Publications by authors named "Jason S Radowsky"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Safety and efficacy of low-titer O whole blood resuscitation in a civilian level I trauma center.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 08;91(2S Suppl 2):S162-S168

From the Department of Surgery (P.M.K.B., P.M.M., A.M.A., R.C.C.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (M.E.W.), Bethesda, Maryland; and Department of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery (J.E.F., J.S.R., R.A.H., V.G.S.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Background: Military experience has shown low-titer O whole blood (LTOWB) to be safe and beneficial in the resuscitation of hemorrhaging trauma patients. However, few civilian centers use LTOWB for trauma resuscitation. We evaluated the early experience and safety of a LTOWB program at a level 1 civilian trauma center.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our trauma registry from January 2018 to June 2020 for patients admitted in shock (defined as ≥1 of the following: heart rate, >120 beats per minute; systolic blood pressure, <90 mm Hg; or shock index, >0.9) who received blood products within 24 hours. Patients were grouped by resuscitation provided: LTOWB (group 1), component therapy (CT; group 2), and LTOWB-CT (group 3). Safety, outcomes, and variables associated with LTOWB transfusion and mortality were analyzed.

Results: 216 patients were included: 34 in Group 1, 95 in Group 2, and 87 in Group 3. Patientsreceiving LTOWB were more commonly male (p<0.001) and had a penetrating injury (p=0.005). Groups 1 and 3 had higher median ISS scores compared to Group 2 (19 and 20 vs 17; p=0.01). Group 3 received more median units of blood product in the first 4h (p<0.001) and in the first 24h (p<0.001). There was no difference between groups in 24h mortality or transfusion-related complications (all p>0.05). Arrival ED SBP was associated with LTOWB transfusion (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.00, p=0.03). ED lactate was independently associated with 24h mortality. (OR 1.27, CI 1.02-1.58, p=0.03). LTOWB transfusion was not associated with mortality (p=0.49). Abstract.

Conclusion: Severely injured patients received LTOWB-CT and more overall product units but had similar 24 h mortality when compared with the LTOWB or CT groups. No increase in transfusion-related complications was seen after LTOWB transfusion. Low-titer O whole blood should be strongly considered in the resuscitation of trauma patients at civilian centers.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective, therapeutic, level IV.
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August 2021

Intoxication and overdose should not preclude veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Perfusion 2020 Oct 10:267659120963938. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: Acute intoxication (AI) related morbidity and mortality are increasing in the United States. For patients with severe respiratory failure in the setting of an acute ingestion, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) can provide salvage therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes in patients with overdose-related need for VV ECMO.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a specialty VV ECMO unit between August 2014 and August 2018. Patients were stratified by those whose indication for VV ECMO was directly related to an acute ingestion (alcohol, illicit drug, or prescription drug overdose) and those with unrelated diagnoses. Demographics, pre-cannulation clinical characteristics, ECMO parameters, and outcomes data was collected and analyzed with parametric and non-parametric statistics as indicated.

Results: 189 patients were enrolled with 27 (14%) diagnosed with AI. Patients requiring VV ECMO for an AI were younger, had lower median BMI and PaO2/FiO2, and higher RESP scores than non-AI patients (p = 0.002, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.01). There was no difference in pre-cannulation pH, lactate, or SOFA scores between the two groups (p = 0.24, 0.5, 0.6). There was no difference in survival to discharge (p = 0.95). Among survivors, there was no difference in ECMO time or hospital stay (p = 0.24, 0.07).

Conclusion: We demonstrate no survival difference for patients with and without an AI-related need for VV ECMO. AI patients should be supported with VV ECMO when traditional therapies fail despite potential stigma against acceptance on referral.
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October 2020

Handheld Tissue Oximetry for the Prehospital Detection of Shock and Need for Lifesaving Interventions: Technology in Search of an Indication?

