Publications by authors named "Jasim Al-Rawi"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Inhibition of AKT signalling by benzoxazine derivative LTUR6 through the modulation of downstream kinases.

Invest New Drugs 2019 08 10;37(4):779-783. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Faculty of Science Technology and Engineering, School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, Latrobe Institute of Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

Many compounds structurally similar to chromones have been developed to enhance the sensitizing effect of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Most of these compounds have been shown to promote this sensitization by targeting the repair pathways. One such compound is LTUR6, which enhances the sensitization of doxorubicin to colon cancer cells HT29, by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the double stranded break (DSB) repair enzyme AKT. The downstream regulatory targets of AKT that enhance doxorubicin mediated cytotoxicity in the presence of LTUR6 remains elusive. In this study, we performed comparative analyses of 43 kinase phosphorylation sites using the human phospho-kinase array proteome profiler. Results revealed altered expression levels of multiple proteins that regulated apoptotic signalling pathways. Increased activation of mTOR, RSK1/2/3, p38α and PRAS40 after combination treatment with LTUR6 and doxorubicin over doxorubicin alone was observed. This study provides a deeper insight into the key proteins involved and presents a novel molecular pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00726-2DOI Listing
August 2019

Synthesis and biological evaluation of 8-aryl-2-morpholino-7-O-substituted benzo[e][1,3]oxazin-4-ones against DNA-PK, PI3K, PDE3A enzymes and platelet aggregation.

Bioorg Med Chem 2017 10 15;25(20):5531-5536. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199 Bendigo, VIC 3552, Australia. Electronic address:

A series of 40 7-(O-substituted)-2-morpholino-8-aryl-4H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazin-4-one derivatives was synthesized. They were prepared via synthesis of a key precursor, 8-bromo-7-hydroxy-2-morpholino-4H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazin-4-one 13 which was amenable to ether synthesis at the 7-position and Suzuki coupling at the 8-position. The 2 protons of 7-OCH in compounds 18g, 18h, 18i, 18l and 18m prove to be magnetically non-equivalent, atropisomerism (axial chirality), as result of sterically hindered rotation of the bulky 8-aryl-substituent. The products were evaluated for their activities against PI3K isoforms, DNA-PK and PDE3. The results showed that this substitution pattern has a deleterious effect on PI3K activities, which may arise from steric hindrance in the active site. PI3Kδ was somewhat more tolerant of this substitution particularly where 8-(4-methoxylphenyl) substituents were present (ICs∼2-3μM). Good activities against PDE3 were also obtained for compounds, with particular members of the 7-(2-pyridinyl) methoxy series 19 showing good inhibition (ICs∼2-3μM), comparable to previously described analogues. A piperazinyl derivative 26a effectively inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC of 8μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2017.08.022DOI Listing
October 2017

Synthesis of linear and angular aryl-morpholino-naphth-oxazines, their DNA-PK, PI3K, PDE3A and antiplatelet activity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 11 5;26(22):5534-5538. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, PO Box 199, Bendigo, VIC 3552, Australia. Electronic address:

To continue our study of 2-morpholino-benzoxazine based compounds, which show useful activity against PI3K family enzymes or antiplatelet activity, we designed and synthesized a series of linear 6.7-fused, 5,6-angular fused and 7,8-angular fused-aryl-morpholino-naphth-oxazines. The compounds were prepared from substituted 2-hydroxynaphthoic acid to give the corresponding thioxo analogues 8, 9, 15 and 19. The thioxo products were then converted to the morpholino substituted analogue. The aryl group was introduced by Suzuki coupling of bromo precursors. The products were evaluated for activity at PI3K family enzymes and as platelet aggregation inhibitors and compared to reported unsubstituted analogues. The linear 6.7-fused product 13a and 13b were moderated potent but selective PI3Kδ isoform inhibitors (IC=7.7 and 5.61μM). Good antiplatelet activity was noticed for the angular 7,8-fused compounds 22a, b, k and l with IC=3.0,14.0, 2.0 and 5.0μM respectively. The antiplatelet activity is independent of PDE3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.10.003DOI Listing
November 2016

Synthesis, structure elucidation, DNA-PK, PI3K, anti-platelet and anti-bacteria activity of linear 5, 6, and 10-substituted-2-morpholino-chromen-oxazine-dione and angular 3, 4, 6-substituted-8-morpholino-chromen-oxazine-2,10-dione.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2016 2;31(sup2):86-95. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

a Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University , Bendigo , VIC , Australia.

