Publications by authors named "Jason Schott"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin Therapy and QT Prolongation in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 01 5;7(1):16-25. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine and Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to characterize corrected QT (QTc) prolongation in a cohort of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who were treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ/AZM).

Background: HCQ/AZM is being widely used to treat COVID-19 despite the known risk of QT interval prolongation and the unknown risk of arrhythmogenesis in this population.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 hospitalized patients treated with HCQ/AZM was reviewed. The QTc interval was calculated before drug administration and for the first 5 days following initiation. The primary endpoint was the magnitude of QTc prolongation, and factors associated with QTc prolongation. Secondary endpoints were incidences of sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and all-cause mortality.

Results: Among 415 patients who received concomitant HCQ/AZM, the mean QTc increased from 443 ± 25 ms to a maximum of 473 ± 40 ms (87 [21%] patients had a QTc ≥500 ms). Factors associated with QTc prolongation ≥500 ms were age (p < 0.001), body mass index <30 kg/m (p = 0.005), heart failure (p < 0.001), elevated creatinine (p = 0.005), and peak troponin (p < 0.001). The change in QTc was not associated with death over the short period of the study in a population in which mortality was already high (hazard ratio: 0.998; p = 0.607). No primary high-grade ventricular arrhythmias were observed.

Conclusions: An increase in QTc was seen in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 treated with HCQ/AZM. Several clinical factors were associated with greater QTc prolongation. Changes in QTc were not associated with increased risk of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406234PMC
January 2021

Disparate impact of severe aortic and mitral regurgitation on left ventricular dilation.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 20;97(6):1301-1308. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Beaumont Hospital Royal Oak, Royal Oak, Michigan, USA.

In asymptomatic severe aortic (AR) and mitral regurgitation (MR), left ventricular (LV) dimension criteria were established to guide timing of valve replacement to prevent irreversible LV dysfunction. Given both lesions are primary LV volume overload ''leaks'', it might be expected that both lesions would induce similar impact on the LV and result in equivalent dimension criteria for intervention. However, the dimension-based intervention criteria for AR versus MR (developed through natural history studies), differ markedly. The pathophysiological foundations for such discordance have neither been fully elucidated nor emphasized. This case-based treatise compares the two regurgitant lesions with respect to: (a) ''total regurgitant circuits''; (b) ''driving pressures'' resulting in LV volume overload from each respective ''leak''; and (c) volume and afterload wall stresses imposed on the LV.Key points The ''total circuits'' of volume overload differ: The AR circuit includes the LV and systemic vasculature, whereas MR includes the LV ejecting into the left atrium/pulmonary veins and systemic circulation. The ''driving pressure'' of regurgitation and afterload are high with AR and low with MR. Differing ''total circuits'' and ''driving pressures'' impose disparate wall stresses upon the LV. Parallel and serial sarcomere replication occurs in AR, while only serial replication occurs in MR. It therefore follows that for regurgitation of similar severities, AR results in greater LV dilation at the point of irreversible myocardial dysfunction compared to MR. These considerations may explain, at least in part, the disparate dimension criteria employed for valve intervention for severe AR vs MR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29455DOI Listing
May 2021

Transthoracic echocardiographic findings in patients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Echocardiography 2020 10 19;37(10):1551-1556. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Beaumont Hospital Royal Oak, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients commonly have elevated troponin and D-dimer levels, but limited imaging exists to support most likely etiologies in efforts to avoid staff exposure. The purpose of this study was to report transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) findings in SARS-CoV-2 patients with correlating troponin and D-dimer levels.

Methods: We identified 66 SARS-CoV-2 patients (mean age 60 ± 15.7 years) admitted within a large, eight-hospital healthcare system over a 6-week period with a TTE performed. TTE readers were blinded to laboratory data with intra-observer and inter-observer analysis assessed.

Results: Sixty-six of 1780 SARS-CoV-2 patients were included and represented a high-risk population as 38 (57.6%) were ICU-admitted, 47 (71.2%) had elevated D-dimer, 41 (62.1%) had elevated troponin, and 25 (37.9%) died. Right ventricular (RV) dilation was present in 49 (74.2%) patients. The incidence and average D-dimer elevation was similar between moderate/severe vs. mild/no RV dilation (69.6% vs 67.6%, P = 1.0; 3736 ± 2986 vs 4141 ± 3351 ng/mL, P = .679). Increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness was present in 46 (69.7%) with similar incidence of elevated troponin and average troponin levels compared to normal wall thickness (66.7% vs 52.4%, P = .231; 0.88 ± 1.9 vs 1.36 ± 2.4 ng/mL, P = .772). LV dilation was rare (n = 6, 9.1%), as was newly reduced LV ejection fraction (n = 2, 3.0%).