Air Med J 2019 Jul - Aug;38(4):276-280. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Improved prehospital methods for assessing the need for lifesaving interventions (LSIs) are needed to gain critical lead time in the care of the injured. We hypothesized that threshold values using prehospital handheld tissue oximetry would detect occult shock and predict LSI requirements. This was a prospective observational study of adult trauma patients emergently transported by helicopter. Patients were monitored with a handheld tissue oximeter (InSpectra Spot Check; Hutchinson Technology Inc, Hutchinson, MN), continuous vital signs, and 21 laboratory measurements obtained both in the field with a portable analyzer and at the time of admission. Shock was defined as base excess ≥ 4 or lactate > 3 mmol/L. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled with a median Injury Severity Score of 16 (interquartile range, 5-29). The median hemoglobin saturation in the capillaries, venules, and arterioles (StO) value for all patients was 82% (interquartile range, 76%-87%; range, 42%-98%). StO was abnormal (< 75%) in 18 patients (20%). Eight were hypotensive (9%) and had laboratory-confirmed evidence of occult shock. StO correlated poorly with shock threshold laboratory values (r = -0.17; 95% confidence interval, -0.33 to 1.0; P = .94). The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.63) for StO < 75% and laboratory-confirmed shock. StO was not associated with LSI need on admission when adjusted for multiple covariates, nor was it independently associated with death. Handheld tissue oximetry was not sensitive or specific for identifying patients with prehospital occult shock. These results do not support prehospital StO monitoring despite its inclusion in several published guidelines.
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July 2020

Preclosure spectroscopic differences between healed and dehisced traumatic wounds.

PLoS One 2018 27;13(9):e0204453. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (USUHS-Walter Reed Surgery), Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: The complexity and severity of traumatic wounds in military and civilian trauma demands improved wound assessment, before, during, and after treatment. Here, we explore the potential of 3 charge-coupled device (3CCD) imaging values to distinguish between traumatic wounds that heal following closure and those that fail. Previous studies demonstrate that normalized 3CCD imaging values exhibit a high correlation with oxygen saturation and allow for comparison of values between diverse clinical settings, including utilizing different equipment and lighting.

Methods: We screened 119 patients at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and at Grady Memorial Hospital with at least one traumatic extremity wound of ≥ 75 cm2. We collected images of each wound during each débridement surgery for a total of 66 patients. An in-house written computer application selected a region of interest in the images, separated the pixel color values, calculated relative values, and normalized them. We followed patients until the enrolled wounds were surgically closed, quantifying the number of wounds that dehisced (defined as wound failure or infection requiring return to the operating room after closure) or healed.

Results: Wound failure occurred in 20% (19 of 96) of traumatic wounds. Normalized intensity values for patients with wounds that healed successfully were, on average, significantly different from values for patients with wounds that failed (p ≤ 0.05). Simple thresholding models and partial least squares discriminant analysis models performed poorly. However, a hierarchical cluster analysis model created with 17 variables including 3CCD data, wound surface area, and time from injury predicts wound failure with 76.9% sensitivity, 76.5% specificity, 76.6% accuracy, and a diagnostic odds ratio of 10.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-45.9).

Conclusions: Imaging using 3CCD technology may provide a non-invasive and cost-effective method of aiding surgeons in deciding if wounds are ready for closure and could potentially decrease the number of required débridements and hospital days. The process may be automated to provide real-time feedback in the operating room and clinic. The low cost and small size of the cameras makes this technology attractive for austere and shipboard environments where space and weight are at a premium.
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March 2019

A Surgeon's Guide to Obtaining Hemorrhage Control in Combat-Related Dismounted Lower Extremity Blast Injuries.

Mil Med 2016 10;181(10):1300-1304

Department of Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20889.

The application of lessons learned on the battlefield for timely surgical control of lower extremity hemorrhage secondary to blast injuries to the civilian practice for similar wounding patterns from industrial accidents or terrorist activities is imperative. Although simple cut-down procedures are commonly sufficient for the control of blood vessels for distal extremity traumatic amputations, high-thigh or disarticulation wounding patterns often require more complex surgical methods. The following details both the decision-making process and operative techniques for controlling hemorrhage from lower extremity blast injuries.
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October 2016

A Timely Intervention: Endoscopic Retrieval of a Swallowed Magnetized Activity Watch.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2016 19;2016:2190726. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

Department of General Surgery, Brian Allgood Army Community Hospital, Yongsan 96205, Republic of Korea.