Coumarin, a naturally occurring or synthesised phytochemical, displays a wide range of biological activities. However, chromen-2-ones fused with 1,3-benzoxazine rings is not well documented and there is a gap in the literature which required engaging. The substituted-2-thioxo-chromen-oxazine linear compounds 14a-i and angular compounds 16a-e were synthesised from the reaction of hydroxy-substituted-chromene-carboxylic 10-13 with freshly prepared PhP(SCN). 2-Morpholino-substituted-chromen-oxazine-4,8-dione and 8-morpholino-substituted-chromen-oxazine-2,10-dione 15a-f and 17 were synthesised from the reaction of the corresponding oxazines 14 and 16 with morpholine. PI3K activity was observed for the hydroxy-substituted-chromene-carboxylic acid of which compound 13b showed moderate PI3Kγ (IC=5.56 μM) and PI3Kα (IC=14.7 μM) activity. Additionally, 8-morpholino-chromen-oxazine-2,10-dione 17a showed isoform selective PI3Kδ activity with IC=5.08 μM with non-DNA-PK ≥ 100 μM. Consequently compound 17a can be considered as a selective PI3Kδ inhibitor with non-DNA-PK at compound concentrations ≥100 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756366.2016.1190710DOI Listing
February 2017

Synthesis, structure elucidation, DNA-PK and PI3K and anti-cancer activity of 8- and 6-aryl-substituted-1-3-benzoxazines.

Eur J Med Chem 2016 Mar 27;110:326-39. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, VIC 3552, Australia. Electronic address:

The synthesis of 6-aryl, 8- aryl, and 8-aryl-6-chloro-2-morpholino-1,3-benzoxazines with potent activity against PI3K and DNA-PK is described. Synthesis of thirty one analogues was facilitated by an improved synthesis of 3-bromo-2-hydroxybenzoic acid 13 by de-sulphonation of 3-bromo-2-hydroxy-5-sulfobenzoic acid 12 en route to 2-methylthio-substituted-benzoxazine intermediates 17-19. From this series, compound 20k (LTURM34) (dibenzo[b,d]thiophen-4-yl) (IC50 = 0.034 μM) was identified as a specific DNA-PK inhibitor, 170 fold more selective for DNA-PK activity compared to PI3K activity. Other compounds of the series show markedly altered selectivity for various PI3K isoforms including compound 20i (8-(naphthalen-1-yl) a potent and quite selective PI3Kδ inhibitor (IC50 = 0.64 μM). Finally, nine compounds were evaluated and showed antiproliferative activity against an NCI panel of cancer cell lines. Compound 20i (8-(naphthalen-1-yl) showed strong anti-proliferative activity against A498 renal cancer cells that warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.01.042DOI Listing
March 2016

Novel benzoxazines as inhibitors of angiogenesis.

Invest New Drugs 2015 Feb 23;33(1):45-52. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia.

