Publications by authors named "Jatupol Kampuansai"

31 Publications

Genetic diversity in a unique population of dugong (Dugong dugon) along the sea coasts of Thailand.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11624. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Animal Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand.

Dugong (Dugong dugon) populations have been shrinking globally, due in large part to habitat fragmentation, degradation and ocean pollution, and today are listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN. Thus, determining genetic diversity in the remaining populations is essential for conservation planning and protection. In this study, measures of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and mtDNA D-loop typing were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 118 dugongs from skin samples of deceased dugongs collected in Thai waters over a 29-year period. Thirteen ISSR primers revealed that dugongs from the Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand exhibited more genetic variation in the first 12 years of the study (1990-2002) compared to the last decade (2009-2019). Dugongs from the Andaman Sea, Trang, Satun and some areas of Krabi province exhibited greater diversity compared to other coastal regions of Thailand. Eleven haplotypes were identified, and when compared to other parts of the world (235 sequences obtained from NCBI), five clades were apparent from a total 353 sequences. Moreover, dugongs from the Andaman Sea were genetically distinct, with a separate haplotype belonging to two clades found only in Thai waters that separated from other groups around 1.2 million years ago. Genetic diversity of dugongs in present times was less than that of past decades, likely due to increased population fragmentation. Because dugongs are difficult to keep and breed in captivity, improved in situ conservation actions are needed to sustain genetically healthy wild populations, and in particular, the specific genetic group found only in the Andaman Sea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90947-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172547PMC
June 2021

Reconstructing the human genetic history of mainland Southeast Asia: insights from genome-wide data from Thailand and Laos.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, 04103, Germany.

Thailand and Laos, located in the center of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), harbor diverse ethnolinguistic groups encompassing all five language families of MSEA: Tai-Kadai (TK), Austroasiatic (AA), Sino-Tibetan (ST), Hmong-Mien (HM) and Austronesian (AN). Previous genetic studies of Thai/Lao populations have focused almost exclusively on uniparental markers and there is a paucity of genome-wide studies. We therefore generated genome-wide SNP data for 33 ethnolinguistic groups, belonging to the five MSEA language families from Thailand and Laos, and analysed these together with data from modern Asian populations and SEA ancient samples. Overall, we find genetic structure according to language family, albeit with heterogeneity in the AA-, HM- and ST-speaking groups, and in the hill tribes, that reflects both population interactions and genetic drift. For the TK speaking groups, we find localized genetic structure that is driven by different levels of interaction with other groups in the same geographic region. Several Thai groups exhibit admixture from South Asia, which we date to ∼600-1000 years ago, corresponding to a time of intensive international trade networks that had a major cultural impact on Thailand. An AN group from Southern Thailand shows both South Asian admixture as well as overall affinities with AA-speaking groups in the region, suggesting an impact of cultural diffusion. Overall, we provide the first detailed insights into the genetic profiles of Thai/Lao ethnolinguistic groups, which should be helpful for reconstructing human genetic history in MSEA and selecting populations for participation in ongoing whole genome sequence and biomedical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab124DOI Listing
April 2021

Autosomal Microsatellite Investigation Reveals Multiple Genetic Components of the Highlanders from Thailand.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

The hill tribes of northern Thailand comprise nine officially recognized groups: the Austroasiatic-speaking (AA) Khmu, Htin and Lawa; the Hmong-Mien-speaking (HM) IuMien and Hmong; and the Sino-Tibetan-speaking (ST) Akha, Karen, Lahu and Lisu. Except the Lawa, the rest of the hill tribes migrated into their present habitats only very recently. The Thai hill tribes were of much interest to research groups focusing on study of cultural and genetic variation because of their unique languages and cultures. So far, there have been several genetic studies of the Thai hill tribes. However, complete forensic microsatellite database of the Thai hill tribes is still lacking. To construct such database, we newly generated 654 genotypes of 15 microsatellites commonly used in forensic investigation that belong to all the nine hill tribes and also non-hill tribe highlanders from northern Thailand. We also combined 329 genotypes from previous studies of northern Thai populations bringing to a total of 983 genotypes, which were then subjected to genetic structure and population relationships analyses. Our overall results indicated homogenous genetic structure within the HM- and Tai-Kadai (TK)-speaking groups, large genetic divergence of the HM-speaking Hmong but not IuMien from the other Thai groups, and genetic heterogeneity within the ST- and AA-speaking groups, reflecting different population interactions and admixtures. In addition to establishing genetic relationships within and among these populations, our finding, which provides a more complete picture of the forensic microsatellite database of the multiple Thai highland dwellers, would not only serve to expand and strengthen forensic investigation in Thailand, but would also benefit its neighboring countries of Laos and Myanmar, from which many of the Thai hill tribes originated and where large populations of these ethnic groups still reside.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12030383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000784PMC
March 2021

