Publications by authors named "Javad Javidnia"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Protective efficacy by a novel multi-epitope vaccine, including MIC3, ROP8, and SAG1, against acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in BALB/c mice.

Microb Pathog 2021 Feb 3;153:104764. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Communicable Diseases Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite, which can cause a serious infectious disease in pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, the development of a polyvalent vaccine consisting of all stages of the parasite life cycle using the epitopes from tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites is likely to be required for complete protective immunity. In this study, we designed protein vaccine candidate based on the prediction of specific epitopes (i.e., B cell and T cell) from three Toxoplasma gondii antigens. The MRS protein (MIC3: 30-180, ROP8: 85-185, and SAG1: 85-235) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and purification was performed using a HisTrap HP column and then we evaluated immunogenicity and protective property in BALB/c mice. Seventy-two mice were randomly divided into six groups, including three vaccinations (i.e., MRS, MRS-Freund, and MRS-Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles (MRS-CaPNs)) and three control (i.e., Phosphate-buffered saline, Freund, and CaPNs) groups. All groups were immunized three times via subcutaneous injection within three-week intervals. In the vaccination groups, the BALB/c mice were injected with 20 μg of MRS protein for the first time and 10 μg of MRS for the next two times. Antibodies, cytokines, and splenocytes proliferation in the immunized mice were assayed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protective efficacy was analyzed by challenging the immunized mice with T. gondii of RH strain. Antibody, cytokine, and lymphocyte proliferation assays showed that the mice immunized with MRS induced stronger humoral and T helper type 1 cell-mediated immune responses, compared to the control mice. However, co-immunization with adjuvants (i.e., Freund and CaNPs) resulted in impaired immune responses. Effective protection against the parasite achieved an increase in survival time in the immunized mice, especially in the MRS-CaNPs group. The obtained results of the present study demonstrated that multi-epitope protein vaccination, MRS, is a potential strategy against toxoplasmosis infection. In addition, the vaccine co-delivered with CaPNs could provide an important key for vaccine candidate to control T. gondii infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104764DOI Listing
February 2021

Familial Cases of Trichophyton benhamiae Infection Transmitted from a Guinea Pig in Iran.

Mycopathologia 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Trichophyton benhamiae is a zoophilic dermatophyte mainly transmitted to humans from guinea pigs. This zoophilic species can also cause dermatophytosis as reported by human contact with other animals, such as rabbit, cat, and fox. Here, we report the tinea faciei and tinea corporis cases: a 12-year-old girl and her 53-year-old father, with no history of immunodeficiency and underlying disease, caused by T. benhamiae transmitted from a guinea pig in Iran. Dermatological examination revealed several erythematous, round, scaly, and approximately 1-4-cm-diameter lesions in both patients. The girl had seven skin lesions, and her father presented two skin lesions on the front side of his neck. The girl's lesions had started 3 weeks before and her father's lesions appeared 7 days after the first clinical appearance of the lesions in the daughter. The girl had daily close contact with a guinea pig, while her father did not have any direct exposure to the pet. Examination of the lesions scraping with 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH 10%) revealed hyaline septate hyphae and arthroconidia. The dermatophyte isolated in culture was identified as T. benhamiae using molecular analysis. The patients were successfully treated using topical sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream twice a day for 4 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-020-00513-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Toxoplasmosis among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a population study based on the serological, molecular and epidemiological aspects.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2020 Oct 31. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Sari, Iran.

Background: Toxoplasmosis is highly prevalent in northern Iran and immunocompromised individuals are more susceptible to this infection. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, parasitism and genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii among patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy in northern Iran.

Methods: A total of 350 serum samples obtained from cancer patients were collected from laboratory centers in northern Iran. Immunodiagnosis and DNA detection were accomplished by ELISA and PCR. Thereafter, multiplex-nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for the genotyping of T. gondii.

Results: In general, out of 350 patients, 264 (75.4%) and 9 (2.57%) cases were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM, respectively. Moreover, 19 (5.43%) samples contained T. gondii DNA. From 19 positive samples, 10 high-quality samples with sharp and non-smear bands were selected to determine the genotypes of T. gondii. Accordingly, the samples were classified as genotype #1 (type II clonal; n=4, 40%), genotype #2 (type III clonal; n=3, 30%), genotype #10 (type I clonal; n=2, 20%) and genotype #27 (type I variant; n=1, 10%).

Conclusions: As evidenced by the results, due to the high prevalence of T. gondii, cancer patients in northern Iran are at serious risk of severe toxoplasmosis and its complications. Therefore, oncologists need to regard this critical health problem as a matter requiring urgent attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa112DOI Listing
October 2020

In vitro activities of antifungal drugs against a large collection of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from wrestlers.

