in cross talk with different other transcription factors. This review explores how signaling pathways triggered by heat stress are regulated by multiple transcription factor families. To our knowledge, we for the first time analyze the role of major transcription factor families in plant HSR along with their regulatory mechanisms. In the end, we will also discuss the potential of emerging technologies to improve thermotolerance in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02754-wDOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of land use/land cover changes on water quality and human health in district Peshawar Pakistan.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 16;11(1):16526. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101, Joensuu, Finland.

The quality and quantity of groundwater resources are affected by landuse/landcover (LULC) dynamics, particularly the increasing urbanization coupled with high household wastewater discharge and decreasing open lands. This study evaluates temporal changes of groundwater quality for 2012 and 2019, its relation to Landuse/landcover, and its impact on Peshawar's residents (study area), Pakistan. A total of 105 and 112 groundwater samples were collected from tube wells in 2012 and 2019. Samples were then analyzed for seven standard water quality parameters (i.e., pH, electric conductivity (EC), turbidity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and nitrate). Patient data for waterborne diseases were also collected for the years 2012 and 2019 to relate the impact of groundwater quality on human health. Landsat satellite images were classified for the years 2012 and 2019 to observe landuse/landcover dynamics concerning groundwater quality. Results manifested a decrease in groundwater quality for the year 2019 compared to 2012 and were more highlighted in highly populated areas. The nitrate concentration level was found high in the vicinity of agricultural areas due to the excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers and pesticides, and thus the methemoglobinemia patients ratio increased by 14% (48-62% for the year 2012 and 2019, respectively). Besides, Urinary Tract Infections, Peptic Ulcer, and Dental Caries diseases increased due to the high calcium and magnesium concentration. The overall results indicate that anthropogenic activities were the main driver of Spatio-temporal variability in groundwater quality of the study area. The study could help district health administration understand groundwater quality trends, make appropriate site-specific policies, and formulate future health regulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96075-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368177PMC
August 2021

Tuning the optoelectronic properties of triphenylamine (TPA) based small molecules by modifying central core for photovoltaic applications.

J Mol Model 2021 Aug 7;27(9):237. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Small donor molecules based on fused ring acceptors exhibit encouraging photovoltaic properties and expeditious advancement in organic solar cells. Central core modification of non-fullerene acceptor materials is a favorable methodology to enhance electronic properties and efficiency for OSCs. Herein, four new donor molecules, namely, BDTM1, PYRM2, ANTM3, and NM4 are designed with a strong donor moiety triphenylamine, tetracyanobutadiene as acceptor unit, and thiophene as spacer linked to a modified central core. Geometric parameters, optical, electrical properties, effect of central core modification on tailored molecules BDTM1-NM4 are investigated and compared with reference DPPR. DFT together with TDDFT approaches using MPW1PW91 functional is used to study key parameters like absorption maximum (λ), frontier molecular approach, ionization potential, electron affinity, the density of states, transition density matrix along with open-circuit voltage (V), dipole moment and reorganization energy. Among all these molecules, BDTM1 shows maximum calculated absorption λ (817 nm) and the lowest band gap (2.54 eV). This bathochromic shift in BDTM1 is due to the presence of 4,8-dimethoxy-2,6-di-2-thienylbenzodithiophene as a strong electron-withdrawing group. Computed reorganization energies (RE) shows that BDTM1 has the highest hole and electron mobility among all designed molecules. Combination of BDTM1 donor and PCBM acceptor further verifies charge transfer and their interaction. The results illustrate that designed donor molecules (BDTM1-NM4) are better in performance and are recommended for experimentation to develop efficient OSCs. Four new donor molecules, namely, BDTM1, PYRM2, ANTM3, and NM4 are designed with a strong donor moiety triphenylamine, tetracyanobutadiene as acceptor unit and thiophene as spacer linked to a modified central core. Geometric parameters, optical, electrical properties, effect of central core modification on tailored molecules BDTM1-NM4 are investigated and compared with reference DPPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-021-04867-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for immune response regulation: Mechanisms, applications, and perspectives.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Nursing, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and chronic inflammation. These responses are attributed to immune cells that produce cytokines, mediate cytotoxicity, and synthesize antibodies. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are novel agents that intervene with immune responses because of their unique physical-chemical properties. In particular, GNPs enhance anti-tumour activity during immunotherapy and eliminate excessive inflammation in autoimmune diseases. However, GNPs synthesized by conventional methods are toxic to living organisms. Green biosynthesis provides a safe and eco-friendly method to obtain GNPs from microbes or plant extracts. In this review, we describe several patterns for green GNP biosynthesis. The applications of GNPs to target immune cells and modulate the immune response are summarized. In particular, we elaborate on how GNPs regulate innate immunity and adaptive immunity, including inflammatory signaling and immune cell differentiation. Finally, perspectives and challenges in utilizing green biosynthesized GNPs for novel therapeutic approaches are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.37281DOI Listing
July 2021