Dysregulation of angiogenesis has been associated with many pathological disorders, including cancer; where angiogenesis has been found to be critical for the maintenance and metastasis of tumours. One of the pathways involved in the regulation of angiogenesis is the phosphatidylinositol3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway. The PI3K family consists of enzymes that phosphorylate the 3-OH of the inositol ring of phosphatidyl inositol. There are four isoforms, PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ, that are signalling intermediaries involved in numerous pathways that sustain and maintain the tumours. In this study, we screened eight novel benzoxazine inhibitors of both PI3K isoforms and the related DNA-PK, for their anti-angiogenic effects. Our findings identified the novel benzoxazine (7, 8 (substituted)-2-morpholino-benz (1,3) oxazine: LTUSI122) to be non-toxic at concentrations up to 5 μM, while exhibiting significant inhibition of various aspects of angiogenesis including endothelial proliferation, migration and tube formation. The molecular mechanisms were examined using an angiogenesis array, revealing inhibition of several proliferative and migratory angiogenic factors, including VEGFR, MMP, IL-8, uPAR and MCP; and stimulation of the endogenous inhibitor, endostatin. We hypothesize that these anti-angiogenic effects are mediated by targeting an important signaling intermediary, PI3Kα, and subsequently its action on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a key growth factor in the process of angiogenesis). If used in combination with more targeted therapies, LTUSI122 could reduce tumour growth and increase the efficacy of these treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-014-0172-8DOI Listing
February 2015

Radiosensitizing activity of a novel Benzoxazine through the promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of DNA repair.

Invest New Drugs 2014 Jun 14;32(3):424-35. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute of Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, VIC, 3552, Australia.

The DNA dependant protein kinase (DNA-PK) enzyme plays a major part in the repair of double stranded breaks induced by radiation and hence in the radio-resistance of tumour cells. Inhibitors of DNA-PK have been tested successfully in the past for their ability to sensitize cancer cells to the effects of radiation. Here we present a novel benzoxazine, 8-methyl-2-(morpholine-4yl)-7-(pyridine-3-methoxy)-4H-1,3-benzoxacine-4-one (LTU27) and analyse its ability to cause sensitization of lung cancer and colon cancer cells to radiation. There was a significant reduction in survival rate, increase in apoptosis and inhibition in autophosphorylation of DNA-PK and AKT1 after treating them concomitantly with both radiation and LTU27. The mechanism of action appears to be through inhibition of DNA-PK leading to delayed DNA repair and promotion of apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-014-0079-4DOI Listing
June 2014

Chemo-sensitisation of HeLa cells to etoposide by a benzoxazine in the absence of DNA-PK inhibition.

Invest New Drugs 2013 Dec 22;31(6):1466-75. Epub 2013 Sep 22.

La Trobe Institute of Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

The benzoaxines have been developed from structurally similar chromones as specific inhibitors of the PI3K family to sensitize cancer cells to the effects of chemotherapeutic agents; most have been shown to do this through specific inhibition of DNA-PK and DNA repair mechanisms. In this study we examined the benzoxazine, 2-((3-methoxybut-3en-2-yl)amino)-8methyl-4H-benzo[1,3]oxazin-4one (LTUSI54). This compound had no DNA-PK or PI3K inhibitory activity but still sensitized HeLa cells to the effects of Etoposide. LTUSI54 works synergistically with Etoposide to inhibit growth of HeLa cells and sub G1 analysis indicates that this is not due to an increase in apoptosis. LTUSI54 neither enhances DSB formation due to Etoposide nor does it delay the repair of such damage. Cell cycle analysis shows a clear G2 block with Etoposide alone while, in combination with LTUSI54 there is an additional S phase arrest. Phospho-kinase analysis indicated that LTUSI54 engages key regulators of cell cycle progression, specifically p38α, p53 and ERK 1/2. From our results we hypothesize that LTUSI54 is promoting the cell cycle arrest through activation of p38α pathways, independent of p53 mechanisms. This results in a decrease in p53 phosphorylation and hence, restricted apoptosis. Changes in cell number appear to be the result of p38α pathways disrupting cell cycle progression, at the S and G2 checkpoints. Further investigation into the finer mechanisms by which LTUSI54 effects cell cycle progression would be of great interest in assessing this compound as a chemosensitising agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-013-0031-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3825418PMC
December 2013

Synthesis Characterization and Antibacterial, Antifungal Activity of N-(Benzyl Carbamoyl or Carbamothioyl)-2-hydroxy Substituted Benzamide and 2-Benzyl Amino-Substituted Benzoxazines.

