Publications by authors named "Jarosław Wilczyński"

7 Publications

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Colistin Resistance of Non-pathogenic Strains of Occurring as Natural Intestinal Flora in Broiler Chickens Treated and not Treated with Colistin Sulphate.

J Vet Res 2020 Sep 16;64(3):399-405. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health Protection, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: A significant threat to public health is presented by antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, selective pressure on which results from antibiotic use. Colistin is an antibiotic commonly used in veterinary medicine, but also one of last resort in human medicine. Since the 2015 discovery in China of the gene encoding colistin resistance in , other countries have noted its presence. This study was to find the gene prevalence in isolated from poultry slaughtered in Poland.

Material And Methods: Cloacal swabs were taken from December 2017 to October 2018 from broiler chickens in three regions. The samples (n = 158) were grouped as flocks treated with colistin sulphate (n = 87) and those not treated (n = 71). Resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in poultry was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration. The presence of the gene was confirmed by PCR.

Results: Isolates containing the gene were yielded by 11.27% of the samples from not treated flocks and 19.54% of those from treated flocks, but no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the gene was seen between the groups.

Conclusion: The results clearly preclude intensification of selective pressure for colistin resistance due to colistin sulphate treatment because they show that the avian gastrointestinal tract was already inhabited by colistin-resistant by the time the chickens came to the poultry house.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497749PMC
September 2020

Ancestors of domestic cats in Neolithic Central Europe: Isotopic evidence of a synanthropic diet.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 07 13;117(30):17710-17719. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Cat remains from Poland dated to 4,200 to 2,300 y BCE are currently the earliest evidence for the migration of the Near Eastern cat (NE cat), the ancestor of domestic cats, into Central Europe. This early immigration preceded the known establishment of housecat populations in the region by around 3,000 y. One hypothesis assumed that NE cats followed the migration of early farmers as synanthropes. In this study, we analyze the stable isotopes in six samples of Late Neolithic NE cat bones and further 34 of the associated fauna, including the European wildcat. We approximate the diet and trophic ecology of Late Neolithic felids in a broad context of contemporary wild and domestic animals and humans. In addition, we compared the ecology of Late Neolithic NE cats with the earliest domestic cats known from the territory of Poland, dating to the Roman Period. Our results reveal that human agricultural activity during the Late Neolithic had already impacted the isotopic signature of rodents in the ecosystem. These synanthropic pests constituted a significant proportion of the NE cat's diet. Our interpretation is that Late Neolithic NE cats were opportunistic synanthropes, most probably free-living individuals (i.e., not directly relying on a human food supply). We explore niche partitioning between studied NE cats and the contemporary native European wildcats. We find only minor differences between the isotopic ecology of both these taxa. We conclude that, after the appearance of the NE cat, both felid taxa shared the ecological niches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1918884117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395498PMC
July 2020

Tracing human mobility in central Europe during the Upper Paleolithic using sub-seasonally resolved Sr isotope records in ornaments.

Sci Rep 2020 06 25;10(1):10386. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Palaeontology and Geology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Ludovika tér 2-6, Budapest, 1083, Hungary.

Mobility of people and goods during the Upper Paleolithic has proven difficult to reconstruct given the relative rareness of remains. Nevertheless, archaeological contexts like the Late Pleistocene horizon of Borsuka Cave (Southern Poland) represent a unique opportunity to explore patterns of objects' transportation across Central Europe. We investigated the origin of four ornaments made of European elk (Alces alces L.) incisors recovered at Borsuka Cave - the oldest known burial site in Poland, possibly a child grave. Laser-ablation plasma source mass spectrometric analyses of trace elements and Sr isotopic compositions revealed that one elk was roaming within a geologically uniform area while the others changed their pastures during their lifetimes. The non-local origin of the elk teeth is inferred from their exotic Sr isotopic compositions and the lack of evidence for the presence of elk in this territory during the Pleistocene. Instead, the elks' Sr isotopic composition show good agreement with sites near the Austria-Slovakia border region and northern Hungary, ~250 km away from the study site. We argue that the artefacts were most likely brought to Borsuka Cave by humans or by a network of exchange, so far never reported in the time range 32.5-28.8 ka cal BP for Southern Poland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67017-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316840PMC
June 2020

The earliest farming communities north of the Carpathians: The settlement at Gwoździec site 2.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(1):e0227008. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences (ISEA PAS), Kraków, Poland.

The appearance of the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) on Poland territory initiated the process of neolithization in the area. However, as we will see in this article, this colonization took place later than previously thought. The stage, which in Poland is called as the early phase, actually corresponds only to the Fomborn/Ačkovy stage of LBK, and the earliest dating currently indicates around 5350 BC. Due to the small number of sites from this phase excavated on a large scale in Poland, this stage of the culture's development is poorly known. The Gwoździec Project is focused on the earliest stage of LBK settlement in south-eastern Poland. Excavation at the site was finished in 2018. Therefore, the article presents preliminary results of interdisciplinary analyzes, such as research on ceramics, flint production and use, and botanical remains. They point to various aspects of the economy of these early agricultural communities and significantly enrich the knowledge of this period in Central Europe. They also expose the chronological development of the oldest LBK development stage in Poland.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227008PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6961913PMC
April 2020

Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

PLoS One 2016 12;11(10):e0163676. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0163676PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061334PMC
May 2017

Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

Acta Vet Hung 2016 Jun;64(2):148-63

Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin , Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin , Poland.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/004.2016.016DOI Listing
June 2016

Occurrence and characterization of Staphylococcus bacteria isolated from poultry in Western Poland.

Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2016 Mar-Apr;129(3-4):147-52

In the pathology of poultry, infections caused by Staphylococcus spp. are taking on increasing significance. Although the Staphylococcus species most frequently isolated from these animals is Staphylococcus aureus, the literature data indicate that other species, both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative, can also cause infections in birds. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus infections in various poultry species in Western Poland and to test the susceptibility of isolated strains to selected antibiotics. The results obtained showed a relatively high rate of Staphylococcus infection in the poultry. From 2805 samples tested 302 strains (10.8%) of Staphylococcus were isolated. As many as 25 Staphylococcus species were distinguished among the strains isolated. S. cohnii (23.50%), S. aureus (15.89%) and S. lentus (13.90%) accounted for the highest percentages. Over half of the isolated staphylococci exhibited resistance to five of the antibiotics applied, with the highest percentage of resistant strains, 65%, noted for enrofloxacin.
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July 2016