Precursor effects on the physical, biological, and catalytic properties of Fagonia indica Burm.f. mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

We report a facile, green and precursor-based comparative study on the biosynthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) using anticancerous Fagonia indica as effective chelating agent. Biosynthesis was carried out using zinc sulfate and zinc acetate as precursor salts to make ZnO and ZnO NPs under similar experimental conditions which were characterized extensively for physical and biological properties. Scherrer equation deduced a mean crystallite size of ~23.4 nm for ZnO NPs and ~41 nm for ZnO NPs. The nature of the NPs was compared using UV, diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis-DTA, selected area electron diffraction, EDS, zeta potential, high resolution (HR)-SEM, and HR-TEM. Detailed in vitro pharmacognostic activities revealed a significant therapeutic potential for ZnO and ZnO . Potential antimicrobial activities for the NPs and their nanocosmeceutical formulations are reported. ZnO NPs were more cytotoxic to Leishmania tropica as compared to ZnO . Significant antioxidant and protein kinase inhibition was obtained. The hemolytic assay indicated a hemocompatible nature of both ZnO and ZnO NPs. Catalytic degradation of crystal violet dye (CVD) by NPs was examined under different parameters (light, dark, UV). Furthermore, sonophotocatalytic degradation of CVD was also studied. Our results suggested that precursor can have a significant effect on the physical, biological, and catalytic properties of the NPs. In future, we recommend different other in vitro, in vivo biological activities, and mechanistic studies of these as-synthesized NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23867DOI Listing
July 2021

Vestibular Function in Children With Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

J Int Adv Otol 2021 Jul;17(4):361-367

Department of Paediatric Audiology and Audiovestibular Medicine, Alder Hey Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. It is caused by a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene localized at 3p25-26. Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare low-grade adenocarcinomas which can occur sporadically but are more commonly found in association with VHL disease. In this paper, we present 3 siblings who underwent comprehensive vestibular assessment following a genetic diagnosis of VHL, and review the literature on audiovestibular findings in VHL/ELST in children. This is the first time that newer objective vestibular function tests like the video head impulse test (vHIT), the suppression head impulse test (SHIMP), and the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential test (cVEMP) have been performed in children with VHL to yield meaningful information about vestibular function. Monitoring audiological function has been suggested for early detection of ELSTs. It remains to be seen whether monitoring of vestibular function in patients with VHL from an earlier age may yield valuable information about progression of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/iao.2021.0190DOI Listing
July 2021

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Attenuates Serum Uric Acid (SUA) Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Res 2021 17;2021:9973862. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Cardiology, Sheikh Zayed Medical College & Hospital Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

Background: Hyperuricemia has a strong association with diabetes mellitus. Hyperuricemia can lead to cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes. The goal of this study was to compare the effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors dapagliflozin and empagliflozin on serum uric acid (SUA) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes against traditional oral antihyperglycemic drugs (OADs).

Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 70 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated SUA levels were assigned to two treatment groups. Patients in group A received SGLT-2 inhibitors tablet dapagliflozin 5 mg to 10 mg and empagliflozin 10 mg to 25 mg. Group B patients received OADs such as glimepiride, metformin, sitagliptin, gliclazide, and glibenclamide as monotherapy or combination therapy. The changes in SUA level were primary end points while changes in body weight and body mass index (BMI) from baseline to end point were secondary end points.

Results: After four weeks of treatment, we noted a significant reduction of mean SUA levels in the SGLT-2 inhibitor group from 7.5 ± 2.5 to 6.3 ± 0.8 mg/dl versus comparator group from 7.1 ± 1.8 to 6.8 ± 2.2 mg/dl ( = 0.001). Mean body weight was significantly reduced in the SGLT-2 group from 82 ± 10.4 to 78 ± 12.5 kg versus comparator group from 78 ± 13.2 to 79.2 ± 9.7 kg ( = 0.001). Similarly, the mean BMI of patients in the SGLT-2 group was significantly reduced from 25.7 ± 3.2 to 24.2 ± 3.2 kg/m versus comparator group from 27.5 ± 4.2 to 28 ± 3.6 kg/m ( = 0.002).