Conclusion: TTE in SARS-CoV-2 patients is scarce, technically difficult, and reserved for high-risk patients. RV dilation is common in SARS-CoV-2 but does not correlate with elevated D-dimer levels. Increased LV wall thickness is common, while newly reduced LV ejection fraction is rare, and neither correlates with troponin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537524PMC
October 2020

Quetiapine has an additive effect to triiodothyronine in inducing differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells through induction of cholesterol biosynthesis.

PLoS One 2019 6;14(9):e0221747. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by demyelinated lesions in the central nervous system. Destruction of myelin and secondary damage to axons and neurons leads to significant disability, particularly in people with progressive MS. Accumulating evidence suggests that the potential for myelin repair exists in MS, although for unclear reasons this process fails. The cells responsible for producing myelin, the oligodendrocytes, and their progenitors, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), have been identified at the site of lesions, even in adults. Their presence suggests the possibility that endogenous remyelination without transplantation of donor stem cells may be a mechanism for myelin repair in MS. Strategies to develop novel therapies have focused on induction of signaling pathways that stimulate OPCs to mature into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes that could then possibly remyelinate lesions. We have been investigating pharmacological approaches to enhance OPC differentiation, and have identified that the combination of two agents, triiodothyronine (T3) and quetiapine, leads to an additive effect on OPC differentiation and consequent myelin production via both overlapping and distinct signaling pathways. While the ultimate production of myelin requires cholesterol biosynthesis, we identified that quetiapine enhances gene expression in this pathway more potently than T3. Two blockers of cholesterol production, betulin and simvastatin, reduced OPC differentiation into myelin producing oligodendrocytes. Elucidating the nature of agents that lead to complementary and additive effects on oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin production may pave the way for more efficient induction of remyelination in people with MS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221747PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6730995PMC
March 2020

Lineage tracing reveals dynamic changes in oligodendrocyte precursor cells following cuprizone-induced demyelination.

Glia 2017 12 22;65(12):2087-2098. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

The regeneration of oligodendrocytes is a crucial step in recovery from demyelination, as surviving oligodendrocytes exhibit limited structural plasticity and rarely form additional myelin sheaths. New oligodendrocytes arise through the differentiation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the CNS. Although there has been detailed investigation of the behavior of these progenitors in white matter, recent studies suggest that disease burden in multiple sclerosis (MS) is more strongly correlated with gray matter atrophy. The timing and efficiency of remyelination in gray matter is distinct from white matter, but the dynamics of OPCs that contribute to these differences have not been defined. Here, we used in vivo genetic fate tracing to determine the behavior of OPCs in gray and white matter regions in response to cuprizone-induced demyelination. Our studies indicate that the temporal dynamics of OPC differentiation varies significantly between white and gray matter. While OPCs rapidly repopulate the corpus callosum and mature into CC1 expressing mature oligodendrocytes, OPC differentiation in the cingulate cortex and hippocampus occurs much more slowly, resulting in a delay in remyelination relative to the corpus callosum. The protracted maturation of OPCs in gray matter may contribute to greater axonal pathology and disease burden in MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5761347PMC
December 2017

Preparation of Rat Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cultures and Quantification of Oligodendrogenesis Using Dual-infrared Fluorescence Scanning.

J Vis Exp 2016 Feb 17(108):53764. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine;

Efficient oligodendrogenesis is the therapeutic goal of a number of areas of research including spinal cord injury, neonatal hypoxia, and demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and transverse myelitis. Myelination is required to not only facilitate rapid impulse propagation within the central nervous system, but also to provide trophic support to underlying axons. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) can be studied in vitro to help identify factors that may promote or inhibit oligodendrocyte differentiation. To date, many of the methods available to evaluate this process have either required large numbers of cells, thus limiting the number of conditions that can be investigated at any one time, or labor-intensive methods of quantification. Herein, we describe a protocol for the isolation of large numbers of highly pure OPCs together with a fast and reliable method to determine oligodendrogenesis from multiple conditions simultaneously. OPCs are isolated from P5-P7 neonatal rat cortices and grown in vitro for three days prior to differentiation. Four days after differentiation, oligodendrogenesis is evaluated using a dual-infrared fluorescence-scanning assay to determine expression of the myelin protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/53764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4828162PMC
February 2016

A selective thyroid hormone β receptor agonist enhances human and rodent oligodendrocyte differentiation.

Glia 2014 Sep 24;62(9):1513-29. Epub 2014 May 24.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Nerve conduction within the mammalian central nervous system is made efficient by oligodendrocyte-derived myelin. Historically, thyroid hormones have a well described role in regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination during development; however, it remains unclear which thyroid hormone receptors are required to drive these effects. This is a question with clinical relevance since nonspecific thyroid receptor stimulation can produce deleterious side-effects. Here we report that GC-1, a thyromimetic with selective thyroid receptor β action and a potentially limited side-effect profile, promotes in vitro oligodendrogenesis from both rodent and human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. In addition, we used in vivo genetic fate tracing of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells via PDGFαR-CreER;Rosa26-eYFP double-transgenic mice to examine the effect of GC-1 on cellular fate and find that treatment with GC-1 during developmental myelination promotes oligodendrogenesis within the corpus callosum, occipital cortex and optic nerve. GC-1 was also observed to enhance the expression of the myelin proteins MBP, CNP and MAG within the same regions. These results indicate that a β receptor selective thyromimetic can enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro and during developmental myelination in vivo and warrants further study as a therapeutic agent for demyelinating models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.22697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107024PMC
September 2014

FTY720 impairs CD8 T-cell function independently of the sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway.

