Publications by authors named "Jaroslav A Hubacek"

129 Publications

Individual DNA Methylation Pattern Shifts in Nanoparticles-Exposed Workers Analyzed in Four Consecutive Years.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 22;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Nanotoxicology and Molecular Epidemiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine CAS, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

A DNA methylation pattern represents an original plan of the function settings of individual cells and tissues. The basic strategies of its development and changes during the human lifetime are known, but the details related to its modification over the years on an individual basis have not yet been studied. Moreover, current evidence shows that environmental exposure could generate changes in DNA methylation settings and, subsequently, the function of genes. In this study, we analyzed the effect of chronic exposure to nanoparticles (NP) in occupationally exposed workers repeatedly sampled in four consecutive years (2016-2019). A detailed methylation pattern analysis of 14 persons (10 exposed and 4 controls) was performed on an individual basis. A microarray-based approach using chips, allowing the assessment of more than 850 K CpG loci, was used. Individual DNA methylation patterns were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). The results show the shift in DNA methylation patterns in individual years in all the exposed and control subjects. The overall range of differences varied between the years in individual persons. The differences between the first and last year of examination (a three-year time period) seem to be consistently greater in the NP-exposed subjects in comparison with the controls. The selected 14 most differently methylated cg loci were relatively stable in the chronically exposed subjects. In summary, the specific type of long-term exposure can contribute to the fixing of relevant epigenetic changes related to a specific environment as, e.g., NP inhalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346047PMC
July 2021

The APOE4 allele is associated with a decreased risk of retinopathy in type 2 diabetics.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Aug 30;48(8):5873-5879. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Experimental Medicine Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Videnska 1958/9, Prague, 14021, Czech Republic.

Background: Common polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene are suggested to be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the potential association with T2DM complications (nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) remains unclear. We perform the case-control study to analyse the association between the APOE polymorphism and risk of T2DM and to analysed the potential relationship between the APOE and T2DM complications.

Methods And Results: APOE variants (rs429358 and rs7412) were genotyped by TaqMan assay in T2DM patients (N = 1274; N = 829 with complications including retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy status) and with PCR-RFLP in healthy nondiabetic controls (N = 2055). The comparison of subjects with genotypes associated with low plasma cholesterol (APOE2/E2 and APOE2/E3 carriers vs. others) did not show an association with T2DM (OR [95% CI] = 0.88 [0.71-1.08). The differences remained insignificant after adjusting for diabetes duration, sex and BMI. Carriers of at least one APOE4 allele (rs429358) are protected against T2DM related retinopathy (OR [95% CI] = 0.65 [0.42-0.99]. Protection against retinopathy is driven mostly by females (OR [95% CI] = 0.50 [0.25-0.99]); and remains significant (P = 0.044) after adjustment for diabetes duration and BMI.

Conclusion: Common APOE polymorphism was not associated with T2DM in the Czech population. Yet, APOE4 allele revealed an association with retinopathy. In particular, female T2DM patients with at least one APOE4 allele exhibit lower prevalence of retinopathy in our study subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06581-wDOI Listing
August 2021

An Integrative Study of Aortic mRNA/miRNA Longitudinal Changes in Long-Term LVAD Support.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 10;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Experimental Medicine Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 140 21 Prague, Czech Republic.

Studying the long-term impact of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) offers an opportunity for a complex understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular changes in aortic tissue in response to a nonphysiological blood flow pattern. Our study aimed to analyze aortic mRNA/miRNA expression changes in response to long-term LVAD support. Paired aortic samples obtained at the time of LVAD implantation and at the time of heart transplantation were examined for mRNA/miRNA profiling. The number of differentially expressed genes (Pcorr < 0.05) shared between samples before and after LVAD support was 277. The whole miRNome profile revealed 69 differentially expressed miRNAs (Pcorr < 0.05). Gene ontology (GO) analysis identified that LVAD predominantly influenced genes involved in the extracellular matrix and collagen fibril organization. Integrated mRNA/miRNA analysis revealed that potential targets of miRNAs dysregulated in explanted samples are mainly involved in GO biological process terms related to dendritic spine organization, neuron projection organization, and cell junction assembly and organization. We found differentially expressed genes participating in vascular tissue engineering as a consequence of LVAD duration. Changes in aortic miRNA levels demonstrated an effect on molecular processes involved in angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303892PMC
July 2021

The effect of long-term left ventricular assist device support on flow-sensitive plasma microRNA levels.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 29;339:138-143. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Center for Experimental Medicine, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Implantation of current generation left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) in the treatment of end-stage heart failure (HF), not only improves HF symptoms and end-organ perfusion, but also leads to cellular and molecular responses, presumably in response to the continuous flow generated by these devices. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in multiple biological processes, including the pathogenesis of HF. In our study, we examined the influence of long-term LVAD support on changes in flow-sensitive miRNAs in plasma.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples from patients with end-stage heart failure (N = 33; age = 55.7 ± 11.6 years) were collected before LVAD implantation and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after implantation. Plasma levels of the flow-sensitive miRNAs; miR-10a, miR-10b, miR-146a, miR-146b, miR-663a, miR-663b, miR-21, miR-155, and miR-126 were measured using quantitative PCR.