Conclusion: SGLT-2 inhibitors have a strong potential to decrease SUA levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9973862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235989PMC
June 2021

The Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Academic Social Networking Sites on Academic Performance During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2021 29;14:905-920. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Education & ICT (E-Learning), Universitat Oberta De Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an increase in the use of digital platforms for educational purposes, and increased use of smartphones and social media has affected the academic performance of students. In this study, we explored how emotional intelligence can, directly and indirectly, influence academic performance, with academic social networking sites (ASNS) as a mediator.

Methods: A survey questionnaire comprising 42 items was used to collect data on emotional intelligence, ASNS, and academic performance. In total, 305 undergraduate university students participated in the study. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (SmartPLS-SEM 3.2.2) was used to measure the effects of emotional intelligence and ASNS.

Results: Two dimensions of emotional intelligence, namely, self-regulation and self-awareness, showed significant positive effects on academic performance. Similarly, emotional intelligence and subscales of self-regulation, self-awareness and social skills showed a positive effect on ASNS. Likewise, ASNS showed a significant positive effect on academic performance. Looking at indirect influence, three dimensions of emotional intelligence, including self-regulation, self-awareness, and social skills, exerted a significant positive indirect influence on academic performance. Thus, outcomes of this study indicate that ASNS worked as a mediator between emotional intelligence and academic performance.

Conclusion: Emotional intelligence contributes directly and indirectly to increased academic performance. Together with emotional intelligence, ASNS played a positive and significant role in nurturing academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S316664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254613PMC
June 2021

Taxonomy of s.str. (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) from southern Asia including three new species and resurrected names.

PhytoKeys 2021 17;179:35-73. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Nurpur Road, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Pakistan.

This paper presents a taxonomic study of genus s.str. from southern Asia. Eleven regional endemic species are recognized on the basis of herbarium studies and fieldwork. Three new species are described: (endemic to Pakistan), (endemic to India), and (endemic to Pakistan, Kashmir and Tibet). Three species names, , and , previously treated as synonyms of , and , respectively, are resurrected. A neotype is designated for the Afghani endemic . A lectotype is chosen from the syntypes of . We resolve the long-standing taxonomic problems in three species complexes: , , , and ; , and ; and and . Geo-taxonomic distinctions of southern Asian taxa are highlighted by excluding from henceforth the long misrecognized western Eurasian taxa and . Furthermore, a detailed account of the genus including illustrations of whole plants, leaves and corona, distribution maps, a taxonomic key, morphological descriptions, synonymy, notes, and information on phenology, distribution and habitats is provided. Finally, provisional conservation assessments are provided, which indicate that and are critically endangered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.179.62514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225607PMC
June 2021

Tuning the optoelectronic properties of superalkali doped phosphorene.

J Mol Graph Model 2021 09 26;107:107973. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan; Punjab Bio-energy Institute, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

In this study, the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of pristine phosphorene and superalkali (LiO) doped phosphorene are estimated through the density functional theory (DFT) method to investigate the optical properties. The geometries of complexes have been optimized using the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level of theory. The effects of doping on phosphorene have been thoroughly explained by vertical ionization energy (VIE), interaction energies (E), and natural bond orbitals (NBO), Moreover, the density of states (DOS), electron density difference map (EDDM) analysis, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) plots are also given out to find more physical divination into the electronic communication and structure property relationship. The doping of superalkali conclusively has reduced the HOMO-LUMO energy gap of M1 3.28 eV-1.25 eV for M2 making it the n-type semiconductor. The higher values of EE and VIE obtained for M2 has indicated that this complex has higher stability and stronger interaction between superalkalis and phosphorene. More interestingly, there has been a gradual increase in the first static hyperpolarizability (β) values for M1, M2 and M3 are 115.75 au, 4118.6 au, and 659.30 au respectively. The Static second hyperpolarizability (γ) of the doped complexes has also been calculated from which the M2 has the highest value of 1382.5 ҳ 10 au. The TD-DFT exploration has exhibited that the doped molecules are adequately transparent in the UV region. Some selected systems are also compared with the p-NA reference molecule which is a familiar external reference molecule for NLO applications. From UV absorption analysis, it can be found that these doped complexes of phosphorene may be contemplated as a new applicant for intense ultraviolet NLO materials. Computational studies have revealed the stability of M2 and M3 making them feasible as NLO materials in optoelectronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmgm.2021.107973DOI Listing
September 2021

Designing and theoretical study of fluorinated small molecule donor materials for organic solar cells.