Prevalence and molecular characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Lue ethnic group of northern Thailand.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 3;11(1):2956. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common enzyme disorders. Prevalence and variant distribution of G6PD deficiency can vary in different regions and among differing ethnic groups. To reveal the G6PD frequency and molecular characterization among the Lue ethnic group of northern Thailand, blood samples of 296 unrelated individuals collecting from 6 Lue villages were analyzed. The observed G6PD enzyme activity ranged from 0.11 to 20.60 U/g Hb. Overall, 13.51% (40/296) of the individuals were identified as having G6PD deficiency status. The prevalence in males was 14.28% (20/140), while that of females was 12.82% (20/156). The most common G6PD variants in the Lue were the Kaiping 1388G > A (5.40%) and Canton 1376G > T (6.42%) types. Observed prevalence and variant types of the G6PD gene in the Lue population are similar to that of the Tai-Kadai speaking ethnic groups in southern China, which is consistent with their historically close line of ancestry. However, the founder effect that occurred during the Lue's transboundary migration from China to Thailand showed its impact upon different patterns of G6PD distribution among each Lue village.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82477-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858617PMC
February 2021

Harboyan syndrome: novel SLC4A11 mutation, clinical manifestations, and outcome of corneal transplantation.

J Hum Genet 2021 Feb 3;66(2):193-203. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Division of Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Harboyan syndrome or corneal dystrophy and progressive deafness (MIM #217400) is characterized by congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and progressive, sensorineural hearing loss. Mutations in SLC4A11 are responsible for this rare genetic syndrome. Eight patients from seven unrelated families affected with Harboyan Syndrome with mean follow-up of 12.0 ± 0.9 years were thoroughly investigated for the ocular, hearing, and kidney function abnormalities and the outcome of penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Mutation analysis of SLC4A11 was performed. All patients presented with bilateral cloudy corneas since birth. Sensorineural hearing loss was detected in all patients. Seven patients (11 eyes) underwent PK with the median age at surgery of 10.1 years (7.1-22.9). The overall corneal graft survival rate after primary PK was 72.7% (8/11 eyes). The mean graft survival time was 94.6 months (95% CI 83.1-126.0). All patients had unremarkable kidney function. The c.2264G>A (p.Arg755Gln) mutation in SCL4A11 was detected in most patients (87.5%). All unrelated Karen tribe patients had p.Arg755Gln mutation, suggestive of founder effect. We found the allele frequency of this variant in the Karen population to be 0.01. The c.2263C>T (p.Arg755Trp) mutation was found in one patient with mild phenotype and the novel truncating protein mutation c.2127delG (p.Gly710fsx*25) in SCL4A11 was identified in two Thai sisters. Visual outcome and graft survival after PK were satisfactory. Our study shows that all studied patients with SLC4A11 mutations had CHED and sensorineural hearing loss, and SLC4A11 mutations were not related to the onset and severity of hearing loss or outcome of keratoplasty.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00834-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Cultural variation impacts paternal and maternal genetic lineages of the Hmong-Mien and Sino-Tibetan groups from Thailand.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 11 20;28(11):1563-1579. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

The Hmong-Mien (HM) and Sino-Tibetan (ST) speaking groups are known as hill tribes in Thailand; they were the subject of the first studies to show an impact of patrilocality vs. matrilocality on patterns of mitochondrial (mt) DNA vs. male-specific portion of the Y chromosome (MSY) variation. However, HM and ST groups have not been studied in as much detail as other Thai groups; here we report and analyze 234 partial MSY sequences (∼2.3 mB) and 416 complete mtDNA sequences from 14 populations that, when combined with our previous published data, provides the largest dataset yet for the hill tribes. We find a striking difference between Hmong and IuMien (Mien-speaking) groups: the Hmong are genetically different from both the IuMien and all other Thai groups, whereas the IuMien are genetically more similar to other linguistic groups than to the Hmong. In general, we find less of an impact of patrilocality vs. matrilocality on patterns of mtDNA vs. MSY variation than previous studies. However, there is a dramatic difference in the frequency of MSY and mtDNA lineages of Northeast Asian (NEA) origin vs. Southeast Asian (SEA) origin in HM vs. ST groups: HM groups have high frequencies of NEA MSY lineages but lower frequencies of NEA mtDNA lineages, while ST groups show the opposite. A potential explanation is that the ancestors of Thai HM groups were patrilocal, while the ancestors of Thai ST groups were matrilocal. Overall, these results attest to the impact of cultural practices on patterns of mtDNA vs. MSY variation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0693-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576213PMC
November 2020

