Publications by authors named "Jari Valkonen"

123 Publications

First report of infecting white clover () in Finland.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Finnish Food Authority, Laboratory and Research, Mustialankatu 3, Helsinki, Finland, 00790;

Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV, genus ) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus able to infect several legume species. SbDV was first reported in Japan where it was associated with significant yield losses in soybean (Tamada, 1969). Since then the virus has been detected worldwide. In Europe, the virus has only been reported from Germany (Abraham et al. 2007; Gaafar et al. 2020). In July 2018, several white clover plants ( L.) with leaf discoloration were observed in different locations in Oulu region in northern Finland. Individual plants were collected and analysed for the presence of viruses using small-RNA (sRNA) sequencing (Kreuze et. al. 2009) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Total RNA was extracted using EZNA micro RNA kit (Omega Bio-Tek, GA, USA). For sRNA analysis, sequencing libraries were constructed using the TruSeq small RNA library prep kit (Illumina, CA, USA) and sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. On average, 1.3 million single-end reads were obtained per sample, of which 27% were 18-25 nt long and used for the subsequent analysis. Contig assembly and virus identification with VirusDetect software (Zheng et al. 2017) detected SbDV in five out of six white clover samples analysed. Depending on the sample, 26-39 contigs (with lengths up to 301-469 nt) aligned to complete genome of a SbDV isolate previously described from white clover in USA (accession no. JN674402). The cumulative alignment coverage ranged from 35.5 % to 65.3 % with nucleotide identities between 94.4 % and 97.3 %. Additionally, two samples seemed to contain an unidentified closterovirus and one contained . No additional viruses were detected from two of the samples.To confirm the presence of SbDV, the samples were tested by RT-PCR using primers MDF, MYF and MUR in multiplex (Schneider et al. 2011) together with SuperScript III One-Step RT-PCR System with the Platinum Taq DNA polymerase kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA), essentially as instructed by the manufacturer. RT-PCR product of approximately 400 bp was produced from each of the five samples previously tested SbDV positive by sRNA analysis. No products were produced from the sample that was SbDV negative in sRNA analysis. Direct sequencing of two of the PCR products produced 347 and 361 bp sequences (GenBank: MZ355392 and MW929169) that were 95.7 % and 95.2 % identical, respectively, to a SbDV isolate (accession no. AB038148) that causes yellowing on soybean and is transmitted by (Terauchi et al. 2003). To our knowledge this is the first report of SbDV in Finland. SbDV is transmitted only by aphids (neither mechanical nor seed transmission occurs). In siRNA analysis all the isolates from Finland formed contigs that aligned almost perfectly (100 % coverage with ≥ 99 % nucleotide identity) to the coat protein (accession no. EF466131) of an SbDV isolate transmittable from white clover to faba bean by (Abraham et al. 2007), an aphid common in Finland. Although significant yield losses by SbDV have only been reported on soybean (Tamada, 1969), the virus also causes symptoms in other legume crops, such as growth reduction on pea (Tian et al. 2017) and faba bean (Abraham et al. 2007), both of which are cultivated in Finland. References: Abraham et al. 2007. Plant Dis. 91: 1059. Gaafar et al. 2020. Front microbiol. 11: 583242. Kreuze et al. 2009. Virology 388:1. Schneider et al. 2011. Virology 412: 46. Tamada. 1969. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn. 35: 282. Terauchi et al. 2003. Phytopathology 93: 1560. Tian et al. 2017. Viruses 9: 155. Zheng et al. 2017. Virology 500: 130.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0822-PDNDOI Listing
June 2021

Identification and Confirmation of Inhibitors for RNA Silencing Suppressor, a Viral RNase III.

J Virol 2021 05 24;95(12). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Sweet potato virus disease (SPVD), caused by synergistic infection of (SPCSV) and (SPFMV), is responsible for substantial yield losses all over the world. However, there are currently no approved treatments for this severe disease. The crucial role played by RNase III of SPCSV (CSR3) as an RNA silencing suppressor during the viruses' synergistic interaction in sweetpotato makes it an ideal drug target for developing antiviral treatment. In this study, high-throughput screening (HTS) of small molecular libraries targeting CSR3 was initiated by a virtual screen using Glide docking, allowing the selection of 6,400 compounds out of 136,353. We subsequently developed and carried out kinetic-based HTS using fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology, which isolated 112 compounds. These compounds were validated with dose-response assays including kinetic-based HTS and binding affinity assays using surface plasmon resonance and microscale thermophoresis. Finally, the interference of the selected compounds with viral accumulation was verified In summary, we identified five compounds belonging to two structural classes that inhibited CSR3 activity and reduced viral accumulation in plants. These results provide the foundation for developing antiviral agents targeting CSR3 to provide new strategies for controlling sweetpotato virus diseases. We report here a high-throughput inhibitor identification method that targets a severe sweetpotato virus disease caused by coinfection with two viruses (SPCSV and SPFMV). The disease is responsible for up to 90% yield losses. Specifically, we targeted the RNase III enzyme encoded by SPCSV, which plays an important role in suppressing the RNA silencing defense system of sweetpotato plants. Based on virtual screening, laboratory assays, and confirmation , we identified five compounds that could be used to develop antiviral drugs to combat the most severe sweetpotato virus disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00107-21DOI Listing
May 2021

Residues R and K in RNA-Binding Pocket of Tobacco Vein Banding Mosaic Virus CP Control Virus Cell-to-Cell Movement and Replication.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Jul 21:MPMI09200265R. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, Helsinki 00014, Finland.

