Publications by authors named "Jasper H B de Groot"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Smells in Sustainable Environments: The Scented Silk Road to Spending.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:718279. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Social and Cultural Psychology, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Humanity's demand for ecological resources and services exceeds what earth can regenerate in that year, creating an urgent need for more sustainable behavior. Here, the focus is on a particular factor that so far has been overlooked in facilitating sustainable behavior, namely smell. The two-fold aim of this study was (i) to investigate whether ambient scent could enhance customers' subjective experience and spending behavior in a sustainable environment, and (ii) to elucidate the affective and cognitive pathways from scent to spending. To test this, a double-blind field experiment was designed where customers of a second-hand clothing store ( = 57) could face one of three conditions: fresh linen scent (pleasant and semantically priming "clean clothing" increasing the products' value), vanilla sandalwood scent (pleasant control odor), or regular store odor (odorless control). Buttressed by prior research, the fresh linen scent was expected to cause the strongest increase in spending behavior due to its positive semantic association with the product (i.e., clean clothing). The results indeed showed that fresh linen scent almost doubled consumer spending vs. the odorless control the pleasant control odor. Other factors potentially affecting consumer behavior (e.g., weekday, weather, odor awareness) were uncorrelated. Whereas a conceptually-driven mediation analysis showed that only fresh linen scent increased mood and evaluations of the store, staff, and products, these variables did not mediate the relation between scent and spending. An explorative structural equation model suggested cognitive priming to be mainly responsible for increasing consumers' spending in the fresh linen condition by enhancing the general store evaluation. Further support is needed to corroborate the indirect findings that specific scents can follow a "cold" semantic road and a "hot" affective road to spending. At minimum, consumers are no "zombies" that empty their pockets in the presence of whatever odor; the smell needs to have a meaningful link to the (sustainable) context at hand to influence consumer behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.718279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417554PMC
August 2021

Titrating the Smell of Fear: Initial Evidence for Dose-Invariant Behavioral, Physiological, and Neural Responses.

Psychol Sci 2021 04 22;32(4):558-572. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania.

It is well accepted that emotional intensity scales with stimulus strength. Here, we used physiological and neuroimaging techniques to ask whether human body odor-which can convey salient social information-also induces dose-dependent effects on behavior, physiology, and neural responses. To test this, we first collected sweat from 36 males classified as low-, medium-, and high-fear responders. Next, in a double-blind within-subjects functional-MRI design, 31 women were exposed to three doses of fear-associated human chemosignals and neutral sweat while viewing face morphs varying between expressions of fear and disgust. Behaviorally, we found that all doses of fear-sweat volatiles biased participants toward perceiving fear in ambiguous morphs, a dose-invariant effect generally repeated across physiological and neural measures. Bayesian dose-response analysis indicated moderate evidence for the null hypothesis (except for the left amygdala), tentatively suggesting that the human olfactory system engages an all-or-none mechanism for tagging fear above a minimal threshold.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797620970548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8726592PMC
April 2021

More Data, Please: Machine Learning to Advance the Multidisciplinary Science of Human Sociochemistry.

Front Psychol 2020 22;11:581701. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Communication constitutes the core of human life. A large portion of our everyday social interactions is non-verbal. Of the sensory modalities we use for non-verbal communication, olfaction (i.e., the sense of smell) is often considered the most enigmatic medium. Outside of our awareness, smells provide information about our identity, emotions, gender, mate compatibility, illness, and potentially more. Yet, body odors are astonishingly complex, with their composition being influenced by various factors. Is there a chemical basis of olfactory communication? Can we identify molecules predictive of psychological states and traits? We propose that answering these questions requires integrating two disciplines: psychology and chemistry. This new field, coined , faces new challenges emerging from the sheer amount of factors causing variability in of body odorants on the one hand (e.g., diet, hygiene, skin bacteria, hormones, genes), and variability in states and traits on the other (e.g., genes, culture, hormones, internal state, context). In past research, the reality of these high-dimensional data has been reduced in an attempt to isolate unidimensional factors in small, homogenous samples under tightly controlled settings. Here, we propose big data approaches to establish novel links between chemical and psychological data on a large scale from heterogeneous samples in ecologically valid settings. This approach would increase our grip on the way chemical signals non-verbally and subconsciously affect our social lives across contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.581701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642605PMC
October 2020

The best COVID-19 predictor is recent smell loss: a cross-sectional study.

medRxiv 2020 Jul 28. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Background: COVID-19 has heterogeneous manifestations, though one of the most common symptoms is a sudden loss of smell (anosmia or hyposmia). We investigated whether olfactory loss is a reliable predictor of COVID-19.