Results: Increasing quantities of miR-126 (P < 0.03) and miR-146a (P < 0.02) was observed at each follow-up visit after LVAD implantation. A positive association between miR-155 and Belcaro score (P < 0.04) and an inverse correlation between miR-126 and endothelial function, measured as the reactive hyperemia index (P < 0.05), was observed.

Conclusions: Our observations suggest that after LVAD implantation, low pulsatile flow up-regulates plasma levels of circulating flow-sensitive miRNAs, contributing to endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.06.050DOI Listing
September 2021

Novel mutations in TRPM6 gene associated with primary hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia. Case report.

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background: Primary hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH) is a rare genetic disorder. Dysfunctional transient receptor potential melastatin 6 causes impaired intestinal absorption of magnesium, leading to low serum levels accompanied by hypocalcemia. Typical signs at initial manifestation are generalized seizures, tetany, and/or muscle spasms.

Case Report: We present a 5 w/o female manifesting tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory tests detected severe hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia. The molecular genetic analysis revealed two novel mutations within the TRPM6 gene c.3308dupC (p.Pro1104Thrfs*28) (p.P1104Tfs*28) and c.3958C>T (p.Gln1302*) (p.Q1302*) and the patient was successfully treated with Mg supplementation.

Conclusion: Ion disbalance should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of infantile seizures. Accurate diagnosis of HSH together with appropriate treatment are crucial to prevent irreversible neurological outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5507/bp.2021.027DOI Listing
May 2021

A case of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia with an atypical phenotype and delayed clinical symptoms.

J Clin Lipidol 2021 May-Jun;15(3):435-440. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Centre for Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantation, Pekarska 53, 656 91 Brno, Czechia; Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czechia. Electronic address:

We describe the casuistry of a homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia female patient with a biallelic missense variant (NM_000527.4:c.1775G>A, p.Gly592Glu) in the LDLR gene, severe hypertriglyceridemia and late manifestation of coronary heart disease not earlier than at the age of 45 years. An atypical phenotype led to a delayed diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2021.04.006DOI Listing
April 2021

ACE I/D polymorphism in Czech first-wave SARS-CoV-2-positive survivors.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Aug 3;519:206-209. Epub 2021 May 3.

Czech Technical University, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Sítná 3105, Kladno, Czech Republic; Department of Preventive Cardiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Videnska 1958/9, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread from China in 2019/2020 to all continents. Significant geographical and ethnic differences were described, and host genetic background seems to be important for the resistance to and mortality of COVID-19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism (rs4646994) is one of the candidates with the potential to affect infection symptoms and mortality.

Methods: In our study, we successfully genotyped 408 SARS-CoV-2-positive COVID-19 survivors (163 asymptomatic and 245 symptomatic) and compared them with a population-based DNA bank of 2,559 subjects.

Results: The frequency of ACE I/I homozygotes was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared with that in controls (26.2% vs. 21.2%; P = 0.02; OR [95% CI] = 1.55 [1.17-2.05]. Importantly, however, the difference was driven just by the symptomatic subjects (29.0% vs. 21.2% of the I/I homozygotes; P = 0.002; OR [95% CI] = 1.78 [1.22-2.60]). The genotype distribution of the ACE genotypes was almost identical in population controls and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (P = 0.76).

Conclusions: We conclude that ACE I/D polymorphism could have the potential to predict the severity of COVID-19, with I/I homozygotes being at increased risk of symptomatic COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.04.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091801PMC
August 2021

Increased prevalence of the CVD-associated ANRIL allele in the Roma/Gypsy population in comparison with the majority Czech population.

Genet Mol Biol 2021 30;44(2):e20200405. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death around the world, with highest prevalence reported in minority Roma/Gypsy populations living in developed countries. Whether these differences are caused by unhealthy lifestyles or genetic factors remain unknown. The aim of our study was to examine the genotype frequencies of the rs10757274 polymorphism in the 9p.21 locus within ANRIL (antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus), a long non-coding RNA located in the vicinity of the CDKN2A/2B inhibitors loci. ANRIL is understood to be the strongest genetic determinant of CVD in Caucasians. Using PCR-RFLP, we analysed the ANRIL rs10757274 polymorphism in 298 non-Roma (50% male) and 302 Roma/Gypsy (50% male) adult (39.5 ± 15.1 years and 39.2 ± 12.8 years, respectively) subjects. We found that frequencies of the ANRIL GG, GA and AA genotypes were 20.1%, 52.4% and 27.5% in the majority population and 32.9%, 47.9% and 19.2% in Roma/Gypsy subjects, respectively. The distribution of genotypes was deemed significantly different at P < 0.001. Within the Roma/Gypsy population, we detected increased prevalence of the CVD-associated GG genotype. Increased prevalence of CVD among Roma/Gypsies subjects may be significantly linked to genetic background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2020-0405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097515PMC
April 2021

Genetics of Cardiovascular Disease: How Far Are We from Personalized CVD Risk Prediction and Management?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 17;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

3rd Department of Internal Medicine, General University Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 11636 Prague, Czech Republic.