The accidental ingestion of a foreign object often presents a difficult scenario for the clinician. This includes not only the decision to retrieve the material but also the appropriate technique to use. We present the case of a young asymptomatic girl who swallowed a magnetic activity watch, which was then successfully retrieved with an endoscopic snare. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of salvaging an operational watch from the stomach using an endoscopic technique.
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February 2016

Noninvasive Multimodal Imaging to Predict Recovery of Locomotion after Extended Limb Ischemia.

PLoS One 2015 14;10(9):e0137430. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, United States of America; Regenerative Medicine Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, United States of America; Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Acute limb ischemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following trauma both in civilian centers and in combat related injuries. Rapid determination of tissue viability and surgical restoration of blood flow are desirable, but not always possible. We sought to characterize the response to increasing periods of hind limb ischemia in a porcine model such that we could define a period of critical ischemia (the point after which irreversible neuromuscular injury occurs), evaluate non-invasive methods for characterizing that ischemia, and establish a model by which we could predict whether or not the animal's locomotion would return to baselines levels post-operatively. Ischemia was induced by either application of a pneumatic tourniquet or vessel occlusion (performed by clamping the proximal iliac artery and vein at the level of the inguinal ligament). The limb was monitored for the duration of the procedure with both 3-charge coupled device (3CCD) and infrared (IR) imaging for tissue oxygenation and perfusion, respectively. The experimental arms of this model are effective at inducing histologically evident muscle injury with some evidence of expected secondary organ damage, particularly in animals with longer ischemia times. Noninvasive imaging data shows excellent correlation with post-operative functional outcomes, validating its use as a non-invasive means of viability assessment, and directly monitors post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. A classification model, based on partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) of imaging variables only, successfully classified animals as "returned to normal locomotion" or "did not return to normal locomotion" with 87.5% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity after cross-validation. PLSDA models generated from non-imaging data were not as accurate (AUC of 0.53) compared the PLSDA model generated from only imaging data (AUC of 0.76). With some modification, this limb ischemia model could also serve as a means on which to test therapies designed to prolong the time before critical ischemia.
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June 2016

Serum Inflammatory Cytokine Markers of Invasive Fungal Infection in Previously Immunocompetent Battle Casualties.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2015 Oct 25;16(5):526-32. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

1 Department of General Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda , Maryland.

Background: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is described increasingly in individuals experiencing high-energy military trauma. Hallmarks of successful treatment involve aggressive surgical debridement and early initiation of systemic antimicrobial therapy. Currently, intravenous anti-fungal therapy commences based on appearance of wounds and patient's clinical course. Whereas some clinical protocols exist to predict which critically injured patients should receive anti-fungal therapies, there are no established serum markers associated with IFI. Our hypothesis is that serum inflammatory cytokines exist that can assist in identifying individuals at risk for IFI.

Methods: This is a retrospective case control study at a single institution. Nine patients with IFI (Saksenaea vasiformis, Fusarium sp., Graphium sp., Scedosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., and Alternaria sp.) after battlefield trauma were matched to nine individuals with similar injury patterns whose laboratory results were negative for IFI. The combination of serum inflammatory cytokines from the first and second debridements was examined with multiplex platform proteomic analysis. We defined statistical significance as a two-tailed α<0.05 after adjusting for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate method. This model was refined further with correlation-based filter selection and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) was tested.

Results: Both groups had similar Injury Severity Scores (ISS) (mean±standard deviation [SD]) (26.8±15.5 vs. 29.2±16.8, p=0.766). Elevated RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) alone (10,492.8±4,450.1 vs. 5,333.3±4,162.2, p=0.006) correlated with IFI. Also, the combination of persistent elevations in RANTES, interleukin (IL)-2R, and IL-15 was a robust model for predicting IFI with the AUROC being 0.9.

Conclusions: Elevation in serum cytokines, particularly RANTES, correlated with IFI in this small group of patients. This demonstrates the potential of future rapid serum testing for early initiation and guidance of anti-fungal therapies.
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October 2015

An Evolving Uncontrolled Hemorrhage Model Using Cynomolgus Macaques.