J Neuroimmunol 2014 May 11;270(1-2):13-21. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Fingolimod (FTY720) is a multiple sclerosis (MS) therapeutic that upon phosphorylation causes the internalization of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PR) and traps CCR7+ T-cells in lymph nodes but relatively spares CCR7-effector T-cells. Nonetheless, FTY720-treated patients are more susceptible to viral infections, indicating a CD8 T-cell defect. Thus, the effects of FTY720 on CD8 T-cells were investigated. To this end, we utilized experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and a murine influenza model. CD8 T-cell trafficking, IFNγ and Granzyme B (GrB) production were assessed by flow cytometry. CD8 T-cell cytotoxic function was assessed in vitro by an LDH release assay. FTY720 not only ameliorated EAE by sequestering T-cells, but also reduced IFNγ and Granzyme B (GrB) in splenic CD8 T-cells. Murine influenza infection was exacerbated and mortality was increased, as FTY720 inhibited CD8 T-cell GrB production and lung infiltration. Remarkably, only the unphosphorylated compound was able to reduce IFNγ and GrB levels in CD8 T-cells and inhibits their cytotoxic function in vitro. The phosphorylated moiety had no effect in vitro, indicating that CD8 T-cell suppression by FTY720 is independent of S1PR modulation. The addition of arachidonic acid rescued CD8 T-cell function, suggesting that this effect may be mediated via inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2. Herein, we demonstrate that FTY720 suppresses CD8 T-cells independently of its trafficking effects and S1PR modulation. This provides a novel explanation not only for the increased rate of viral infections in FTY720-treated patients, but also for its efficacy in MS, as CD8 T-cells have emerged as crucial mediators of MS pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.03.007DOI Listing
May 2014

Effects of structural and electronic characteristics of chalcones on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2013 27;61(2):229-36. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

Department of Biological Science, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA.

Chalcones share some structural similarities with GW-1929, a highly-selective and potent agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). In this study, we tested 53 structurally diverse chalcones to identify characteristics essential for PPARγ activation in a GAL4-based transactivation assay. This screen identified several novel chalcone agonists of PPARγ. Our results indicate that chalcones with an electron rich group or sterically large groups such as naphthyl on the carbonyl side tend to activate PPARγ. The absence of any strict structural or electronic requirements suggests that the flexibility of the PPARγ ligand binding pocket may allow binding of diverse chalcones with some preference for a slightly larger electron-rich group on the carbonyl side. We predict that further structure-activity relationship studies on chalcones with naphthalene or electron-rich groups near the carbonyl moiety will lead to the development of more potent PPARγ agonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c12-00749DOI Listing
August 2013

Design, synthesis and identification of a new class of triarylmethyl amine compounds as inhibitors of apolipoprotein E production.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2012 Oct 10;22(19):6252-5. Epub 2012 Aug 10.

Department of Chemistry, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740, USA.

We have identified a new class of triarylmethyl amine compounds that can inhibit apolipoprotein E (apoE) production. ApoE is a cholesterol- and lipid-carrier protein implicated in aging, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and other neurological and lipid-related disorders. Attenuation of apoE production is generally considered to be of therapeutic value. A majority of the apoE in the brain is produced by astrocytes. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and biological screening of a small library of compounds that led to the identification of four triarylmethyl amines as potent inhibitors of apoE production in CCF-STTG1 astrocytoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.08.009DOI Listing
October 2012

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor, SB-216763, promotes pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells.

PLoS One 2012 26;7(6):e39329. Epub 2012 Jun 26.

Department of Biological Science, California State University-Fullerton, Fullerton, California, United States of America.

Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been suggested to promote self-renewal of pluripotent mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Here, we show that SB-216763, a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor, can maintain mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in a pluripotent state in the absence of exogenous leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) when cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). MESCs maintained with SB-216763 for one month were morphologically indistinguishable from LIF-treated mESCs and expressed pluripotent-specific genes Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. Furthermore, Nanog immunostaining was more homogenous in SB-216763-treated colonies compared to LIF. Embryoid bodies (EBs) prepared from these mESCs expressed early-stage markers for all three germ layers, and could efficiently differentiate into cardiac-like cells and MAP2-immunoreactive neurons. To our knowledge, SB-216763 is the first GSK3 inhibitor that can promote self-renewal of mESC co-cultured with MEFs for more than two months.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039329PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383737PMC
November 2012
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