Close genetic relationship between central Thai and Mon people in Thailand revealed by autosomal microsatellites.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Mar 13;135(2):445-448. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Mittapap Road, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Central Thailand is home to diverse populations with the central Thai constituting the major group, while the Mon, who migrated from southern Myanmar, are sparsely distributed within the region. A total of 338 individuals of eight central Thai (246 samples) and three Mon populations (92 samples) were newly genotyped. When combined with our previously published Mon data, this provides a total of 139 Mon samples. We found genetic similarity between the central Thai and Mon and weak sub-structuring among Thais from central, northern, and northeastern Thailand. The forensic parameter results show high discrimination values which are appropriate for forensic personal identification and paternity testing in both the central Thai and Mon; the probabilities of excluding paternity are 0.999999112 and 0.999999031, respectively, and the combined discrimination power is 0.9999999999999999999999 in both groups. This regional allelic frequency on forensic microsatellites may serve as a useful reference for further forensic investigations in both Thailand and Myanmar.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-020-02290-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Paternal genetic history of the Yong population in northern Thailand revealed by Y-chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups.

Mol Genet Genomics 2020 May 13;295(3):579-589. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Reference Sample Analysis, Institute of Forensic Genetics, Hungarian Institute for Forensic Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.

We have determined the distribution of Y-chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups in the Yong population, one of the largest and well-known ethnic groups that began migrating southward from China to Thailand centuries ago. Their unique mass migration pattern provided great opportunities for researchers to study the genetic links of the transboundary migration movements among the peoples of China, Myanmar and Thailand. We analysed relevant male-specific markers, such as Y-STRs and Y-SNPs, and the distribution of 23 Y-STRs of 111 Yong individuals and 116 nearby ethnic groups including the Shan, Northern Thai, Lawa, Lua, Skaw, Pwo and Padong groups. We found that the general haplogroup distribution values were similar among different populations; however, the haplogroups O1b-M268 and O2-M112 constituted the vast majority of these values. In contrast with previous maternal lineage studies, the paternal lineage of the Yong did not relate to the Xishuangbanna Dai people, who represent their historically documented ancestors. However, they did display a close genetic affinity to other prehistoric Tai-Kadai speaking groups in China such as the Zhuang and Bouyei. Low degrees of genetic admixture within the populations who belonged to the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan linguistic families were observed in the gene pool of the Yong populations. Resettlement in northern Thailand in the early part of the nineteenth century AD, by way of mass migration trend, was able to preserve the Yong's ancestral genetic background in terms of the way they had previously lived in China and Myanmar. Our study has revealed similar genetic structures among ethnic populations in northern Thailand and southern China, and has identified and emphasized an ancient Tai-Kadai patrilineal ancestry line in the Yong ethnic group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-019-01644-xDOI Listing
May 2020

Genetic assessment of three Fagaceae species in forest restoration trials.

PeerJ 2019 28;7:e6958. Epub 2019 May 28.

Key Laboratory for Forest Resource Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China (Ministry of Education), Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China.

Restoring isolated patches of forest ecosystems in degraded landscapes could potentially lead to genetic loss and inbreeding. Therefore, this study determined the occurrence of genetic diversity among the tree species , , and all of which were proven previously to be effective native tree species in the restoration of upland evergreen forests in northern Thailand when using the seed sample collection method. We tested our hypothesis as to whether the genetic diversity of a plant population that had been planted from the seeds of 4-6 adult trees would be lower and whether incidences of fixation index (Fis) would be higher among the second generation seedlings of these three Fagaceae species in isolated forest restoration trial plots. Microsatellite primers were selected from the entire genome sequence of . and the genetic sequences of , , and were analyzed. Our results indicated a high degree of genetic diversity (He) in (0.736) and . (0.481); however, a low level of genetic diversity was observed in . (0.281) within the restored forest. The fixation index for the second generation of . and . in the restored forest showed evidence of inbreeding. These results imply the efficiency of the seed sample collection method and verify that it does not reduce the level of genetic diversity in . and . . However, it may result in incidences of an inbreeding phenomena, suggesting the need to increase the number of adult trees used at the seed collection stage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544010PMC
May 2019

Contrasting Paternal and Maternal Genetic Histories of Thai and Lao Populations.