J Mol Model 2021 Jul 1;27(7):216. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

A recently synthesized photoactive donor named fluorinated thienyl-substituted benzodithiophene (DRTB-FT), modified with four novel end capped acceptor molecules, has been investigated through different electrical, quantum, and spectrochemical techniques for its enhanced electro-optical and photovoltaic properties. DRTB-FT was connected to 2-methylenemalononitrile (D-1), 2-methylene-3-oxobutanenitrile (D-2), 2-(2-methylene-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene) malononitrile (D-3), and 3-methyl-5methylene-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one (D-4) as terminal acceptor moieties. The architectural D-1 and D-3 molecules owe reduced optical band gap of 2.45 and 2.28 eV benefited from A-D-A configuration and have broaden maximum absorption band (λ) at 617 and 602 nm in polar organic solvent (chloroform). Reduced optical band gap sets the ease for enhanced absorption. Reorganization energy of electron (λ) of D-3 molecule (0.00397 eV) was smaller among all which disclosed its greater mobility of conducting electrons (ICT). Larger values of dipole moment (μ) of D-1 (5.939 Debye) and D-3 (3.661 Debye) molecules in comparison to R indicated greater solubilities of the targeted molecules. Among the tailored molecules, D-3 showed the lowest binding energy of 0.25 eV in solvent phase and 0.08 eV in gaseous phase. The voltaic strength of the designed molecules was examined with respect to fullerene derivative (PCBM) which exposed that D-1 is the best choice for achieving higher PCE. TDM (transition density matrix), DOS (density of states) analysis, and binding energies all were estimated at MPW1PW91/6-31G (d, p) level of DFT (density functional theory). All the architecture molecules show reduced band gap and high electron transfer rate due to the lowest reorganization energy (RE) of electron. The results show that there is greater contribution of acceptor and conjugated donor core towards the total absorption into the visible region of the spectrum. When tailored molecules D-1, D-2, D-3, and D-4 were blended with fullerene derivative polymer (PCBM), they give high values of voltage at zero current level (V) compared to R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-021-04831-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Microbes-mediated synthesis strategies of metal nanoparticles and their potential role in cancer therapeutics.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan; Program for Leading Graduate Schools, HIGO Program, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan. Electronic address:

Past few years have seen a paradigm shift towards ecofriendly, green and biological fabrication of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) for diverse nanomedicinal applications especially in cancer nanotheranostics. Besides, the well-known green synthesis methods of plant materials, the potential of the microbial world (bacteria, fungi, alga, etc.) in biofabrication is equally realized. Biomolecules and enzymes in the microbial cells are capable of catalyzing the biosynthesis process. These microbial derived inorganic nanoparticles have been frequently evaluated as potential agents in cancer therapies revealing exciting results. Through, cellular and molecular pathways, these microbial derived nanoparticles are capable of killing the cancer cells. Considering the recent developments in the anticancer applications of microbial derived inorganic MNPs, a dire need was felt to bring the available information to a single document. This manuscript reviews not only the mechanistic aspects of the microbial derived MNPs but also include the diverse mechanisms that governs their anticancer potential. Besides, an updated literature review is presented that includes studies of 2019-onwards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.06.006DOI Listing
June 2021

DFT study of superhalogen-doped borophene with enhanced nonlinear optical properties.

J Mol Model 2021 May 26;27(6):188. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

The concern of the present study is to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of superhalogen-doped borophene owing to its broad applications. The first principle study of the material for its nonlinear optical properties elaborated its use for electrical and optical applications. The superhalogen-based borophene in lithium ion-based batteries and medical appliances have made it one of the most potential materials for optoelectronics. First, hyperpolarizability (β) of pure and doped B is computed, and the difference between their values was examined. The vertical ionization energy (VIE) was calculated for pure and doped systems. The interaction energy (E) for all combinations was computed. It would be expected to be one of the best materials to have high capacity and resistance. For all the calculations and to calculate the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy gap, the density functional theory (DFT) method was used. It is predicted that these combinations are more beneficial and can display better nonlinear optical (NLO) properties in electronic devices. Superhalogen-doped BF borophene-36 ground state optimized geometry, frontier molecular orbitals HOMO and LUMO, maximum absorption (λ), density of states (DOS) analysis, and electrostatic potential diagram (MEP) are displayed here
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-021-04791-4DOI Listing
May 2021

An asymmetric analysis of the role of exports and imports in consumption-based carbon emissions in the G7 economies: evidence from nonlinear panel autoregressive distributed lag model.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