Despite the rapid progress in diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this disease remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Recent progress over the last two decades in the field of molecular genetics, especially with new tools such as genome-wide association studies, has helped to identify new genes and their variants, which can be used for calculations of risk, prediction of treatment efficacy, or detection of subjects prone to drug side effects. Although the use of genetic risk scores further improves CVD prediction, the significance is not unambiguous, and some subjects at risk remain undetected. Further research directions should focus on the "second level" of genetic information, namely, regulatory molecules (miRNAs) and epigenetic changes, predominantly DNA methylation and gene-environment interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074003PMC
April 2021

Genetics of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: New Insights.

Front Genet 2020 7;11:574474. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

3rd Department of Internal Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czechia.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most common monogenic diseases, leading to an increased risk of premature atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications due to its effect on plasma cholesterol levels. Variants of three genes (, and ) are the major causes of FH, but in some probands, the FH phenotype is associated with variants of other genes. Alternatively, the typical clinical picture of FH can result from the accumulation of common cholesterol-increasing alleles (polygenic FH). Although the Czech Republic is one of the most successful countries with respect to FH detection, approximately 80% of FH patients remain undiagnosed. The opportunities for international collaboration and experience sharing within international programs (e.g., EAS FHSC, ScreenPro FH, etc.) will improve the detection of FH patients in the future and enable even more accessible and accurate genetic diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.574474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575810PMC
October 2020

A Newly Observed Mutation of the Gene Causing Lethal Respiratory Failure of a Full-Term Newborn: A Case Report.

Front Genet 2020 31;11:568303. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Brno, Brno, Czechia.

Respiratory distress syndrome caused by a secondary surfactant deficiency is one of the most common diagnoses requiring admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We illustrate the case of a term female newborn without prenatal and peripartal risks. There had been significant signs of respiratory distress 4 h after delivery. The condition gradually worsened to the point of needing oscillatory ventilation. The most common infectious and non-infectious causes were excluded. Considering the course of illness, a congenital surfactant deficiency was suspected. There nevertheless was no significant improvement after administration of surfactant. Following a short period of palliative care, the child died at 34 days of age due to respiratory failure. DNA diagnostics revealed compound heterozygosity of functional mutations leading to the p.Pro147Leu and p.Pro246Leu exchanges. The second identified mutation of c.737C>T had not to date been described in connection with primary surfactant deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.568303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489478PMC
August 2020

Serum Bilirubin in the Czech Population - Relationship to the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Males.

Circ J 2020 09 26;84(10):1779-1785. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, Faculty General Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University.

Background: The potential antiatherogenic role of bilirubin is generally acknowledged, so the aim of this study was to determine serum bilirubin concentrations and the prevalence of Gilbert syndrome (GS) in the Czech general population with particular reference to its relationship to the risk of myocardial infarction (MI).Methods and Results:Biochemical markers were analyzed in 2 independent Czech post-MONICA studies (in total, n=3,311), and in 741 male MI patients. TheUGT1A1promoter gene variant (rs81753472) was analyzed in these MI patients and in the first control population cohort (n=717). Medians of serum bilirubin concentrations in the 2 Czech general population cohorts were 9.6 and 9.8 μmol/L (10.7 and 11.3 μmol/L in males, and 8.3 and 8.8 μmol/L in females; P<0.01). The prevalence of GS was 8.9%, twice as high in males compared with females (11.6 vs. 6.1%; P<0.01). TheUGT1A1(TA)promoter repeats significantly influenced serum bilirubin concentrations in the controls, but not in the MI patients. Serum bilirubin concentrations were significantly lower in MI patients (7.7 vs. 10.7 μmol/L; P<0.01), with almost 5-fold lower prevalence of GS.

Conclusions: Serum bilirubin concentrations and the prevalence of GS were determined in the Czech general population. Significantly lower serum bilirubin concentrations were observed in male MI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0192DOI Listing
September 2020

Five genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the Czech non-Roma and Czech Roma population samples.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2020 06 30;35(2). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Objectives Cytochromes P450 play a role in human drugs metabolic pathways and their genes are among the most variable in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze genotype frequencies of five common polymorphisms of cytochromes P450 in Roma/Gypsy and Czech (non-Roma) population samples with Czech origin. Methods Roma/Gypsy (n=302) and Czech subjects (n=298) were genotyped for CYP1A2 (rs762551), CYP2A6 (rs4105144), CYP2B6 (rs3745274) and CYP2D6 (rs3892097; rs1065852) polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP or Taqman assay. Results We found significant allelic/genotype differences between ethnics in three genes. For rs3745274 polymorphism, there was increased frequency of T allele carriers in Roma in comparison with Czech population (53.1 vs. 43.7%; p=0.02). For rs4105144 (CYP2A6) there was higher frequency of T allele carriers in Roma in comparison with Czech population (68.7 vs. 49.8%; p<0.0001). For rs3892097 (CYP2D6) there was more carriers of the A allele between Roma in comparison with Czech population (39.2 vs. 38.2%; p=0.048). Genotype/allelic frequencies of CYP2D6 (rs1065852) and CYP1A2 (rs762551) variants did not significantly differ between the ethnics. Conclusions There were significant differences in allelic/genotype frequencies of some, but not all cytochromes P450 polymorphisms between the Czech Roma/Gypsies and Czech non-Roma subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmpt-2020-0103DOI Listing
June 2020

