Publications by authors named "Jason Nan"

3 Publications

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Structure-activity relationship studies in substituted sulfamoyl benzamidothiazoles that prolong NF-κB activation.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 May 30;43:116242. Epub 2021 May 30.

Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0809, USA.

In the face of emerging infectious diseases, there remains an unmet need for vaccine development where adjuvants that enhance immune responses to pathogenic antigens are highly desired. Using high-throughput screens with a cell-based nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) reporter assay, we identified a sulfamoyl benzamidothiazole bearing compound 1 that demonstrated a sustained activation of NF-κB after a primary stimulus with a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we explore systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on compound 1 that indicated the sites on the scaffold that tolerated modification and yielded more potent compounds compared to 1. The selected analogs enhanced release of immunostimulatory cytokines in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells and murine primary dendritic cells. In murine vaccination studies, select compounds were used as co-adjuvants in combination with the Food and Drug Administration approved TLR-4 agonistic adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) that showed significant enhancement in antigen-specific antibody titers compared to MPLA alone. Additionally, our SAR studies led to identification of a photoaffinity probe which will aid the target identification and mechanism of action studies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116242DOI Listing
May 2021

Mitochondria-dependent synthetic small-molecule vaccine adjuvants for influenza virus infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(23)

Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0809;

Vaccine adjuvants enhance and prolong pathogen-specific protective immune responses. Recent reports indicate that host factors-such as aging, pregnancy, and genetic polymorphisms-influence efficacies of vaccines adjuvanted with Toll-like receptor (TLR) or known pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) agonists. Although PRR independent adjuvants (e.g., oil-in-water emulsion and saponin) are emerging, these adjuvants induce some local and systemic reactogenicity. Hence, new TLR and PRR-independent adjuvants that provide greater potency alone or in combination without compromising safety are highly desired. Previous cell-based high-throughput screenings yielded a small molecule 81 [-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-ethoxybenzenesulfonamide], which enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB and type I interferon signaling in reporter assays. Here compound 81 activated innate immunity in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The innate immune activation by 81 was independent of TLRs and other PRRs and was significantly reduced in mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS)-deficient BMDCs. Compound 81 activities were mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction as mitophagy inducers and a mitochondria specific antioxidant significantly inhibited cytokine induction by 81. Both compound 81 and a derivative obtained via structure-activity relationship studies, 2F52 [-benzyl--(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-ethoxybenzenesulfonamide] modestly increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and induced the aggregation of MAVS. Neither 81 nor 2F52 injected as adjuvants caused local or systemic toxicity in mice at effective concentrations for vaccination. Furthermore, vaccination with inactivated influenza virus adjuvanted with 2F52 demonstrated protective effects in a murine lethal virus challenge study. As an unconventional and safe adjuvant that does not require known PRRs, compound 2F52 could be a useful addition to vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025718118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201894PMC
June 2021

Structure-Activity Relationship Studies To Identify Affinity Probes in Bis-aryl Sulfonamides That Prolong Immune Stimuli.

J Med Chem 2019 11 25;62(21):9521-9540. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Moores Cancer Center , University of California, San Diego , La Jolla , California 92093-0695 , United States.

Agents that safely induce, enhance, or sustain multiple innate immune signaling pathways could be developed as potent vaccine adjuvants or coadjuvants. Using high-throughput screens with cell-based nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon stimulating response element (ISRE) reporter assays, we identified a bis-aryl sulfonamide bearing compound that demonstrated sustained NF-κB and ISRE activation after a primary stimulus with lipopolysaccharide or interferon-α, respectively. Here, we present systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the two phenyl rings and amide nitrogen of the sulfonamide group of compound focused toward identification of affinity probes. The murine vaccination studies showed that compounds and when used as coadjuvants with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) showed significant enhancement in antigen ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin responses compared to MPLA alone. SAR studies pointed to the sites on the scaffold that can tolerate the introduction of aryl azide, biotin, and fluorescent rhodamine substituents to obtain several affinity and photoaffinity probes which will be utilized in concert for future target identification and mechanism of action studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00870DOI Listing
November 2019