Mol Biol Evol 2019 07;36(7):1490-1506

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

The human demographic history of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) has not been well studied; in particular, there have been very few sequence-based studies of variation in the male-specific portions of the Y chromosome (MSY). Here, we report new MSY sequences of ∼2.3 mB from 914 males and combine these with previous data for a total of 928 MSY sequences belonging to 59 populations from Thailand and Laos who speak languages belonging to three major Mainland Southeast Asia families: Austroasiatic, Tai-Kadai, and Sino-Tibetan. Among the 92 MSY haplogroups, two main MSY lineages (O1b1a1a* [O-M95*] and O2a* [O-M324*]) contribute substantially to the paternal genetic makeup of Thailand and Laos. We also analyze complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequences published previously from the same groups and find contrasting pattern of male and female genetic variation and demographic expansions, especially for the hill tribes, Mon, and some major Thai groups. In particular, we detect an effect of postmarital residence pattern on genetic diversity in patrilocal versus matrilocal groups. Additionally, both male and female demographic expansions were observed during the early Mesolithic (∼10 ka), with two later major male-specific expansions during the Neolithic period (∼4-5 ka) and the Bronze/Iron Age (∼2.0-2.5 ka). These two later expansions are characteristic of the modern Austroasiatic and Tai-Kadai groups, respectively, consistent with recent ancient DNA studies. We simulate MSY data based on three demographic models (continuous migration, demic diffusion, and cultural diffusion) of major Thai groups and find different results from mitochondrial DNA simulations, supporting contrasting male and female genetic histories.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6573475PMC
July 2019

WNT1-associated osteogenesis imperfecta with atrophic frontal lobes and arachnoid cysts.

J Hum Genet 2019 Apr 28;64(4):291-296. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

A rare form of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) caused by Wingless-type MMTV integration site family 1 (WNT1) mutations combines central nervous system (CNS) anomalies with the characteristic increased susceptibility to fractures. We report an additional case where arachnoid cysts extend the phenotype, and that also confirms the association of intellectual disabilities with asymmetric cerebellar hypoplasia here. Interestingly, if the cerebellum is normal in this disorder, intelligence is as well, analogous to an association with similar delays in a subset of patients with sporadic unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia. Those cases typically appear to represent vascular disruptions, and we suggest that most brain anomalies in WNT1-associated OI have vascular origins related to a role for WNT1 in CNS angiogenesis. This unusual combination of benign cerebellar findings with effects on higher functions in these two situations raises the possibility that WNT1 is involved in the pathogenesis of the associated sporadic cases as well. Finally, our patient reacted poorly to pamidronate, which appears ineffective with this form of OI, so that a lack of improvement is an indication for molecular testing that includes WNT1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0565-9DOI Listing
April 2019

Ancient genomes document multiple waves of migration in Southeast Asian prehistory.

Science 2018 07 17;361(6397):92-95. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from 18 Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100 to 1700 years ago). Early farmers from Man Bac in Vietnam exhibit a mixture of East Asian (southern Chinese agriculturalist) and deeply diverged eastern Eurasian (hunter-gatherer) ancestry characteristic of Austroasiatic speakers, with similar ancestry as far south as Indonesia providing evidence for an expansive initial spread of Austroasiatic languages. By the Bronze Age, in a parallel pattern to Europe, sites in Vietnam and Myanmar show close connections to present-day majority groups, reflecting substantial additional influxes of migrants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aat3188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476732PMC
July 2018

New insights from Thailand into the maternal genetic history of Mainland Southeast Asia.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 06 26;26(6):898-911. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Tai-Kadai (TK) is one of the major language families in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), with a concentration in the area of Thailand and Laos. Our previous study of 1234 mtDNA genome sequences supported a demic diffusion scenario in the spread of TK languages from southern China to Laos as well as northern and northeastern Thailand. Here we add an additional 560 mtDNA genomes from 22 groups, with a focus on the TK-speaking central Thai people and the Sino-Tibetan speaking Karen. We find extensive diversity, including 62 haplogroups not reported previously from this region. Demic diffusion is still a preferable scenario for central Thais, emphasizing the expansion of TK people through MSEA, although there is also some support for gene flow between central Thai and native Austroasiatic speaking Mon and Khmer. We also tested competing models concerning the genetic relationships of groups from the major MSEA languages, and found support for an ancestral relationship of TK and Austronesian-speaking groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0113-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974021PMC
June 2018

Contrasting maternal and paternal genetic variation of hunter-gatherer groups in Thailand.

Sci Rep 2018 01 24;8(1):1536. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, 04103, Germany.

The Maniq and Mlabri are the only recorded nomadic hunter-gatherer groups in Thailand. Here, we sequenced complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA genomes and ~2.364 Mbp of non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) to learn more about the origins of these two enigmatic populations. Both groups exhibited low genetic diversity compared to other Thai populations, and contrasting patterns of mtDNA and NRY diversity: there was greater mtDNA diversity in the Maniq than in the Mlabri, while the converse was true for the NRY. We found basal uniparental lineages in the Maniq, namely mtDNA haplogroups M21a, R21 and M17a, and NRY haplogroup K. Overall, the Maniq are genetically similar to other negrito groups in Southeast Asia. By contrast, the Mlabri haplogroups (B5a1b1 for mtDNA and O1b1a1a1b and O1b1a1a1b1a1 for the NRY) are common lineages in Southeast Asian non-negrito groups, and overall the Mlabri are genetically similar to their linguistic relatives (Htin and Khmu) and other groups from northeastern Thailand. In agreement with previous studies of the Mlabri, our results indicate that the Malbri do not directly descend from the indigenous negritos. Instead, they likely have a recent origin (within the past 1,000 years) by an extreme founder event (involving just one maternal and two paternal lineages) from an agricultural group, most likely the Htin or a closely-related group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20020-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5784115PMC
January 2018

Y chromosomal evidence on the origin of northern Thai people.