Five genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the Czech non-Roma and Czech Roma population samples.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Objectives Cytochromes P450 play a role in human drugs metabolic pathways and their genes are among the most variable in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze genotype frequencies of five common polymorphisms of cytochromes P450 in Roma/Gypsy and Czech (non-Roma) population samples with Czech origin. Methods Roma/Gypsy (n=302) and Czech subjects (n=298) were genotyped for CYP1A2 (rs762551), CYP2A6 (rs4105144), CYP2B6 (rs3745274) and CYP2D6 (rs3892097; rs1065852) polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP or Taqman assay. Results We found significant allelic/genotype differences between ethnics in three genes. For rs3745274 polymorphism, there was increased frequency of T allele carriers in Roma in comparison with Czech population (53.1 vs. 43.7%; p=0.02). For rs4105144 (CYP2A6) there was higher frequency of T allele carriers in Roma in comparison with Czech population (68.7 vs. 49.8%; p<0.0001). For rs3892097 (CYP2D6) there was more carriers of the A allele between Roma in comparison with Czech population (39.2 vs. 38.2%; p=0.048). Genotype/allelic frequencies of CYP2D6 (rs1065852) and CYP1A2 (rs762551) variants did not significantly differ between the ethnics. Conclusions There were significant differences in allelic/genotype frequencies of some, but not all cytochromes P450 polymorphisms between the Czech Roma/Gypsies and Czech non-Roma subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2020-0103DOI Listing
June 2020

Different prevalence of T2DM risk alleles in Roma population in comparison with the majority Czech population.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 09 24;8(9):e1361. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Background: The Czech governmental study suggests up to a 25% higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Roma population than within the majority population. It is not known whether and to what extent these differences have a genetic background.

Methods: To analyze whether the frequencies of the alleles/genotypes of the FTO, TCF7L2, CDKN2A/2B, MAEA, TLE4, IGF2BP2, ARAP1, and KCNJ11 genes differ between the two major ethnic groups in the Czech Republic, we examined them in DNA samples from 302 Roma individuals and 298 Czech individuals.

Results: Compared to the majority population, Roma are more likely to carry risk alleles in the FTO (26% vs. 16% GG homozygotes, p < .01), IGF2BP2 (22% vs. 10% TT homozygotes, p < .0001), ARAP1 (98% vs. 95% of A allele carriers, p < .005), and CDKN2A/2B (81% vs. 66% of TT homozygotes, p < .001) genes; however, less frequently they are carriers of the TCF7L2 risk allele (34% vs. 48% of the T allele p < .0005). Finally, we found significant accumulation of T2DM-associated alleles between the Roma population in comparison with the majority population (25.4% vs. 15.2% of the carriers of at least 12 risk alleles; p < .0001).

Conclusion: The increased prevalence of T2DM in the Roma population may have a background in different frequencies of the risk alleles of genes associated with T2DM development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507457PMC
September 2020

Genetic variants associated with glycemic response to treatment with dipeptidylpeptidase 4 inhibitors.

Pharmacogenomics 2020 Apr 20;21(5):317-323. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Faculty of Medicine, Košice, Slovakia.

We examined associations of eight SNPs in/near seven candidate genes with glycemic response to 6 month treatment with DPP4 inhibitors. 206 patients with type 2 diabetes (116 men and 90 women) were treated with sitagliptin or vildagliptin (both 100 mg/day) in combination with metformin or metformin/sulphonylurea over 6 months, and the reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA) was measured. Rs6923761 in was significantly associated with a reduction in HbA (adjusted p = 0.006). Homozygotes for the minor A allele had smaller reduction in HbA by 0.4% (4 mmol/mol) than the G allele carriers (p = 0.016). The missense variant rs6923761 in the  gene was associated with a smaller glycemic response to 6 month gliptin therapy in diabetic patients of central European origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs-2019-0147DOI Listing
April 2020

DNA Methylation Profiles in a Group of Workers Occupationally Exposed to Nanoparticles.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 31;21(7). Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Machining and Assembly, Department of Engineering Technology, Department of Material Science, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University in Liberec, Studentska 1402/2 Liberec, Czech Republic.