Int J Med Chem 2013 31;2013:436397. Epub 2013 Oct 31.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, UIC 3552, Australia.

New N-(benzyl carbamothioyl)-2-hydroxy substituted benzamides 13, 20, and 21 were synthesized using sodium bicarbonate and benzyl amine with 2-thioxo-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines 6, 10a, b, 11c, and 12a-n. The 2-thioxo-substituted-1,3-oxazines 6, 10a-b, 11d 12a-n, and 26 were converted to the corresponding 2-methylthio-substituted-1,3-oxazines 14a-l and 24 which were then converted to 2-benzyl amino-substituted-benzoxazines 15a-i by refluxing with benzylamine. Products 15a, b, e, f, and g were also synthesized by boiling the corresponding N-(benzyl carbamothioyl)-2-hydroxy substituted benzamides 13a, b, f, l, and m in acetic acid. 2-Oxo-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines 22 and 25 were prepared by treating the corresponding 2-methylthio-substituted-1,3-oxazines 14 and 24 with dilute HCl. The N-(benzyl carbamoyl)-2-hydroxy substituted benzamide 23 was synthesized from the reaction of 2-oxo-substituted-1,3-benzoxazine 22 with benzylamine. The new products were characterized using IR, (1)H, and (13)C NMR in addition to microanalysis. Selected compounds were tested in vitro for antibacterial and antifungi activity and the most active compounds were found to be the 4-(substituted-benzylamino)-2-hydroxy benzoic acids 9a and d (M. chlorophenolicum, MIC 50 and 25 µgm L(-1), resp.), N1, N3-bis (benzyl carbamothioyl)-4,6-dihydroxy-substituted phthalamides 20a and 20c (B. subtilis MIC 12.5, 50 µgm L(-1), resp.) and 21 (M. chlorophenolicum, MIC 50 µgm L(-1)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/436397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4207449PMC
November 2014

Synthesis, DNA-PK inhibition, anti-platelet activity studies of 2-(N-substituted-3-aminopyridine)-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines and DNA-PK and PI3K inhibition, homology modelling studies of 2-morpholino-(7,8-di and 8-substituted)-1,3-benzoxazines.

Eur J Med Chem 2012 Nov 5;57:85-101. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, VIC 3552, Australia.

A number of new 2-(pyridin-3-ylamino)-4H-(substituted) benz[e]-1,3-oxazin-4-ones were synthesized 10a-g. These were then reacted with the hydro-halogen salt of 2, 3 and 4-(halo-methyl) pyridine in the presence of Cs(2)CO(3) to give eighteen new 2-(N-substituted (pyridin-3-ylmethyl) amino)-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines (compounds 11a-i, 13a-c, and 15a-f). X-ray crystallography was used to confirm that the 2-N-substituted structures 11 and 13 were formed rather than the 3-N-substitution analogues 12 and 14. Eleven of the new compounds were tested for their effect on collagen induced platelet aggregation and it was found that the most active inhibitory compound was 8-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-yl(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)amino)-7-(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)-4H-benz[e]-1,3-oxazin-4-one 15e with an IC(50) of 10 ± 2 μM. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition data for 12 previously prepared 2-morpholino substituted-1,3-benzoxazines (compounds 19-31) were measured and showed high to moderate activity where the most active compound was compound 27 with an IC(50) of 0.28 μM. Furthermore DNA-PK inhibition data for six newly prepared 2-(N-substituted (pyridin-3-ylmethyl) amino)-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines (compounds 11b, 13a-b, 15a-b and 15e) and 8-methyl-7-(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-2H-benz[e]-1,3-oxazin-2,4(3H)-dione 17d were measured and moderate to low inhibitory activity was observed, with the most active of the compounds in this series being 8-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-yl(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)amino)-7-(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)-4H-benz[e]-1,3-oxazin-4-one 15e with an IC(50) of 2.5 μM. PI3K inhibition studies revealed that compound 27 is highly potent (IC(50) for PI3Kα = 0.13 μM, PI3Kβ = 0.14 μM, PI3Kγ = 0.72 μM, PI3Kδ = 2.02 μM). Compound 22 with 7-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy] group shows greater inhibition of DNA-PK over PI3K. Docking of some 2-morpholino-substituted-1,3-benzoxazine compounds 19-31 within the binding pocket and structure-activity relationships (SAR) analyses were performed with results agreeing well with observed activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.08.035DOI Listing
November 2012