Mycoses 2020 Dec 13;63(12):1321-1330. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Invasive Fungi Research Center, Communicable Diseases Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Trichophyton tonsurans is the most common agent causing tinea gladiatorum in wrestlers, and limited data on susceptibility profiles of Trichophyton tonsurans are available.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the in vitro activity of the common antifungal drug against a large collection of T tonsurans.

Materials/methods: The in vitro activities to eight common antifungal drugs (sertaconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, fluconazole, butenafine, tolnaftate, terbinafine and griseofulvin) against 128 clinical isolates of T tonsurans strains, obtained from wrestlers with dermatophytosis, were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 broth microdilution document.

Results: The geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentration was the lowest for tolnaftate (0.022 µg/mL), followed by itraconazole (0.026 µg/mL), terbinafine (0.033 µg/mL), butenafine (0.088 µg/mL), griseofulvin (0.566 µg/mL), sertaconazole (2.875 µg/mL), clotrimazole (3.419 µg/mL) and fluconazole (12.540 µg/mL).

Conclusions: Evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes showed that tolnaftate and itraconazole were the most effective drugs against T tonsurans and fluconazole had the least effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13172DOI Listing
December 2020

Antifungal Activity of a Novel Triazole, Efinaconazole and Nine Comparators against 354 Molecularly Identified Aspergillus Isolates.

Mycopathologia 2020 Apr 28;185(2):357-365. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Management of superficial aspergillosis is a major challenge owing to the frequent relapses and treatment failure, which may pose a potential risk, thereby gradually developing resistant species. Therefore, necessitating the development of new antifungals with higher potency should be considered as alternative strategies for efficient management of infections. We aimed to investigate the susceptibility of Aspergillus isolates toward a novel triazole, efinaconazole, in comparison with various classes of antifungal drugs. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Efinaconazole exhibited poor activity against mutant A. fumigatus strains, A. niger sensu stricto, and A. tubingensis with GM MIC values of 3.62, 1.62, and 2 μg/ml, respectively; however, surprisingly, it efficiently inhibited the growth of A. terreus sensu stricto, followed by wild-type A. fumigatus and A. flavus with GM MIC values of 0.29, 0.42, and 0.52 μg/ml, respectively. Presumably, efinaconazole is inefficient in aspergillosis treatment due to the low susceptibility of A. niger sensu stricto, A. tubingensis, and mutant A. fumigatus; however, it may be effective in treating superficial aspergillosis caused by wild-type A. fumigatus, A. terreus sensu stricto, and A. flavus. Further studies are needed to determine how these findings may translate into in vivo efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-020-00434-zDOI Listing
April 2020

The global serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in felids during the last five decades (1967-2017): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Feb 17;13(1):82. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Felids (domestic and wild cats) are important in the epidemiology of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of T. gondii in species of the family Felidae.

Methods: We searched seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Proquest and Web of Science) for studies reporting seroprevalence of T. gondii in felids from 1967 to 31 December 2017. A total of 217 published papers, containing 223 datasets were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, comprised 59,517 domestic and 2733 wild cats from 1967 to 2017.

Results: The pooled global T. gondii seroprevalence was estimated to be 35% (95% CI: 32-38%) and 59% (95% CI: 56-63%) in domestic cats and wild felids, respectively, using random effects model. The seroprevalence was higher in Australia and Africa where the T. gondii seropositivity in domestic cats was 52% (95% CI: 15-89%) and 51% (95% CI: 20-81%), respectively. The lowest seroprevalence was estimated in Asia 27% (95% CI: 24-30%). The seroprevalence values for T. gondii in wild felids were 74% (95% CI: 62-83%) in Africa, 67% (95% CI: 23-111%) in Asia, 67% (95% CI: 58-75%) in Europe and 66% (95% CI: 41-91%) in South America.

Conclusions: Our study provides the global prevalence of T. gondii in species of the family Felidae and is a source of information to aid public health workers in developing prevention plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-3954-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026947PMC
February 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

A systematic review of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes and feline: Geographical distribution trends.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jan 17;67(1):46-64. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is well known for its ability to virtually infect all warm-blooded vertebrates. Although felines as the definitive hosts have an important role in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis, there are few descriptions of genetic diversity in the world. The present review study aimed to describe the population structure of T. gondii in these animal species. For the purpose of the study, five English language databases reporting data on T. gondii genotyping in cats were searched within March-June 2019. This study is registered on the site of CAMARADES-NC3Rs (15-Jan-2018). The searching process resulted in the inclusion of 50 reports published from 1992 to June 2019. The data revealed that 47,390 samples were genotyped into 662 T. gondii DNA/isolates. Globally, atypical genotypes were predominant (47.7%, n = 316); in addition, Type II clonal strains were the second most common genotype (37%, n = 244). These results suggested an epidemic population structure in America and Asia, and a clonal population structure in Europe and Africa. Genotype #3 was found to be dominant in Africa, Europe and Oceania continents. Furthermore, genotypes #9 and #5 were prevalent in Asia and America, respectively. Additionally, genotypes #2, #3, #5 and #20 were common genotypes in domestic and sylvatic cycles from family Felidae. Collectively, this systematic review indicated a large degree of genetic diversity and circulation of mouse-virulent T. gondii strains in this family. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the population structure of T. gondii in these animal species and determine the significance of their features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13340DOI Listing
January 2020

In vitro activities of 15 antifungal drugs against a large collection of clinical isolates of Microsporum canis.