The risk of exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has rapidly increased during the last decade due to the vast use of nanomaterials (NMs) in many areas of human life. Despite this fact, human biomonitoring studies focused on the effect of NP exposure on DNA alterations are still rare. Furthermore, there are virtually no epigenetic data available. In this study, we investigated global and gene-specific DNA methylation profiles in a group of 20 long-term (mean 14.5 years) exposed, nanocomposite, research workers and in 20 controls. Both groups were sampled twice/day (pre-shift and post-shift) in September 2018. We applied Infinium Methylation Assay, using the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChips with more than 850,000 CpG loci, for identification of the DNA methylation pattern in the studied groups. Aerosol exposure monitoring, including two nanosized fractions, was also performed as proof of acute NP exposure. The obtained array data showed significant differences in methylation between the exposed and control groups related to long-term exposure, specifically 341 CpG loci were hypomethylated and 364 hypermethylated. The most significant CpG differences were mainly detected in genes involved in lipid metabolism, the immune system, lung functions, signaling pathways, cancer development and xenobiotic detoxification. In contrast, short-term acute NP exposure was not accompanied by DNA methylation changes. In summary, long-term (years) exposure to NP is associated with DNA epigenetic alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177382PMC
March 2020

Influence of lipoprotein apheresis on circulating plasma levels of miRNAs in patients with high Lp(a).

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:12-16

Centre for Experimental Medicine - Laboratory for Atherosclerosis Research, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Czech Republic; Department of Internal Medicine, 2nd Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is a well-established therapy for lowering lipid levels in serious cases of dyslipidaemia, including high levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. This method lowers both LDL cholesterol and Lp(a) by more than 60% in most of patients; however, because randomized clinical studies could be extremely difficult, also other markers of the effect of this procedures on vascular health are of importance. Therefore, in addition to changes in plasma lipids and Lp(a) during LA, we also analysed the response of biomarkers associated with vascular integrity: small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs).

Materials And Methods: We analysed the changes in miRNAs in two women (age 70 and 72 years) with clinically manifest extensive and progressive atherosclerotic disease and high levels of Lp(a) and with different clinical course who were treated by LA. In both women we analysed changes of 175 circulating plasma miRNAs using pre-defined serum/plasma focus panels at the beginning of and one year after the therapy.

Results: In addition to reduced levels of plasma lipids and Lp(a), circulating plasma levels of miR-193a-5p; -215-5p; -328-3p; -130a-3p; -362-3p; -92b-3p decreased, and levels of miR-125a-5p; -185-5p; -106a-5p; -320b; -19a increased (all P < 0.05) in both women. Moderate differences were found between both women with regard to the different course of atherosclerotic disease.

Conclusions: Long-term LA substantially changes circulating plasma miRNAs associated with vascular integrity reflected different clinical course in both women. If confirmed, this approach could improve the assessment of the effectiveness of this therapy on an individual basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosissup.2019.08.036DOI Listing
December 2019

SNPs within CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CYP2A6/B6, nicotine metabolite concentrations and nicotine dependence treatment success in smokers.

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2021 Mar 29;165(1):84-89. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Centre for Tobacco-Dependent, 3rd Department of Medicine - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and the General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic.

Aim: Plasma values of nicotine and its metabolites are highly variable, and this variability has a strong genetic influence. In our study, we analysed the impact of common polymorphisms associated with smoking on the plasma values of nicotine, nicotine metabolites and their ratios and investigated the potential effect of these polymorphisms and nicotine metabolite ratios on the successful treatment of tobacco dependence.

Methods: Five variants (rs16969968, rs6474412, rs578776, rs4105144 and rs3733829) were genotyped in a group of highly dependent adult smokers (n=103). All smokers underwent intensive treatment for tobacco dependence; 33 smokers were still abstinent at the 12-month follow-up.

Results: The rs4105144 (CYP2A6, P<0.005) and rs3733829 (EGLN2, P<0.05) variants were significantly associated with plasma concentrations of 3OH-cotinine and with 3OH-cotinine: cotinine ratios. Similarly, the unweighted gene score was a significant (P<0.05) predictor of both cotinine:nicotine and 3OH-cotinine:cotinine ratios. No associations between the analysed polymorphisms or nicotine metabolite ratios and nicotine abstinence rate were observed.

Conclusion: Although CYP2A6 and EGLN2 polymorphisms were associated with nicotine metabolism ratios, neither these polymorphisms nor the ratios were associated with abstinence rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5507/bp.2019.058DOI Listing
March 2021

Donor PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 Variant Alleles Confer Additive Risks for Graft Steatosis After Liver Transplantation.

Transplantation 2020 03;104(3):526-534

Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: The rs58542926 polymorphism in transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) is a genetic factor predisposing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We aimed to explore the effect of recipient and donor TM6SF2 rs58542926 genotypes on liver graft fat content after liver transplantation.

Methods: Steatosis was evaluated in liver biopsies from 268 adult recipients. The influence of recipient and donor TM6SF2 genotypes, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 genotypes, and nongenetic factors on the steatosis grade assessed 6-30 months after transplantation was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression.

Results: The presence of the TM6SF2 c.499A allele in the donor (P = 0.014), PNPLA3 c.444G allele in the donor (P < 0.001), posttransplant body mass index (P < 0.001), and serum triglycerides (P = 0.047) independently predicted increased liver fat content on multivariable analysis, whereas noncirrhotic liver disease, as an indication for liver transplantation, was associated with lower risk of steatosis (P = 0.003). The effects of the donor TM6SF2 A and PNPLA3 G alleles were additive, with an odds ratio of 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 2.01-13.00; P < 0.001), when both minor alleles were present compared with an odds ratio of 2.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.61; P = 0.002) when only one of these alleles was present.