PLoS One 2017 24;12(7):e0181935. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

The Khon Mueang represent the major group of people present in today's northern Thailand. While linguistic and genetic data seem to support a shared ancestry between Khon Mueang and other Tai-Kadai speaking people, the possibility of an admixed origin with contribution from local Mon-Khmer population could not be ruled out. Previous studies conducted on northern Thai people did not provide a definitive answer and, in addition, have largely overlooked the distribution of paternal lineages in the area. In this work we aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of Y paternal lineages in northern Thailand and to explicitly model the origin of the Khon Mueang population. We obtained and analysed new Y chromosomal haplogroup data from more than 500 northern Thai individuals including Khon Mueang, Mon-Khmer and Tai-Kadai. We also explicitly simulated different demographic scenarios, developed to explain the Khon Mueang origin, employing an ABC simulation framework on both mitochondrial and Y microsatellites data. Our results highlighted a similar haplogroup composition of Khon Mueang and Tai-Kadai populations in northern Thailand, with shared high frequencies of haplogroups O-PK4, O-M117 and O-M111. Our ABC simulations also favoured a model in which the ancestors of modern Khon Mueang originated recently after a split from the other Tai-Kadai populations. Our different analyses concluded that the ancestors of Khon Mueang are likely to have originated from the same source of the other Tai-Kadai groups in southern China, with subsequent admixture events involving native Mon-Khmer speakers restricted to some specific populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0181935PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5524406PMC
September 2017

A comprehensive ethnic-based analysis of alpha thalassaemia allelle frequency in northern Thailand.

Sci Rep 2017 07 5;7(1):4690. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Center of Excellence in Bioresources for Agriculture, Industry and Medicine, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50300, Thailand.

Alpha (α)-thalassaemia is one of the most prevalent hereditary blood disorders, commonly affecting Southeast Asian people, with the highest incidence (30-40%) being seen in northern Thailand. However, this high incidence was estimated without consideration of the variations between ethnic populations and the geographical location of the populations. To address this issue, a total of 688 samples from 13 different northern Thai ethnic groups (30 villages) categorized into three linguistic groups were genotyped for deletional alpha-thalassaemia (-α, -α, -- and --) and/or non-deletional alpha-thalassaemia (α and α) via multiplex gap-PCR and dot-blot hybridization, respectively. Alpha(-α, -α, α and α) and alpha°-thalassaemia (-- and --) allele frequencies (with 95% Confidence Interval) were the highest in the Sino-Tibetan group [0.13 (0.08-0.18)] and the Tai-Kadai group [0.03 (0.02-0.05)], respectively. With regards to ethnicity, the varying allele frequency of α and α°-thalassaemia amongst a variety of ethnic groups was observed. The highest α-thalassaemia allele frequency was found in the Paluang [0.21 (0.10-0.37)] while α°-thalassaemia allele frequency was the highest in the Yuan [0.04 (0.01-0.10)]. These detailed results of alpha thalassaemia allele frequency and genetic diversity amongst the northern Thai ethnic groups demonstrate the need for ethnicity based thalassaemia prevention programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04957-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5498591PMC
July 2017

Endogamous marriage and the prevalence of hemoglobin E in ethnic groups of northern Thailand.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 Apr 7;10(4):414-417. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202, Thailand. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the impact of the endogamous marriage culture on the prevalence of the hemoglobin E (HbE) recessive variant.

Methods: The prevalence of the hemoglobin E (HbE) recessive variant was determined by dot-blot hybridization in 4 endogamous villages (1 Mlabri and 3 Htin ethnic groups) in comparison with 9 other nearby non-endogamous populations.

Results: Although the overall HbE prevalence in the population studied (8.44%, 33/391) was not significantly different from that of the general southeast Asian population, a high prevalence and individuals with homozygous HbE were observed in two villages, the Mlabri from Wiang Sa district and the Htin from Thung Chang district of Nan province (26.3% and 26.9%, respectively). The low HbE allelic frequency noticed in some endogamous populations suggests that not only endogamy but also other evolutionary forces, such as founder effect and HbE/β-thalassemia negative selection may have an effect on the distribution of the HbE trait.