Methods: This preregistered, cross-sectional study used a crowdsourced questionnaire in 23 languages to assess symptoms in individuals self-reporting recent respiratory illness. We quantified changes in chemosensory abilities during the course of the respiratory illness using 0-100 visual analog scales (VAS) for participants reporting a positive (C19+; n=4148) or negative (C19-; n=546) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome. Logistic regression models identified singular and cumulative predictors of COVID-19 status and post-COVID-19 olfactory recovery.

Results: Both C19+ and C19- groups exhibited smell loss, but it was significantly larger in C19+ participants (mean±SD, C19+: -82.5±27.2 points; C19-: -59.8±37.7). Smell loss during illness was the best predictor of COVID-19 in both single and cumulative feature models (ROC AUC=0.72), with additional features providing no significant model improvement. VAS ratings of smell loss were more predictive than binary chemosensory yes/no-questions or other cardinal symptoms, such as fever or cough. Olfactory recovery within 40 days was reported for ~50% of participants and was best predicted by time since illness onset.

Conclusions: As smell loss is the best predictor of COVID-19, we developed the ODoR-19 tool, a 0-10 scale to screen for recent olfactory loss. Numeric ratings ≤2 indicate high odds of symptomatic COVID-19 (10
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.22.20157263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386529PMC
July 2020

More Than Smell-COVID-19 Is Associated With Severe Impairment of Smell, Taste, and Chemesthesis.

Chem Senses 2020 10;45(7):609-622

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University, Çiftlikköy Campus, Yenişehir, Mersin, Turkey.

Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments, such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, and generally lacked quantitative measurements. Here, we report the development, implementation, and initial results of a multilingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in 3 distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, and 8 others, aged 19-79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste, and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change ±100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (-79.7 ± 28.7, mean ± standard deviation), taste (-69.0 ± 32.6), and chemesthetic (-37.3 ± 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell but also affects taste and chemesthesis. The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and the lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus strain 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337664PMC
October 2020

Encoding fear intensity in human sweat.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 06 20;375(1800):20190271. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Humans, like other animals, have an excellent sense of smell that can serve social communication. Although ample research has shown that body odours can convey transient emotions like fear, these studies have exclusively treated emotions as , neglecting the question whether emotion can be expressed chemically. Using a unique combination of methods and techniques, we explored a dose-response function: Can fear intensity be in fear sweat? Specifically, fear experience was quantified using multivariate pattern classification (combining physiological data and subjective feelings with partial least-squares-discriminant analysis), whereas a photo-ionization detector quantified volatile molecules in sweat. Thirty-six male participants donated sweat while watching scary film clips and control (calming) film clips. Both traditional univariate and novel multivariate analysis (100% classification accuracy; : 0.76; : 0.79) underlined effective fear induction. Using their regression-weighted scores, participants were assigned significantly above chance (83% > 33%) to fear intensity categories (low-medium-high). Notably, the high fear group ( = 12) produced higher doses of armpit sweat, and greater doses of fear sweat emitted more volatile molecules ( = 3). This study brings new evidence to show that fear intensity is encoded in sweat (dose-response function), opening a field that examines intensity coding and decoding of other chemically communicable states/traits. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Olfactory communication in humans'.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7209933PMC
June 2020

From sterile labs to rich VR: Immersive multisensory context critical for odors to induce motivated cleaning behavior.