Conclusions: The donor TM6SF2 c.499A allele is an independent risk factor of liver graft steatosis after liver transplantation that is additive to the effects of donor PNPLA3 c.444G allele.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002876DOI Listing
March 2020

The impact of co-morbidities on a 6-year survival after methanol mass poisoning outbreak: possible role of metabolic formaldehyde.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 04 12;58(4):241-253. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

The influence of co-morbid conditions on the outcome of acute methanol poisoning in mass poisoning outbreaks is not known. The objective of this is to study the impact of burden of co-morbidities, complications, and methanol-induced brain lesions on hospital, follow-up, and total mortality. All patients hospitalized with methanol poisoning during a mass poisoning outbreak were followed in a prospective cohort study until death or final follow-up after 6 years. The age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index (ACCI) score was calculated for each patient. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to calculate the adjusted hazards ratio (HR) for death. The survival was modeled using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 108 patients (mean age with SD 50.9 ± 2.6 years), 24 (54.4 ± 5.9 years) died during hospitalization (mean survival with SD 8 ± 4 days) and 84 (49.9 ± 3.0 years;  = .159) were discharged, including 27 with methanol-induced brain lesions. Of the discharged patients, 15 (56.3 ± 6.8 years) died during the follow-up (mean survival 37 ± 11 months) and 69 (48.5 ± 3.3 years;  = .044) survived. The hospital mortality was 22%, the follow-up mortality was 18%; the total mortality was 36%. Cardiac/respiratory arrest, acute respiratory failure, multiorgan failure syndrome, and arterial hypotension increased the HR for hospital and total (but not follow-up) mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and arterial pH (all  < .05). All patients who died in the hospital had at least one complication. A higher ACCI score was associated with greater total mortality (HR 1.22; 1.00-1.48 95% CI;  = .046). Of those who died, 35 (90%) had a moderate-to-high ACCI. The Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated that patients with a high ACCI had greater follow-up mortality compared to ones with low ( = .027) or moderate ( = .020) scores. For the patients who died during follow-up, cancers of different localizations were responsible for 7/15 (47%) of the deaths. The character and number of complications affected hospital but not follow-up mortality, while the burden of co-morbidities affected follow-up mortality. Methanol-induced brain lesions did not affect follow-up mortality. Relatively high cancer mortality rate may be associated with acute exposure to metabolic formaldehyde produced by methanol oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2019.1637525DOI Listing
April 2020

The Gene Score for Predicting Hypertriglyceridemia: New Insights from a Czech Case-Control Study.

Mol Diagn Ther 2019 08;23(4):555-562

3rd Department of Internal Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Plasma triglyceride (TG) values are significant predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. The plasma levels of TGs have an important genetic background. We analyzed whether 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies are discriminators of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in the Czech population.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to replicate and test the original findings in an independent study and to re-analyze the gene score leading to HTG.

Methods: In total, we analyzed 32 SNPs in 209 patients with plasma TG levels over 10 mmol/L (HTG group) and compared them in a case-control design with 524 treatment-naïve controls (normotriglyceridemic [NTG] group) with plasma TG values below 1.8 mmol/L.

Results: Sixteen SNPs were significantly associated with an increased risk of HTG development, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) varying from 1.40 (1.01-1.95) to 4.69 (3.29-6.68) (rs964184 within the APOA5 gene). Both unweighted (sum of the risk alleles) and weighted gene scores (WGS) (log of the achieved ORs per individual genotype) were calculated, and both gene scores were significantly different between groups. The mean score of the risk alleles was significantly increased in the HTG group compared to the NTG group (18.5 ± 2.5 vs. 15.7 ± 2.3, respectively; P < 0.00001). Subjects with a WGS over 9 were significantly more common in the HTG group (44.5%) than in the NTG group, in which such a high score was observed in only 4.7% of subjects (OR 16.3, 95% CI 10.0-36.7; P < 0.0000001).

Conclusions: An increased number of risk genetic variants, calculated both in a weighted or unweighted manner, significantly discriminates between the subjects with HTG and controls. Population-specific sets of SNPs included into the gene score seem to yield better discrimination power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40291-019-00412-2DOI Listing
August 2019

Association between aortic telomere length and cardiac post-transplant allograft function.

Int J Cardiol 2019 09 7;290:129-133. Epub 2019 May 7.

Cardio Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Videnska 1958/9, Prague 14021, Czech Republic.

Background: In patients having undergone orthotopic heart transplantation, a number of complications exist that are known to be connected to both telomerase activity and telomere length. The aim of this study was to determine how telomere length in aortic DNA correlates with the subsequent post-transplantation development of the patients.

Materials And Methods: Between 2005 and 2015, we collected aortic samples from 376 heart recipients (age 50.8 ± 11.8 years) and 383 donors (age 38.6 ± 12.2 years). Relative telomere length in aortic tissue DNA was determined using quantitative PCR.