Synthesis, structural elucidation, DNA-PK inhibition, homology modelling and anti-platelet activity of morpholino-substituted-1,3-naphth-oxazines.

Bioorg Med Chem 2011 Jul 24;19(13):3983-94. Epub 2011 May 24.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

A number of new angular 2-morpholino-(substituted)-naphth-1,3-oxazines (compound 10b), linear 2-morpholino-(substituted)-naphth-1,3-oxazines (compounds 13b-c), linear 6, 7 and 9-O-substituted-2-morpholino-(substituted)-naphth-1,3-oxazines (compounds 17-22, 24, and 25) and angular compounds 14-16 and 23 were synthesised. The O-substituent was pyridin-2yl-methyl (15, 18, and 21) pyridin-3yl-methyl (16, 19, and 22) and 4-methylpipreazin-1-yl-ethoxy (23-25). Twelve compounds were tested for their inhibitory effect on collagen induced platelet aggregation and it was found that the most active compounds were compounds 19 and 22 with IC(50)=55±4 and 85±4 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the compounds were also assayed for their ability to inhibit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. The most active compounds were 18 IC(50)=0.091 μM, 24 IC(50)=0.191 μM, and 22 IC(50)=0.331 μM. Homology modelling was used to build a 3D model of DNA-PK based on the X-ray structure of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Docking of synthesised compounds within the binding pocket and structure-activity relationships (SAR) analyses of the poses were performed and results agreed well with observed activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2011.05.032DOI Listing
July 2011

Synthesis, structural elucidation and DNA-dependant protein kinase and antiplatelet studies of 2-amino-[5, 6, 7, 8-mono and 7, 8-di-substituted]-1,3-benzoxazines.

Eur J Med Chem 2010 Nov 12;45(11):4934-46. Epub 2010 Aug 12.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo 3552, Australia.

A number of new 2-amino-[5, 6, 7 and 8]-O-substituted 1,3-benzoxazines, and 2-amino 8-methyl-7-O-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines were synthesized. Thirty one new compounds were tested for their effect on collagen induced platelet aggregation and it was found that the most active compounds were 8-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-7-(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)-4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one 9f and 8-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-7-(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)-4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one 9j with IC(50) = 2 ± 1.5 and 4 ± 2 μM respectively. Inhibition of DNA-PK activity at concentrations of 1.6-4 μM were tested for 9 products 5i, 7a-e and 9b, 9f and 9j.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2010.07.066DOI Listing
November 2010

Synthesis, identification and antiplatelet evaluation of 2-morpholino substituted benzoxazines.

Eur J Med Chem 2007 Sep 27;42(9):1200-10. Epub 2007 Jan 27.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199 Bendigo 3552, Australia.

A number of 2-morpholino substituted benzoxazines have been prepared in order to test their effectiveness against ADP and collagen induced platelet aggregation. The reaction of 2-thio-1,3-benzoxazines with morpholine has been generalised to enable the use of substituted benzoxazines. Two separate methods were used to prepare 7-O-2-morpholino substituted benzoxazines from 7-hydroxy-2-morpholino benzoxazines. Antiplatelet testing was carried out on 15 of the title compounds. 7-(2-Chloroethoxy)-8-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one 15d and 7-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]-8-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one 16d showed potent activity against ADP and collagen induced platelet aggregation. The structures of the newly prepared compounds were confirmed by microanalysis as well as the analysis of IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2007.01.021DOI Listing
September 2007
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