Behav Res Methods 2020 08;52(4):1657-1670

Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80140, 3508 TC, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Extending traditional research methods for studying the effects of odor on behavior, this study applied virtual reality (VR) to create a real-world, immersive context that was compared with a traditional sterile, non-immersive lab setting. Using precise odor administration with olfactometry, participants were exposed to three odors (cleaning-related pleasant smell, cleaning-unrelated pleasant smell: vanillin, and odorless air). Our aim was to tease apart whether participants' motivation to clean was driven by cleaning associations and/or odor pleasantness, and how context would accentuate these effects. The results indeed showed that, in VR only, the cleaning-related smell elicited faster and more energetic cleaning behavior on a custom-designed cleaning task, and faster and more voluminous olfactory sampling compared with controls (vanillin, air). These effects were not driven by odor valence, given the general absence of significant differences between the pleasant control odor vanillin and odorless air. In sum, combining rigorous experimental control with high ecological validity, this research shows the context dependency of (congruent) odors affecting motivated behavior in an immersive context only.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01341-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406481PMC
August 2020

The Subtle Signaling Strength of Smells: A Masked Odor Enhances Interpersonal Trust.

Front Psychol 2019 20;10:1890. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Most everyday smells, from lavender to body odors, are complex odorant mixtures that "host" particular compounds that guide (social) behavior and motivation (biomarkers). A key element of social behavior is interpersonal trust, and building on previous research showing that (i) lavender odor can enhance trust, and that (ii) certain compounds in body odor can reduce stress in mice and humans (called "social buffering"), we examined whether a grassy-smelling compound found in both body odors and lavender, hexanal, would enhance interpersonal trust. Notably, we applied odor masking to explore whether trust could be influenced by masked (i.e., undetectable) hexanal. In Study 1 (between-subjects), 90 females played a Trust Game while they either smelled hexanal (0.01% v/v), clove odor (eugenol: 10% v/v), or hexanal masked by clove odor (a mix of the former). As a sign of higher trust, participants gave more money to a trustee while exposed to masked hexanal (vs. the mask: eugenol). In Study 2 (within-subjects, double-blind), another sample of 35 females smelled the same three odors, while they rated the trustworthiness of a spectrum of faces that varied on trustworthiness. Controlling for subjective odor intensity and pleasantness and substantiating that masked hexanal could not be distinguished from the mask, faces were perceived as more trustworthy during exposure to masked hexanal (vs. the mask: eugenol). Whereas non-masked hexanal increased face trustworthiness ratings, these effects disappeared after controlling for the odor's subjective intensity and pleasantness. The combined results bring new evidence that trust can be enhanced implicitly via undetected smells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6710396PMC
August 2019

Beyond the west: Chemosignaling of emotions transcends ethno-cultural boundaries.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 12 7;98:177-185. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Social, Health, & Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Unilever R&D, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT, Vlaardingen, the Netherlands.

Accumulating evidence has pointed to a human capacity to communicate emotions to others via sweat. So far, these studies have relied exclusively on Western Caucasian samples. Our aim was to test whether the chemosensory communication of emotions extended beyond ethno-cultural boundaries, from Western Caucasians (N = 48) to East Asians (N = 48). To test this, we used well-validated materials and procedures, a double-blind design, a pre-registered analysis plan, and a combination of facial electromyography (EMG) and continuous flash suppression techniques to measure unconscious emotions. Our results show that East Asian (and Western Caucasian) female receivers exposed to the sweat (body odor) of fearful, happy, and neutral Western Caucasian male senders emulate these respective states based on body odors, outside of awareness. More specifically, East Asian (and Western Caucasian) receivers demonstrated significantly different patterns of facial muscle activity when being exposed to fear odor, happy odor, and neutral odor. Furthermore, fear odor decreased the suppression time of all faces on an interocular suppression task (IST), indicating subconscious vigilance, whereas happy odor increased the detection speed of happy faces. These combined findings suggest that the ability to perceive emotional signals from body odor may be a universal phenomenon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.08.005DOI Listing
December 2018

Fear Odor Facilitates the Detection of Fear Expressions Over Other Negative Expressions.