Conclusion: Our study strongly documents that cultural impact has to be considered in the extensive prevalence studies for genetic disorders in the ethnic groups of northern Thailand.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.03.025DOI Listing
April 2017

Autosomal STR variations reveal genetic heterogeneity in the Mon-Khmer speaking group of Northern Thailand.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2017 03 28;27:92-99. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

DNA Laboratory, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Network of Foernsic Science Institutes, Ministry of Justice, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Since prehistoric times, Mon-Khmer speaking people have been recognized as indigenous ethnic groups living in northern Thailand. After the period of Tai colonization in the thirteenth century CE, the Mon-Khmer inhabitants were fragmented; some were expelled to rural areas while some were integrated into the mainstream of Tai society. Autosomal STR variations revealed that the present-day Mon-Khmer people could be genetically divided into two clusters. This finding appears to be consistent with the level of historical contact with the Tai majority ethnic groups. The cluster consisting of the Khamu, Lua, Paluang and Htin people, indicate that they have lived in remote areas and have had little historical contact with the Tai people. In this way, they appeared to have maintained aspects of their Mon-Khmer ancestral genetic bloodline but have genetically diverged from the Tai people. The cluster comprised of the Mon and Lawa people had an exclusively close relationship with the Tai people during the establishment of the prosperous Lan Na Kingdom. A fraction of the Tai genetic component investigated among the Mon people and some Lawa populations reflected the evidence of genetic admixture. However, some Lawa people, who have lived in the mountainous area of Mae Hong Son Province have exhibited a unique gene pool, which might have been shaped by the founder effect that occurred during their historical fragmentation. The rise of the genetic assimilation of the hill-tribe Karen people into the Mon-Khmer and the Tai gene pools indicated that different languages, cultures, and geographical distances have lost their power as barriers of inter-ethnic marriages in the present day.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2016.11.008DOI Listing
March 2017

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Thai and Lao populations indicate an ancient origin of Austroasiatic groups and demic diffusion in the spread of Tai-Kadai languages.

Hum Genet 2017 01 11;136(1):85-98. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

The Tai-Kadai (TK) language family is thought to have originated in southern China and spread to Thailand and Laos, but it is not clear if TK languages spread by demic diffusion (i.e., a migration of people from southern China) or by cultural diffusion, with native Austroasiatic (AA) speakers switching to TK languages. To address this and other questions, we obtained 1234 complete mtDNA genome sequences from 51 TK and AA groups from Thailand and Laos. We find high genetic heterogeneity across the region, with 212 different haplogroups, and significant genetic differentiation among different samples from the same ethnolinguistic group. TK groups are more genetically homogeneous than AA groups, with the latter exhibiting more ancient/basal mtDNA lineages, and showing more drift effects. Modeling of demic diffusion, cultural diffusion, and admixture scenarios consistently supports the spread of TK languages by demic diffusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-016-1742-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5214972PMC
January 2017

Effect of migration patterns on maternal genetic structure: a case of Tai-Kadai migration from China to Thailand.

J Hum Genet 2017 Feb 8;62(2):223-228. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

The migration of the Tai-Kadai speaking people from southern China to northern Thailand over the past hundreds of years has revealed numerous patterns that have likely been influenced by routes, purposes and periods of time. To study the effects of different migration patterns on Tai-Kadai maternal genetic structure, mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region I sequences from the Yong and the Lue people having well-documented histories in northern Thailand were analyzed. Although the Yong and Lue people were historically close relatives who shared Xishuangbanna Dai ancestors, significant genetic differences have been observed among them. The Yong people who have been known to practice mass migration have exhibited a closer genetic affinity to their Dai ancestors than have the Lue people. Genetic heterogeneity and a sudden reduced effective population size within the Lue group is likely a direct result of the circumstances of the founder effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2016.112DOI Listing
February 2017

The prevalence of alpha-thalassemia amongst Tai and Mon-Khmer ethnic groups residing in northern Thailand: A population-based study.

Hematology 2016 Sep 4;21(8):480-5. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

a Department of Biology, Faculty of Science , Chiang Mai University , Chiang Mai 50202 , Thailand.

Background: Northern Thailand is one of the highest α-thalassemia incidence areas where 30-40% of inhabitants have been reported to carry aberrant α-globin genes. However, all previous α-thalassemia prevalence surveys in northern Thailand have been undertaken without consideration of ethnicity. Here we report the prevalence of α-thalassemia genes in 4 Tai (Yong, Yuan, Khuen, Lue) and 4 Mon-Khmer speaking populations (Blang, Mon, Paluang, Lawa).

Methods: DNA extracted from 141 individuals was genotyped for 4 α-thalassemia deletional types (--(SEA), --(THAI), -α(3.7), -α(4.2)) using MultiplexGap-PCR analysis and 2 non-deletional types (Hb CS, Hb Pakse) using dot-blot hybridization technique.