Mycoses 2019 Nov 1;62(11):1069-1078. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Invasive Fungi Research Center, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.

Background: Microsporum canis is a zoophilic species, found to be the most frequently isolated species in animals. M. canis causes sporadic outbreaks of infections in humans, such as the one that occurred in Canada, where more than 1000 human cases were detected over an 8-year period. Despite the medical importance of M. canis infections, there are limited in vitro data on the antifungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs, including new generation triazoles and imidazoles.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to comprehensively evaluate the in vitro activity of new azoles and comparator drugs against a large panel of M. canis isolates using a microdilution assay.

Methods: The in vitro susceptibility to novel triazoles and imidazoles was compared to that of other antifungal drugs using a large collection of M. canis clinical isolates (n = 208) obtained from patients and animals with dermatophytosis in Iran, France and Turkey.

Results: All isolates exhibited high susceptibility to the majority of the tested antifungal agents. However, luliconazole, lanoconazole and efinaconazole, as well as econazole, demonstrated superior activity against all strains in comparis on with the other drugs.

Conclusion: FDA-approved antifungal drugs, that is luliconazole, efinaconazole and lanoconazole, showed the highest antifungal activity and should be promising candidates for the treatment of dermatophytosis caused by M canis. However, their therapeutic effectiveness remains to be determined in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.12986DOI Listing
November 2019

Emerging Candida species isolated from renal transplant recipients: Species distribution and susceptibility profiles.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 18;125:240-245. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Candidiasis is a major challenge among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Fluconazole is the most commonly used agent for Candida infections. However, frequent relapse and treatment failure are still reported among patients affected with this infection. In the present study, Candida species obtained from RTRs were characterized based on conventional and molecular assays. Furthermore, the antifungal susceptibility profiles of these species were determined. This study was conducted on a total of 126 RTRs within 2012-2016. The patients were categorized according to the referenced diagnostic criteria. The identification of Candida species was accomplished based on conventional examination, assimilation profile test, and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin were determined based on the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The patients with Candida infection were diagnosed with urinary tract candidiasis (n = 17), peritonitis (n = 8), intra-abdominal candidiasis (n = 6), candidemia (n = 4), hepatosplenic candidiasis (n = 3), and Candida pneumonia (n = 3). A total of 41 Candida isolates, including C. albicans (n = 18), C. famata (n = 8), C. kefyr (n = 4), C. tropicalis (n = 4), C. parapsilosis (n = 3), C. glabrata (n = 2), and C. lusitaniae (n = 2), were isolated from 32.5% (41/126) renal transplant recipients. Fluconazole-resistance was observed in seven isolates, entailing C. albicans (n = 6) and C. tropicalis (n = 1). Fluconazole MIC for C. lusitaniae isolates was above the epidemiologic cut-off value (4-16 μg/ml). Furthermore, MIC range values of fluconazole against C. famata and C. kefyr were obtained as 4-32 μg/ml and 4-8 μg/ml, respectively. Posaconazole exhibited potent activity against Candida isolates, followed by caspofungin. The identification of Candida species, together with susceptibility testing, provides important data about the geographic trends of the fluconazole-resistance profiles of Candida species. It is necessary to maintain a consistent method for the implementation of early diagnosis and adoption of treatment regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.09.026DOI Listing
December 2018

Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Rhinocladiella mackenziei in Persian Gulf region: A case and review.

Mycoses 2018 Apr 3;61(4):261-265. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology/Invasive Fungi Research Center, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is frequently a fatal disease caused by truly neurotropic dematiaceous fungi. Although rare, this infection occurs especially among immunocompetent patients, and the clinical symptoms are often misdiagnosed as a cerebral tumour or bacterial brain abscess. The appropriate diagnosis and therapy of cerebral infections by melanized fungi are very challenging if they are caused by mysterious fungi with unknown ecological niche. We reported the second case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Rhinocladiella mackenziei in Iran and the first culture-confirmed case. In this report, the differential diagnosis and histopathological findings are discussed and a review of the literature is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.12734DOI Listing
April 2018