Chem Senses 2018 07;43(6):419-426

Department of Social, Health and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

In a double-blind experiment, participants were exposed to facial images of anger, disgust, fear, and neutral expressions under 2 body odor conditions: fear and neutral sweat. They had to indicate the valence of the gradually emerging facial image. Two alternative hypotheses were tested, namely a "general negative evaluative state" hypothesis and a "discrete emotion" hypothesis. These hypotheses suggest 2 distinctive data patterns for muscle activation and classification speed of facial expressions. The pattern of results that would support a "discrete emotions perspective" would be expected to reveal significantly increased activity in the medial frontalis (eyebrow raiser) and corrugator supercilii (frown) muscles associated with fear, and significantly decreased reaction times (RTs) to "only" fear faces in the fear odor condition. Conversely, a pattern of results characterized by only a significantly increased corrugator supercilii activity together with decreased RTs for fear, disgust, and anger faces in the fear odor condition would support an interpretation in line with a general negative evaluative state perspective. The data support the discrete emotion account for facial affect perception primed with fear odor. This study provides a first demonstration of perception of discrete negative facial expressions using olfactory priming.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjy029DOI Listing
July 2018

Human Fear Chemosignaling: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

Chem Senses 2017 Oct;42(8):663-673

Department of Social, Health, & Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Alarm pheromones are widely used in the animal kingdom. Notably, there are 26 published studies (N = 1652) highlighting a human capacity to communicate fear, stress, and anxiety via body odor from one person (66% males) to another (69% females). The question is whether the findings of this literature reflect a true effect, and what the average effect size is. These questions were answered by combining traditional meta-analysis with novel meta-analytical tools, p-curve analysis and p-uniform-techniques that could indicate whether findings are likely to reflect a true effect based on the distribution of P-values. A traditional random-effects meta-analysis yielded a small-to-moderate effect size (Hedges' g: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.31-0.41), p-curve analysis showed evidence diagnostic of a true effect (ps < 0.0001), and there was no evidence for publication bias. This meta-analysis did not assess the internal validity of the current studies; yet, the combined results illustrate the statistical robustness of a field in human olfaction dealing with the human capacity to communicate certain emotions (fear, stress, anxiety) via body odor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjx049DOI Listing
October 2017

On the Communicative Function of Body Odors.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2017 03;12(2):306-324

1 Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

Humans use multiple senses to navigate the social world, and the sense of smell is arguably the most underestimated one. An intriguing aspect of the sense of smell is its social communicative function. Research has shown that human odors convey information about a range of states (e.g., emotions, sickness) and traits (e.g., individuality, gender). Yet, what underlies the communicability of these states and traits via smell? We fill this explanatory gap with a framework that highlights the dynamic and flexible aspects of human olfactory communication. In particular, we explain how chemical profiles, associative learning (i.e., the systematic co-occurrence of chemical profiles with state- or trait-related information), and top-down contextual influences could interact to shape human odor perception. Our model not only helps to integrate past research on human olfactory communication but it also opens new avenues for future research on this fascinating, yet to date poorly understood, field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691616676599DOI Listing
March 2017

A sniff of happiness.

Psychol Sci 2015 Jun 13;26(6):684-700. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University Department of Psychology, Koç University Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisbon, Portugal

It is well known that feelings of happiness transfer between individuals through mimicry induced by vision and hearing. The evidence is inconclusive, however, as to whether happiness can be communicated through the sense of smell via chemosignals. As chemosignals are a known medium for transferring negative emotions from a sender to a receiver, we examined whether chemosignals are also involved in the transmission of positive emotions. Positive emotions are important for overall well-being and yet relatively neglected in research on chemosignaling, arguably because of the stronger survival benefits linked with negative emotions. We observed that exposure to body odor collected from senders of chemosignals in a happy state induced a facial expression and perceptual-processing style indicative of happiness in the receivers of those signals. Our findings suggest that not only negative affect but also a positive state (happiness) can be transferred by means of odors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797614566318DOI Listing
June 2015

Rapid stress system drives chemical transfer of fear from sender to receiver.

PLoS One 2015 27;10(2):e0118211. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Department of Psychology, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey; Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (ISPA), Instituto Universitário, Lisbon, Portugal.