QAU Islamabad: Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

A genuine concern faced by the present world is global warming. Millions of human and animal lives are at risk due to global warming. Therefore, the subject has gained enormous attention from research and academia around the world. Literature shows that the primary cause of global climate change or global warming is carbon (CO) emissions. Hence, the role of a reliable carbon emission measurement is important for devising a relevant climate policy to deal with environmental problems. Based on trade-adjusted statistics of carbon emissions, a relevant climate policy response can be provided. Unlike the previous studies, this study examines the asymmetric impact of international trade on consumption-based carbon emissions from 1990 to 2017 in the G7 economies. To get empirical estimates, the study applies second-generation co-integration technique and nonlinear panel autoregressive distributive lag (NPARDL) model for estimating the relevant coefficients. The empirical results show that positive growth of exports significantly decreases consumption-based carbon emissions both in the short and long run, whereas the impact of negative growth of exports is insignificant. For imports, the results show that, over time, positive growth of imports significantly increases consumption-based carbon emissions in the long run, while the impact of negative growth of imports is insignificant. Finally, it is recommended for the policymakers to target the export industries for relevant policy interventions, which are less polluting and can generate other economic benefits as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14465-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Osthole Ameliorates Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Female Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:641909. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT, United States.

Loss of endogenous estrogen and dysregulation of the estrogen receptor signaling pathways are associated with an increase in risk for cognitive deficit and depression in women after menopause. Estrogen therapy for menopause increases the risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and stroke. Therefore, it is critical to find an alternate treatment for menopausal women. Osthole (OST), a coumarin, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. This study examined whether OST improves ovariectomy (OVX)-induced cognitive impairment, and alleviates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by OVX in mice. Adult female C57BL/6J mice were ovariectomized and then treated with OST at a dose of 30 mg/kg for 14 days. At the end of the treatment period, behavioral tests were used to evaluate spatial learning and memory, recognition memory, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. A cohort of the mice were sacrificed after 14 days of OST treatment and their hippocampi were collected for measurement of the proteins of interest using western blot. OVX-induced alteration in the levels of proteins was accompanied by cognitive deficit, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. OST treatment improved cognitive deficit, alleviated anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by OVX, and reversed OVX-induced alterations in the levels of synaptic proteins and ERα, BDNF, TrKB, p-CREB, p-Akt and Rac1 in the hippocampus. Therefore, reversal of OVX-induced decrease in the levels of hippocampal proteins by OST might contribute to the effects of OST on improving cognitive deficit and alleviating anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by OVX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.641909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134730PMC
May 2021

Insights into the ameliorating ability of mesoporous silica in modulating drug release in ternary amorphous solid dispersion prepared by hot melt extrusion.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Aug 19;165:244-258. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Ireland. Electronic address:

In this work, the application of various mesoporous silica grades in the preparation of stabilized ternary amorphous solid dispersions of Felodipine using hot melt extrusion was explored. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of mesoporous silica in these dispersions without the need for any organic solvents i.e., no pre-loading or immersion steps required. The physical and chemical properties, release profiles of the prepared formulations and the surface concentrations of the various molecular species were investigated in detail. Formulations containing 25 wt% and 50 wt% of Felodipine demonstrated enhanced stability and solubility of the drug substance compared to its crystalline counterpart. Based on the Higuchi model, ternary formulations exhibited a 2-step or 3-step release pattern which can be ascribed to the release of drug molecules from the organic polymer matrix and the external silica surface, followed by a release from the silica pore structure. According to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, the release rate and release mechanism are governed by a complex quasi-Fickian release mechanism, in which multiple release mechanisms are occurring concurrently and consequently. Stability studies indicated that after 6 months storage of all formulation at 30% RH and 20 °C, Felodipine in all formulations remained stable in its amorphous state except for the formulation comprised of 40 wt% Syloid AL-1FP with a 50 wt% drug load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.04.017DOI Listing
August 2021

Integrating bioremediation of textile wastewater with biodiesel production using microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris).

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 11;281:130758. Epub 2021 May 11.