Results: Shorter telomere length was detected in heart allograft recipients compared to donors (P < 0.0001). Patients suffering acute cellular rejection had significantly shorter telomere length (P < 0.01) than patients without rejection. Shorter telomere length was observed in patients with implanted mechanical circulatory support before heart transplantation (P < 0.03), as well as in subjects with cardiac allograft vasculopathy (P < 0.05). Overall survival time after heart transplantation was associated with shorter donor telomeres (P < 0.004).

Conclusions: Telomere length differed between donors and recipients independent of the sex and age of the patients. Our findings suggest a potential new linkage between the aortic telomere length of recipients and post-heart transplant complications. Further studies focusing on epigenetic modifications and gene regulation involved in telomere maintenance in transplanted patients should verify our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.05.006DOI Listing
September 2019

The association between the FTO gene variant and alcohol consumption and binge and problem drinking in different gene-environment background: The HAPIEE study.

Gene 2019 Jul 2;707:30-35. Epub 2019 May 2.

International Institute for Health and Society, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, UK.

Background: Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking have significant negative health consequences and both are influenced by genetic predispositions. Some studies suggest that the FTO gene is associated with alcohol consumption. We investigated whether a tagging variant (rs17817449) within the FTO gene is associated with alcohol intake, problem drinking and smoking behaviour.

Methods: We analysed data from 26,792 Caucasian adults (47.2% of males; mean age 58.9 (±7.3) years), examined through the prospective cohort HAPIEE study. The primary outcomes were daily alcohol consumption, binge drinking, problem drinking (CAGE score 2+) and smoking status in relation to tagging variants within the FTO and ADH1B genes.

Results: We found no significant association of the FTO polymorphism with smoking status in either sex. The associations of the FTO polymorphism with drinking pattern were inconsistent and differed by gender. In men, GG homozygote carriers had lower odds of problem drinking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96, p = 0.03). In women, the combination of the FTO/ADH1B GG/+A genotypes doubled the risk of binge drinking (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.19-3.71, p < 0.05), and the risk was further increased among smoking women (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.64-10.24, p = 0.008).

Conclusions: In this large population study, the FTO gene appeared associated with binge and problem drinking, and the associations were modified by sex, smoking status and the ADH1B polymorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.05.002DOI Listing
July 2019

Association between plasma bilirubin and mortality.

Ann Hepatol 2019 Mar - Apr;18(2):379-385. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College of London, UK.

Introduction And Aim: It has been proposed that plasma concentration of bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, is protective against diseases mediated by increased oxidative stress, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between plasma bilirubin concentrations and bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1) promoter gene variations (associated with increased bilirubin concentrations) with total/CVD and cancer mortality.

Materials And Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted within the Polish arm of the HAPIEE cohort. At baseline in 2002-2005, participants were examined in detail. Mortality follow-up (median (IQR) between blood draw and death was 3.7 (2.1-5.1) years) was performed by linkage with regional and national death registers. Plasma biomarkers were analysed in all subjects who died from any cause (cases, n=447) and in a random subsample of survivors (controls, n=1423).

Results: There was a strong negative association between plasma bilirubin levels and total and cancer mortality, expressed more profoundly in men. The adjusted OR of deaths from all causes and cancer, comparing the highest vs. lowest plasma bilirubin categories were 0.61 (95% CI: 0.42-0.87) and 0.39 (0.24-0.65), respectively. There was no association of bilirubin with CVD mortality. The UGT1A1*28 allele, a genetic marker of raised bilirubin, was also negatively associated with total/cancer mortality, although the associations were not statistically significant.

Discussion: Both the observational and genetic associations support the negative relationship between bilirubin and total mortality; this association appears to be driven by cancer mortality, while that with CVD mortality is not evident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aohep.2019.02.001DOI Listing
April 2020

Leukocyte telomere length is not affected by long-term occupational exposure to nano metal oxides.

Ind Health 2019 Nov 28;57(6):741-744. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals CAS, Czech Republic.

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether long-term occupational exposure to nanoparticles would affect relative leukocyte telomere length (LrTL). We analysed occupational exposure to size-resolved aerosol particles, with special emphasis on nanoparticles at two workshops: i/ the production of nanocomposites containing metal oxides; ii/ laboratory to test experimental exposure of nano-CuO to rodents. Thirty five exposed researchers (age 39.5 ± 12.6 yr; exposure duration 6.0 ± 3.7 yr) and 43 controls (40.4 ± 10.5 yr) were examined. LrTL did not significantly (p=0.14) differ between the exposed researchers (0.92 ± 0.13) and controls (0.86 ± 0.15). In addition, no significant correlation (r=-0.22, p=0.22) was detected between the duration of occupational exposure and LrTL. The results remained non-significant after multiple adjustments for age, sex and smoking status. Our pilot results suggest that relative leukocyte telomere length is not affected by occupational exposure to nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2018-0146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885603PMC
November 2019

Association of Chromosome 9p21 With Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Events.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2019 04 21;12(4):e002471. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital (M.H.).

Background: Genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 is a recognized risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its effect on disease progression and subsequent events is unclear, raising questions about its value for stratification of residual risk.