Humans can register another person's fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system) is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis). To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31) a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography) and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0118211PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4344325PMC
January 2016

Chemical communication of fear: A case of male-female asymmetry.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2014 Aug 3;143(4):1515-25. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University.

Previous research has documented sex differences in nonverbal communication. What has remained unknown is whether similar sex differences would exist with regard to olfactory communication via chemosignals, a relatively neglected nonverbal communication medium. Because women generally have a better sense of smell and greater sensitivity to emotional signals, we hypothesized that compared with male participants and relative to a neutral control condition, female participants would emulate the fearful state of the sender producing the chemosignals. Facial electromyography was used in a double-blind experiment to measure in the receiver a partial reproduction of the state of the sender, controlling for the moderating influence of the sex of the sender and receiver. The results indicated that only female participants emulated the fearful state of the sender. The present study revealed a boundary condition for effective chemosignaling by reporting behavioral evidence of sexual asymmetry in olfactory communication via chemosignals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035950DOI Listing
August 2014

I can see, hear, and smell your fear: comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2014 Apr 15;143(2):825-34. Epub 2013 Jul 15.

Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University.

Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued here was therefore: How significant is an olfactory fear signal in the broader context of audiovisual input that either confirms or contradicts olfactory information? To test this, we manipulated olfactory (fear, no fear) and audiovisual (fear, no fear) information and demonstrated that olfactory fear signals were as potent as audiovisual fear signals in eliciting a fearful facial expression. Irrespective of confirmatory or contradictory audiovisual information, olfactory fear signals produced by senders induced fear in receivers outside of conscious access. These findings run counter to traditional views that emotions are communicated exclusively via visual and linguistic channels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033731DOI Listing
April 2014

The chemical bases of human sociality.

Trends Cogn Sci 2013 Sep 21;17(9):427-9. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3584 CS, Heidelberglaan 1, The Netherlands.

Communication is the foundation of sociality and is made possible by a diverse set of media. Research on human communication has primarily focused on auditory and visual modalities. Here, we discuss the role of the olfactory modality as an important medium of human communication and highlight the significance of interpersonal chemosignaling in the context of emerging research that investigates the adaptive effects of human chemosignals on cognitive-affective processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.05.008DOI Listing
September 2013

Chemosignals communicate human emotions.

Psychol Sci 2012 27;23(11):1417-24. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

Can humans communicate emotional states via chemical signals? In the experiment reported here, we addressed this question by examining the function of chemosignals in a framework furnished by embodied social communication theory. Following this theory, we hypothesized that the processes a sender experiences during distinctive emotional states are transmitted to receivers by means of the chemicals that the sender produces, thus establishing a multilevel correspondence between sender and receiver. In a double-blind experiment, we examined facial reactions, sensory-regulation processes, and visual search in response to chemosignals. We demonstrated that fear chemosignals generated a fearful facial expression and sensory acquisition (increased sniff magnitude and eye scanning); in contrast, disgust chemosignals evoked a disgusted facial expression and sensory rejection (decreased sniff magnitude, target-detection sensitivity, and eye scanning). These findings underline the neglected social relevance of chemosignals in regulating communicative correspondence outside of conscious access.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797612445317DOI Listing
November 2013

The art of anger: reward context turns avoidance responses to anger-related objects into approach.

Psychol Sci 2010 Oct 20;21(10):1406-10. Epub 2010 Sep 20.

Utrecht University, Department of Psychology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Anger has a special status among the emotions in that it can elicit avoidance as well as approach motivation. This study tested the ignored role of reward context in potentiating approach rather than avoidance responses toward objects associated with anger. In Experiment 1, angry and neutral facial expressions were parafoveally paired with common objects, and responses to the objects were assessed by subjective reports of motivation to obtain them. In Experiment 2, objects were again paired with angry or neutral faces outside of participants' awareness, and responses toward the objects were indexed by physical effort expended in attempting to win them. Results showed that approach motivation toward anger-related objects can be observed when responding is framed in terms of rewards that one can obtain, whereas avoidance motivation occurs in the absence of such a reward context. These findings point to the importance of a reward context in modulating people's responses to anger.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797610384152DOI Listing
October 2010
-->