Shock 2015 Aug;44 Suppl 1:123-8

*Department of Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda; and †Department of Regenerative Medicine, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring; ‡Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services, University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock produces hemodynamic changes that often result in a systemic inflammatory response that can lead to multiple organ failure and death. In this prospective study, the pathophysiology of a nonhuman primate uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock model is evaluated with the goal of creating an acute systemic inflammatory syndrome response and a reproducible hemorrhage.

Methods: Nonhuman primates were divided into 2 groups. A laparoscopic left hepatectomy was performed in groups A and B, 60% and 80%, respectively, resulting in uncontrolled hemorrhage. Resuscitation during the prehospital phase lasted 120 min and included a 0.9% saline bolus at 20 mL/kg. The hospital phase involved active warming, laparotomy, hepatorrhaphy for hemostasis, and transfusion of packed red blood cells (10 mL/kg). The animals were recovered and observed over a 14-day survival period with subsequent necropsy for histopathology.

Results: Baseline demographics and clinical parameters of the two groups were similar. Group A (n = 7) underwent a 57.7% ± 2.4% left hepatectomy with a 33.9% ± 4.0% blood loss and 57% survival. Group B (n = 4) underwent an 80.0% ± 6.0% left hepatectomy with 56.0% ± 3.2% blood loss and 75% survival. Group B had significantly lower hematocrit (P < 0.05) for all postinjury time points. Group A had significantly elevated creatinine on postoperative day 1. Nonsurvivors succumbed to an early death, averaging 36 h from the injury. Histopathologic evaluation of nonsurvivors demonstrated kidney tubular degeneration.

Conclusions: Nonhuman primates displayed the expected physiologic response to hemorrhagic shock due to liver trauma as well as systemic inflammatory response syndrome with resultant multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and either early death or subsequent recovery. Our next step is to establish a clinically applicable nonhuman primate polytrauma model, which reproduces the prolonged maladaptive immunologic reactivity and end-organ dysfunction consistent with multiple organ failure found in the critically injured patient.
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August 2015

Impact of degree of extrathyroidal extension of disease on papillary thyroid cancer outcome.

Thyroid 2014 Feb 3;24(2):241-4. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

1 Department of Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center , Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: The clinical importance of extrathyroidal extension (ETE) on outcome of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), particularly with respect to disease extending to the surgical margin is not well established. This study assessed the importance of surgical margin and extrathyroidal invasion relative to local control of disease and oncologic outcome.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospective institutional endocrine database was conducted on 276 patients with PTC treated between 1955 and 2004 to determine the impact of margin-negative resection (n=199, 72%), disease up to within 1 mm of surgical margin (n=19, 7%), microscopic (n=39, 14%), and gross (n=19, 7%) ETE. Data were compared with Fisher's exact test or analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: Median follow-up was 3.1-6.8 years per study group (disease-free survival, range 1-37 years). The proportion of those with age >45 years, prior radiation exposure, distant metastasis at presentation, and those undergoing total thyroidectomy was not significantly different between groups. Tumor size and multifocality correlated with extent of local disease, which in turn was significantly associated with regional nodal disease at time of primary operation as well as prevalence of persistence of disease after multimodality therapy. Extent of local disease correlated significantly with subsequent clinical recurrence after a disease-free period (p=0.006); however, recurrence rates were not significantly different between negative and close (≤1 mm) margin resection.

Conclusion: Oncological outcome correlates with the extent of extrathyroidal invasion. Outcome is worse in patients with gross extrathyroidal disease extension than in those with microscopic local invasion apparent on histopathological assessment. However, the risk of clinical recurrence appears similar between patients undergoing margin-negative and "close margin" resection.
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February 2014

Racial disparities in voice outcomes after thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

Surgery 2013 Jan 3;153(1):103-10. Epub 2012 Aug 3.

Department of Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD 2088, USA.