Results And Discussion: A total of 33 α-thalassemia carrying individuals (23.4%) were detected of which 32 were heterozygotes and one was a homozygote. The most common α-thalassemia detected were -α(3.7) (17.7%) and --(SEA) (3.5%), while Hb CS was detected in 2.1% of cases. No occurrence of --(THAI), -α(4.2) and Hb Pakse was observed. The prevalence of α-thalassemia carriers varied between the different ethnic groups, with the Yuan having the highest prevalence of α-thalassemia carriers (50%) while the Lawa had the lowest prevalence (0%). The Paluang had a high prevalence (42%) of a single deletion type (-α(3.7)) possibly related to the endogamous marriage traditions of this ethnic group.

Conclusion: The extreme variation of α-thalassemia prevalence among the different ethnic groups highlights the significantly different genetic backgrounds found in these peoples, as consequences of dissimilar cultures. Our study suggests that ethnicity must be considered in any of the disease-causing allele prevalence surveys in this region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10245332.2016.1148374DOI Listing
September 2016

Hemoglobin E Prevalence among Ethnic Groups Residing in Malaria-Endemic Areas of Northern Thailand and Its Lack of Association with Plasmodium falciparum Invasion In Vitro.

PLoS One 2016 25;11(1):e0148079. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Hemoglobin E (HbE) is one of the most common hemoglobin variants caused by a mutation in the β-globin gene, and found at high frequencies in various Southeast Asian groups. We surveyed HbE prevalence among 8 ethnic groups residing in 5 villages selected for their high period malaria endemicity, and 5 for low endemicity in northern Thailand, in order to uncover factors which may affect genetic persistence of HbE in these groups. We found the overall HbE prevalence 6.7%, with differing frequencies from 0% in the Pwo Karen, the Lawa, and the Skaw Karen to 24% in the Mon. All HbE genes were heterozygous (AE). Differences in HbE prevalence among the studied ethnic groups indirectly documents that ancestries and evolutionary forces, such as drift and admixture, are the important factors in the persistence of HbE distribution in northern Thailand. Furthermore, the presence of HbE in groups of northern Thailand had no effect on the in vitro infectivity and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum, nor the production of hemozoin, a heme crystal produced by malaria parasites, when compared to normal red-blood-cell controls. Our data may contribute to a better understanding on the persistence of HbE among ethnic groups and its association with malaria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148079PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4726726PMC
July 2016

Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent.

Sci Rep 2015 Oct 20;5:15486. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.

Analyses of an Asian-specific Y-chromosome lineage (O2a1-M95)--the dominant paternal lineage in Austro-Asiatic (AA) speaking populations, who are found on both sides of the Bay of Bengal--led to two competing hypothesis of this group's geographic origin and migratory routes. One hypothesis posits the origin of the AA speakers in India and an eastward dispersal to Southeast Asia, while the other places an origin in Southeast Asia with westward dispersal to India. Here, we collected samples of AA-speaking populations from mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and southern China, and genotyped 16 Y-STRs of 343 males who belong to the O2a1-M95 lineage. Combining our samples with previous data, we analyzed both the Y-chromosome and mtDNA diversities. We generated a comprehensive picture of the O2a1-M95 lineage in Asia. We demonstrated that the O2a1-M95 lineage originated in the southern East Asia among the Daic-speaking populations ~20-40 thousand years ago and then dispersed southward to Southeast Asia after the Last Glacial Maximum before moving westward to the Indian subcontinent. This migration resulted in the current distribution of this Y-chromosome lineage in the AA-speaking populations. Further analysis of mtDNA diversity showed a different pattern, supporting a previously proposed sex-biased admixture of the AA-speaking populations in India.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep15486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4611482PMC
October 2015

An updated phylogeny of the human Y-chromosome lineage O2a-M95 with novel SNPs.

PLoS One 2014 27;9(6):e101020. Epub 2014 Jun 27.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Though the Y-chromosome O2a-M95 lineage is one of the major haplogroups present in eastern Asian populations, especially among Austro-Asiatic speaking populations from Southwestern China and mainland Southeast Asia, to date its phylogeny lacks structure due to only one downstream SNP marker (M88) assigned to the lineage. A recent array-capture-based Y chromosome sequencing of Asian samples has yielded a variety of novel SNPs purportedly belonging to the O2a-M95 lineage, but their phylogenetic positions have yet to be determined. In this study, we sampled 646 unrelated males from 22 Austro-Asiatic speaking populations from Cambodia, Thailand and Southwestern China, and genotyped 12 SNP makers among the sampled populations, including 10 of the newly reported markers. Among the 646 males, 343 belonged to the O2a-M95 lineage, confirming the supposed dominance of this Y chromosome lineage in Austro-Asiatic speaking populations. We further characterized the phylogeny of O2a-M95 by defining 5 sub-branches: O2a1*-M95, O2a1a-F789, O2a1b*-F1252, O2a1b1*-M88 and O2a1b1a -F761. This updated phylogeny not only improves the resolution of this lineage, but also allows for greater tracing of the prehistory of human populations in eastern Asia and the Pacific, which may yield novel insights into the patterns of language diversification and population movement in these regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101020PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074153PMC
October 2015

Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand.