Biorefinery Engineering and Microfluidics (BEAM) Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, 54000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Microalgae-led wastewater treatment is a promising biorefinery approach to promote environmental and economical sustainability. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was employed for the bioremediation of textile wastewater (TWW) and biodiesel production. C. vulgaris is cultivated in undiluted and diluted TWW (50%). Cultivation in freshwater containing BG11 medium was set as a control. Results show the highest growth (1.62 ± 0.12 OD) in diluted TWW followed by BG11 medium (1.56 ± 0.15 OD) and undiluted TWW (0.89 ± 0.11 OD). The highest methylene blue decolorization of 99.7% was observed in diluted TWW as compared to 98.5% in undiluted TWW. Morever, COD removal efficiency was also higher (99.7 ± 4.2%) in diluted TWW than BG11 medium (94.4 ± 3.5%) and undiluted TWW (76.3 ± 2.8%). For all treatment, more than 80% nitrogen and phosphorous removal were achieved. Otther than this, fatty acids methyl ester (FAME) yield in diluted TWW was higher (11.07 mg g) than the undiluted TWW (9.12 mg L). Major FAME were palmitic acid (C16:0) and linolenoic acid (C18:3) which are suitable for biodiesel production. All these results suggest that C. vulgaris can be cultivated in both diluted and undiluted TWW for biodiesel production. However, cultivation in undiluted TWW is more favorable as it displaces the need for freshwater addition in the growth medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130758DOI Listing
October 2021

Clinical Perspectives of Multiple and Extensively Drug-Resistant Typhoid; result from a tertiary care hospital from Pakistan.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 04 30;15(4):530-537. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Introduction: Typhoid fever remains a problem in developing countries, including Pakistan. The emergence of multidrug-resistant and, since 2016, of extensively drug-resistant cases is a continuous challenge for health care workers. The COVID-19 pandemic is making management more difficult.

Methodology: In the present study, a total of 52 confirmed cases of typhoid have been studied during 2019. Detailed clinical features, complications and, lab findings were studied. Typhoid culture and sensitivity were recorded and patients were treated accordingly. Patients were asked about risk factors to aim at informing prevention.

Results: Out of the 52 having blood culture positive for Salmonella Typhi 47 (90.4%) and Salmonella Paratyphi 5 (9.6%), 4 (7.7%) were sensitive to first-line (Non-resistant), 11 (21.2%) MDR and 37 (71.2%) patient were XDR. One case was resistant to azithromycin. Nausea, vomiting or, abdominal pain was present in 12 (23%), abdominal distension present in 9 (17.3%), abdominal tenderness in 8 (15.4%), hepatomegaly in 10 (19.2%) and, splenomegaly in 22 (42.3%).There were ultrasound abnormalities in 58% of patients and GI complications in 19% of patients. No significant difference was found in clinical findings and complications between resistant and non-resistant cases. Only 23-27% of patients were aware of typhoid prevention and vaccination measures.

Conclusions: The increasing prevalence of resistance and higher degree of complications seen in typhoid fever raises the concern further about prevention and effective infection management in the community as well as clinical settings. Moreover, judicial use of antibiotics is much needed in developing countries like Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.13539DOI Listing
April 2021

Globalization, financial development, and environmental sustainability: evidence from heterogenous income groups of Asia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 6;28(36):50430-50446. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

This study examines the effects of energy use, financial development, and globalization on carbon dioxide emissions for Asian countries comprising the panel data over the period 1990-2017. To account for cross-sectional dependence, Pesaran cross-sectional dependence test is used. The second-generation tests are used to determine the stationarity level of the variables. Furthermore, the Westerlund panel cointegration test confirms cointegration among the variables. For long-run association, fully modified ordinary least squares approach is used. The study also used Dumitrescu and Hurlin's (Econ Model 29:1450-1460, 2012) panel causality test to explore the causal relationship among the variables. The results suggest that financial development contributes to carbon emissions, whereas globalization helps to mitigate emissions. As financial development deteriorates environmental quality, therefore, the government should monitor the disbursement of loans for research and development, green financing, and efficient products that reduce resource consumption and improves environmental quality. Financial development should not compromise environmental quality and endanger sustainability. Such findings show that both renewable energy industries and financial development in the Asian economies are not meeting the maturity level in terms of leading to changes in environmental quality. Furthermore, Asian countries should promote globalization to support the inflow of green technologies to enhance environmental quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14152-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparison of Efficacy and Safety Profile of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors as Add-On Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Cureus 2021 Apr 3;13(4):e14268. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Medicine, Sheikh Zayed Medical College and Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, PAK.