Methods: A variant at chromosome 9p21 (rs1333049) was tested for association with subsequent events during follow-up in 103 357 Europeans with established CHD at baseline from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) Consortium (73.1% male, mean age 62.9 years). The primary outcome, subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction (CHD death/myocardial infarction), occurred in 13 040 of the 93 115 participants with available outcome data. Effect estimates were compared with case/control risk obtained from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics) including 47 222 CHD cases and 122 264 controls free of CHD.

Results: Meta-analyses revealed no significant association between chromosome 9p21 and the primary outcome of CHD death/myocardial infarction among those with established CHD at baseline (GENIUS-CHD odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99-1.05). This contrasted with a strong association in CARDIoGRAMPlusC4D odds ratio 1.20; 95% CI, 1.18-1.22; P for interaction <0.001 compared with the GENIUS-CHD estimate. Similarly, no clear associations were identified for additional subsequent outcomes, including all-cause death, although we found a modest positive association between chromosome 9p21 and subsequent revascularization (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09).

Conclusions: In contrast to studies comparing individuals with CHD to disease-free controls, we found no clear association between genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 and risk of subsequent acute CHD events when all individuals had CHD at baseline. However, the association with subsequent revascularization may support the postulated mechanism of chromosome 9p21 for promoting atheroma development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625876PMC
April 2019

Subsequent Event Risk in Individuals With Established Coronary Heart Disease.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2019 04 21;12(4):e002470. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Centre for Pharmacogenomics (Y.G., R.M.C.-D., J.A.J.), University of Florida, Gainesville.

Background: The Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium was established to facilitate discovery and validation of genetic variants and biomarkers for risk of subsequent CHD events, in individuals with established CHD.

Methods: The consortium currently includes 57 studies from 18 countries, recruiting 185 614 participants with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD, or a mixture of both at baseline. All studies collected biological samples and followed-up study participants prospectively for subsequent events.

Results: Enrollment into the individual studies took place between 1985 to present day with a duration of follow-up ranging from 9 months to 15 years. Within each study, participants with CHD are predominantly of self-reported European descent (38%-100%), mostly male (44%-91%) with mean ages at recruitment ranging from 40 to 75 years. Initial feasibility analyses, using a federated analysis approach, yielded expected associations between age (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.14-1.16) per 5-year increase, male sex (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.21) and smoking (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.51) with risk of subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction and differing associations with other individual and composite cardiovascular endpoints.

Conclusions: GENIUS-CHD is a global collaboration seeking to elucidate genetic and nongenetic determinants of subsequent event risk in individuals with established CHD, to improve residual risk prediction and identify novel drug targets for secondary prevention. Initial analyses demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of a federated analysis approach. The consortium now plans to initiate and test novel hypotheses as well as supporting replication and validation analyses for other investigators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629546PMC
April 2019

Baseline Leptin/Adiponectin Ratio is a Significant Predictor of BMI Changes in Children/Adolescents after Intensive Lifestyle Intervention.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2019 Oct 6;127(10):691-696. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

III. Internal Clinic GUH and First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Introduction: Abdominal obesity is a strong cardiometabolic risk factor that often occurs as early as in childhood. The negative effect of abdominal obesity on the metabolism is partially mediated by changes to the production of the major adipocyte hormones leptin and adiponectin. Leptin/adiponectin imbalance is associated with increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Aim: To determine whether leptin, adiponectin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio are significant predictors of body weight loss in intensively treated children/adolescents.

Methods: 183 paediatric overweight or obese patients (71 boys and 112 girls), aged 7-16 years, were enrolled in a one-month intensive lifestyle intervention programme. Participants reduced their energy intake and engaged in a supervised exercise programme consisting of 5 physical activity units per day. The subjects were examined both before and after the intervention.

Results: The mean BMI decrease achieved was-2.38±0.07 kg/m² (P<0.01). The decrease in plasma leptin concentration was-16.59±0.84 ng/mL (P<0.001) and CRP-0.38±0.04 mg/L (P<0.001). Changes in adiponectin concentrations were not statistically significant. The baseline leptin/adiponectin ratio was a significant predictor of decreases in body weight (P<0.005), BMI (P<0.0001) and waist circumference (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The leptin/adiponectin ratio at baseline may be a useful predictor of results from interventions focused on decreasing BMIs in children/adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0859-7041DOI Listing
October 2019

Bilirubin: from an unimportant waste product to important myocardial infarction predictor.

Vnitr Lek Winter 2019;64(12):1148-1152

Bilirubin is the major catabolic product of heme degradation. It has long been regarded as an unimportant waste product. However, within the last twenty-five years, it has been demonstrated to play a very important role in maintaining the bodys redox equilibrium. Disturbances of this equilibrium - increased oxidative stress - are currently considered one of the major risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases. Although the exact mechanism is not known, a number of human studies have proved a reduced incidence of a number of (especially cardiovascular but also cancer) diseases in individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations. Key words: bilirubin - cardiovascular disease - morbidity - mortality.
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July 2019
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