Background: There is evidence that the outcomes of head and neck surgery may differ across racial and ethnic groups. Vocal changes related to the operation are an anticipated risk of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. Race-specific voice outcomes after thyroid and parathyroid operations have not been reported. Therefore, our aim was to examine the potential disparity in voice outcomes between white and black patients after thyroid or parathyroid operations.

Patients And Methods: Eighty-seven patients (59 white and 28 black) were included in a prospective observational trial. Subjects were evaluated before operation, and 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively using a comprehensive battery of functional voice assessments of voice characteristics. The association of race with voice outcomes over time was evaluated with generalized linear models.

Results: Aside from volume of pathologic specimen (black, 117.5 cm3 vs. white, 43.2 cm3; P = .004), presence of multinodular goiter (black, 32.1% vs. white, 6.8%; P = .004) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (black, 3.6% vs. white, 28.8%; P = .009), there were no differences between racial groups. Blacks were more likely than whites to have negative voice outcomes (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.2; P = .034] throughout the postoperative period, especially at 6 months (black, 25% vs. white, 4%; P = .018). This finding was related principally to divergent scores on the voice-related quality-of-life scale, the voice handicap index.

Conclusion: We observed greater rates of self-reported, negative voice outcomes among blacks than whites after thyroid or parathyroid operations. The precise mechanism for this disparity has not been described. The observed racial disparity in self-perceived voice impairment in this study merits further investigation.
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January 2013

Pain ratings by patients and their providers of radionucleotide injection for breast cancer lymphatic mapping.

Pain Med 2012 May 26;13(5):670-6. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Department of Surgery, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C, USA.

Background: Disparity between patient report and physician perception of pain from radiotracer injection for sentinel node biopsy is thought to center on the severity of the intervention, ethnic composition of population queried, and socioeconomic factors.

Objective: The objectives of this study were, first, to explore agreement between physicians' and their breast cancer patients' pain assessment during subareolar radionucleotide injection; and second, to evaluate potential ethnic differences in ratings.

Methods: A trial was conducted, from January 2006 to April 2009, where 140 breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to standard topical lidocaine-4% cream and 99mTc-sulfur colloid injection, or to one of three other groups: placebo cream and 99mTc-sulfur colloid injection containing NaHCO3, 1% lidocaine, or NaHCO3 + 1% lidocaine. Providers and patients completed numeric pain scales (0-10) immediately after injection.

Results: Patients and providers rated pain similarly over the entire cohort (median, 3 vs 2, P = 0.15). Patients rated pain statistically significantly higher than physicians in the standard (6 vs 5, P = 0.045) and placebo + NaHCO3 (5 vs 4, P = 0.032) groups. No significant difference in scores existed between all African Americans and their physicians (3 vs 4, P = 0.27).

Conclusion: Patient-physician pain assessment congruence over the less painful injections and their statistically similar scores with the more painful methods suggests the importance of utilizing the least painful method possible. Providers tended to underestimate patients with the highest pain ratings-those in the greatest analgesic need. Lack of statistical difference between African American and physician scores may reflect the equal-access-to-care over the entire patient cohort, supporting the conclusion that socioeconomic factors may lie at the heart of previously reported discrepancies.
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May 2012

Invasive mucormycosis and aspergillosis in a healthy 22-year-old battle casualty: case report.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2011 Oct 17;12(5):397-400. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

Department of Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20889-5600, USA.

Background: Invasive mucormycosis or aspergillosis is a life-threatening infection. The disease typically occurs in immunocompromised patients (e.g., those with diabetes mellitus or burns) but is rarely serious in otherwise-healthy young trauma patients.

Methods: Case report and literature review.

Results: A previously-healthy 22-year-old United States Marine who sustained large soft tissue injuries in support of Operation Enduring Freedom underwent multiple operations in theater to stabilize his wounds. He was evacuated first to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany and thence to the National Naval Medical Center in Maryland, where appropriate antifungal therapies were initiated and wide débridements were undertaken without success. His clinical status deteriorated, and he died. Tissue examination revealed systemic invasive mucormycosis and aspergillosis.

Conclusion: The suspicion of invasive fungal infections must be tested early if intervention is to be curative.
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October 2011