Background Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that is escalating at an alarming rate worldwide. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are recent oral antihyperglycemic drugs (OADs) with a unique mechanism of action. Objectives This study aimed compared the efficacy and safety profiles of two SGLT-2 inhibitors, empagliflozin and dapagliflozin, in patients with type 2 diabetes as add-on therapy to traditional first-line OADs. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing empagliflozin and dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients were included in the study if they had type 2 diabetes with inadequate glycemic control, defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.5% to 11.0%, treated with conventional first-line OADs. Study participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A patients received oral empagliflozin, 10 to 25 mg, and Group B patients received oral dapagliflozin, 5 to 10 mg, for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the efficacy profile for each SGLT-2 agent in terms of body weight changes, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and HbA1c. The secondary endpoint was to determine the safety and tolerability profiles of each SGLT-2 agent. Results After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean body weight was reduced significantly in both groups from baseline (empagliflozin: -3.2 kg ± 5.5 kg, p = 0.003; dapagliflozin -2.1 kg ± 4.6 kg, p = 0.008). However, the mean body weight reduction between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.078). BMI was significantly reduced in both groups (empagliflozin from 28.5 ± 4.9 kg/m to 25.8 ± 5.2 kg/m, p = 0.002; dapagliflozin from 29 ± 5.2 kg/m to 27.7 ± 4.8 kg/m, p = 0.003). However, the patients who received empagliflozin experienced a significantly greater reduction in BMI than patients who received dapagliflozin (p = 0.007). The mean FBG was also reduced in both study groups (empagliflozin: -88.5 mg/dL ± 39.7 mg/dl, p = 0.003; dapagliflozin: -59.8 mg/dL ± 48.5 mg/dL; p = 0.007). However, the patients who received empagliflozin experienced a significantly greater reduction in mean FBG than patients who received dapagliflozin (p = 0.001). HbA1c was also significantly reduced in both groups (empagliflozin: -2.1% ± 1.1%, p = 0.002; dapagliflozin: -1.4% ± 0.9%; p = 0.004). However, patients who received empagliflozin experienced a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than patients who received dapagliflozin (p = 0.001). The tolerability profiles of both SGLT-2 agents were quite good, and no major adverse effects were reported in the study groups. Urinary infection occurred more often in patients who received dapagliflozin (9.3%) than in patients who received empagliflozin (4.5%; p = 0.002). Patients in the dapagliflozin group also had a higher incidence of genital infections (7.3%) than those in the empagliflozin group (3.8%; p = 0.001). Conclusion Both empagliflozin and dapagliflozin demonstrated excellent efficacy and safety profiles in our study. These agents should be considered as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes taking conventional first-line OADs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8090899PMC
April 2021

TMS-EEG: An emerging tool to study the neurophysiologic biomarkers of psychiatric disorders.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Apr 22;197:108574. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

The etiology of psychiatric disorders remains largely unknown. The exploration of the neurobiological mechanisms of mental illness helps improve diagnostic efficacy and develop new therapies. This review focuses on the application of concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) in various mental diseases, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance use disorder, and insomnia. First, we summarize the commonly used protocols and output measures of TMS-EEG; then, we review the literature exploring the alterations in neural patterns, particularly cortical excitability, plasticity, and connectivity alterations, and studies that predict treatment responses and clinical states in mental disorders using TMS-EEG. Finally, we discuss the potential mechanisms underlying TMS-EEG in establishing biomarkers for psychiatric disorders and future research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108574DOI Listing
April 2021

Molecular mechanisms of plant tolerance to heat stress: current landscape and future perspectives.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

Key Message: We summarize recent studies focusing on the molecular basis of plant heat stress response (HSR), how HSR leads to thermotolerance, and promote plant adaptation to recurring heat stress events. The global crop productivity is facing unprecedented threats due to climate change as high temperature negatively influences plant growth and metabolism. Owing to their sessile nature, plants have developed complex signaling networks which enable them to perceive changes in ambient temperature. This in turn activates a suite of molecular changes that promote plant survival and reproduction under adverse conditions. Deciphering these mechanisms is an important task, as this could facilitate development of molecular markers, which could be ultimately used to breed thermotolerant crop cultivars. In current article, we summarize mechanisms involve in plant heat stress acclimation with special emphasis on advances related to heat stress perception, heat-induced signaling, heat stress-responsive gene expression and thermomemory that promote plant adaptation to short- and long-term-recurring heat-stress events. In the end, we will discuss impact of emerging technologies that could facilitate the development of heat stress-tolerant crop cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02696-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Tuning the optoelectronic properties of oligothienyl silane derivatives and their photovoltaic properties.