BMC Genet 2011 Jun 15;12:56. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Background: The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to estimate the degree of genetic divergence between these major linguistic groups and their internal structure.

Results: A large fraction of genetic variation is observed within populations (about 80% and 90% for mtDNA and the Y-chromosome, respectively). The genetic divergence between populations is much higher in Mon-Khmer than in Tai speaking groups, especially at the paternally inherited markers. The two major linguistic groups are genetically distinct, but only for a marginal fraction (1 to 2%) of the total genetic variation. Genetic distances between populations correlate with their linguistic differences, whereas the geographic distance does not explain the genetic divergence pattern.

Conclusions: The Mon-Khmer speaking populations in northern Thailand exhibited the genetic divergence among each other and also when compared to Tai speaking peoples. The different drift effects and the post-marital residence patterns between the two linguistic groups are the explanation for a small but significant fraction of the genetic variation pattern within and between them.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-12-56DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3126721PMC
June 2011

Genetic affinity and admixture of northern Thai people along their migration route in northern Thailand: evidence from autosomal STR loci.

J Hum Genet 2011 Feb 25;56(2):130-7. Epub 2010 Nov 25.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

The Khon Mueang (KM) are the largest group of northern Thai people. Our previous mtDNA studies have suggested an admixture process among the KM with the earlier Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of this region. In this study, we evaluate genetic affinities and admixture among 10 KM populations in northern Thailand lying along the historical Yuan migration route, and 10 neighboring populations belonging to 7 additional ethnic groups: Lawa, Mon (Mon-Khmer-speaking groups), Shan, Yuan, Lue, Khuen and Yong (Tai-speaking groups) by analyzing 15 hypervariable autosomal short tandem repeat loci. The KM exhibited close relationships with neighboring populations, especially the Tai-speaking groups, reflecting an admixed origin of the KM. Admixture proportions were observed in all KM populations, which had a higher contribution from the parental Tai than the Mon-Khmer groups. Different admixture patterns of the KM along the migration route might indicate high heterogeneity among the KM. These patterns were not directly associated with geographical proximity, suggesting other factors, like variation in the timing of admixture with the existing populations may have had an important role. More genetic data from different marker systems solely transmitted through the male or female lineages are needed to complete the description of genetic admixture and population history of the KM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2010.135DOI Listing
February 2011

Genetic evidence supports linguistic affinity of Mlabri--a hunter-gatherer group in Thailand.

BMC Genet 2010 Mar 19;11:18. Epub 2010 Mar 19.

Chinese Academy of Sciences and Max Planck Society (CAS-MPG) Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

Background: The Mlabri are a group of nomadic hunter-gatherers inhabiting the rural highlands of Thailand. Little is known about the origins of the Mlabri and linguistic evidence suggests that the present-day Mlabri language most likely arose from Tin, a Khmuic language in the Austro-Asiatic language family. This study aims to examine whether the genetic affinity of the Mlabri is consistent with this linguistic relationship, and to further explore the origins of this enigmatic population.

Results: We conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation using more than fifty thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed in thirteen population samples from Thailand, including the Mlabri, Htin and neighboring populations of the Northern Highlands, speaking Austro-Asiatic, Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien languages. The Mlabri population showed higher LD and lower haplotype diversity when compared with its neighboring populations. Both model-free and Bayesian model-based clustering analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between the Mlabri and the Htin, a group speaking a Tin language.

Conclusion: Our results strongly suggested that the Mlabri share more recent common ancestry with the Htin. We thus provided, to our knowledge, the first genetic evidence that supports the linguistic affinity of Mlabri, and this association between linguistic and genetic classifications could reflect the same past population processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-11-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2858090PMC
March 2010

Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia.

Science 2009 Dec;326(5959):1541-5

Asia harbors substantial cultural and linguistic diversity, but the geographic structure of genetic variation across the continent remains enigmatic. Here we report a large-scale survey of autosomal variation from a broad geographic sample of Asian human populations. Our results show that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography. Most populations show relatedness within ethnic/linguistic groups, despite prevalent gene flow among populations. More than 90% of East Asian (EA) haplotypes could be found in either Southeast Asian (SEA) or Central-South Asian (CSA) populations and show clinal structure with haplotype diversity decreasing from south to north. Furthermore, 50% of EA haplotypes were found in SEA only and 5% were found in CSA only, indicating that SEA was a major geographic source of EA populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1177074DOI Listing
December 2009