J Mol Graph Model 2021 07 6;106:107918. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan; Punjab Bio-energy Institute, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Four new Donor-Acceptor (D-A) type oligothiophenes based structures (C1-C4) were designed by substituting different acceptors moieties around tetrahedral silicon core to simulate their photovoltaic properties. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) quantum analysis were carried out to reconnoiter various parameters of solar cells. A comparative analysis has conducted between designed structures and reference molecule R to conclude our simulated results. Among all the structures, C2 has displayed highest absorption values (380 nm) with red shift and minimum band gap (Δ) of 4.11 eV in dichloromethane at DFT-CAM-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) using IEFPCM model. The C2 has also shown the lowest values of electron reorganization energy (λe = 0.018eV) and hole reorganization energy (λh = 0.015eV) therefore, could be suggested for use in organic solar cells because of its most noteworthy charge carrier mobilities. Again, C2 has the different trend in TDM graph because the electron density is present in the lower right part of core unit and in the acceptor moiety due to high electron affinities of end capped acceptor having cyanide groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmgm.2021.107918DOI Listing
July 2021

Isolation of Several Indigenous Microalgae from Kallar Kahar Lake, Chakwal Pakistan.

Iran J Biotechnol 2020 Jul 1;18(3):e2214. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Kallar Kahar lake, Punjab, Pakistan is a rich source of phytoplankton which can be used for biofuel production.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the presence of different microalgae species present in this lake and their possible utilization for bioenergy production.

Materials And Methods: The crude culture was examined under microscope. Isolation of the identified species was carried out by using serial dilution and colony picking methods. Isolated strains were evaluated by investigating their biomass productivity, salinity resistance and auto-flocculation ability.

Results: Four different microalgae species () were identified in the crude sample. The experimental results indicated that, among the four isolated strains, the species showed highest biomass productivity (4.2 gL) and showed comparatively higher salt resistance. also showed great potential of auto-flocculation as around 70 % of its cells sediment within 5 h without addition of any external flocculating agent. The lipid content in the isolated strains has also been carried out using Soxhlet extraction.

Conclusion: Four different microalgae strains have been found in Kallar Kahar lake that reflected good biomass productivity and are capable of auto-flocculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30498/IJB.2020.122025.2214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035414PMC
July 2020

Short-Term Effect of Inhaled Salbutamol on Heart Rate in Healthy Volunteers.

Cureus 2021 Mar 3;13(3):e13672. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Medicine, Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore, PAK.

Objective Tachycardia is a potential side effect of salbutamol inhalation. We aimed to study the short-term effect of salbutamol nebulization on the heart rate of healthy volunteers. Material and methods A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted with 30 healthy volunteers divided into two groups of 15 each. One group was nebulized with salbutamol (2.5 mg/2 ml dilution) while the other group was given normal saline (2 ml). Each arm underwent administration of the opposite drug the following week. Baseline readings of heart rate and blood pressure were taken at zero (T0), seven (T7), 15 (T15), and 30 (T30) minutes. Results Thirty volunteers between the ages of 20 and 25 years were studied. The mean heart rate value was higher for nebulized salbutamol at each point as compared to saline. When nebulized with salbutamol, the heart rate had a significant rise (p= < 0.00001) at 15 minutes as compared to saline nebulization. Conclusion Salbutamol nebulization, even at a low dose, can lead to a significant increase in heart rate when compared to nebulization with normal saline in healthy individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018588PMC
March 2021

Green Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles from Stem for Investigating Bioactivities.

Molecules 2021 Mar 11;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

Green synthesis of nanomaterials is advancing due to its ease of synthesis, inexpensiveness, nontoxicity and renewability. In the present study, an eco-friendly biogenic method was developed for the green synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) using phytochemically rich stem (BBS) extract. The BBS extract was rich in phenolics, flavonoids and berberine. These phytochemicals successfully reduced and stabilised the NiNO (green) into NiONPs (greenish-gray). BBS-NiONPs were confirmed by using UV-visible spectroscopy (peak at 305 nm), X-ray diffraction (size of 31.44 nm), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (identified -OH group and Ni-O formation), energy dispersive spectroscopy (showed specified elemental nature) and scanning electron microscopy (showed rhombohedral agglomerated shape). BBS-NiONPs were exposed to multiple in vitro bioactivities to ascertain their beneficial biological applications. They exhibited strong antioxidant activities: total antioxidant capacity (64.77%) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (71.48%); and cytotoxic potential: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay with IC (10.40 µg/mL). BBS-NiONPs restricted the bacterial and fungal pathogenic growths at 1000, 500 and 100 µg/mL. Additionally, BBS-NiONPs showed stimulatory efficacy by enhancing seed germination rate and seedling growth at 31.25 and 62.5 µg/mL. In aggregate, BBS extract has a potent antioxidant activity which makes the green biosynthesis of NiONPs easy, economical and safe. The biochemical potential of BBS-NiONPs can be useful in various biomedical and agricultural fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999609PMC
March 2021
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