Potyviruses move to neighboring cells in the form of virus particles or a coat protein (CP)-containing ribonucleoprotein complex. However, the precise roles of RNA-binding residues in potyviral CP in viral cell-to-cell movement remain to be elucidated. In this study, we predicted the three-dimensional model of tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV)-encoded CP and found nine residues presumably located in the CP RNA-binding pocket. Substitutions of the two basic residues at positions 192 and 225 (R and K) with either alanine, cysteine, or glutamic acid abolished TVBMV cell-to-cell and systemic movement in plants. These substitutions also reduced the replication of the mutant viruses. Results from the electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the RNA-binding activity of mutant CPs derived from R or K substitutions was significantly lower than that of wild-type CP. Analysis of purified virus particles showed that mutant viruses with R or K substitutions formed RNA-free virus-like particles. Mutations of R and K did not change the CP plasmodesmata localization. The wild-type TVBMV CP could rescue the deficient cell-to-cell movement of mutant viruses. Moreover, deletion of any of the other seven residues also abolished TVBMV cell-to-cell movement and reduced the CP RNA-binding activity. The corresponding nine residues in watermelon mosaic virus CP were also found to play essential roles in virus cell-to-cell movement. In conclusion, residues R and K in the CP RNA-binding pocket are critical for viral RNA binding and affect both virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-09-20-0265-RDOI Listing
July 2021

Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Detection of Common Bean Viruses in Wild Plants from Tanzania and Their Mechanical Transmission to Common Bean Plants.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

ARI-Mikocheni, Disease Control Unit, Mikocheni Agricultural Research Institute, P.O Box 6226, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of;

Viral diseases are a major threat for common bean production. In recent surveys, >15 different viruses belonging to 11 genera were shown to infect common bean ( L.) in Tanzania. Management of viruses requires an understanding of how they survive from one season to the next. In this study, we explored the possibility that alternative host plants have a central role in the survival of common bean viruses. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to sequence virus-derived small interfering RNAs, together with conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect viruses in wild plants. Leaf samples for RNA extraction and NGS were collected from 1,430 wild plants around and within common bean fields in four agricultural zones in Tanzania. At least partial genome sequences of viruses potentially belonging to 25 genera were detected. The greatest virus diversity was detected in the eastern and northern zones, whereas wild plants in the Lake zone and especially in the southern highlands zone showed only a few viruses. RT-PCR analysis of all the collected plant samples confirmed the presence of yam bean mosaic virus and peanut mottle virus in wild legume plants. Of all viruses detected, only two viruses, cucumber mosaic virus and a novel bromovirus related to cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and brome mosaic virus, were mechanically transmitted from wild plants to common bean plants. The data generated in this study are crucial for development of viral disease management strategies and predicting crop viral disease outbreaks in different agricultural regions in Tanzania and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-20-1420-REDOI Listing
January 2021

The conserved aromatic residue W is a determinant of potyviral coat protein stability, replication, and cell-to-cell movement in plants.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 02 27;22(2):189-203. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Coat proteins (CPs) play critical roles in potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. However, the underlying mechanism controlling them remains unclear. Here, we show that substitutions of alanine, glutamic acid, or lysine for the conserved residue tryptophan at position 122 (W ) in tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV) CP abolished virus cell-to-cell movement in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. In agroinfiltrated N. benthamiana leaf patches, both the CP and RNA accumulation levels of three W mutant viruses were significantly reduced compared with those of wild-type TVBMV, and CP accumulated to a low level similar to that of a replication-deficient mutant. The results of polyprotein transient expression experiments indicated that CP instability was responsible for the significantly low CP accumulation levels of the three W mutant viruses. The substitution of W did not affect CP plasmodesmata localization or virus particle formation; however, the substitution significantly reduced the number of virus particles. The wild-type TVBMV CP could complement the reduced replication and abolished cell-to-cell movement of the mutant viruses. When the codon for W was mutated to that for a different aromatic residue, phenylalanine or tyrosine, the resultant mutant viruses moved systemically and accumulated up to 80% of the wild-type TVBMV level. Similar results were obtained for the corresponding amino acids of W in the watermelon mosaic virus and potato virus Y CPs. Therefore, we conclude that the aromatic ring in W in the core domain of the potyviral CP is critical for cell-to-cell movement through the effects on CP stability and viral replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814969PMC
February 2021

Nuclear proteome of virus-infected and healthy potato leaves.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Jul 29;20(1):355. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, PO Box 27, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Infection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown.

Results: In this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2-108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing-related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves.

Conclusions: Our results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02561-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392702PMC
July 2020

Development of FRET-based high-throughput screening for viral RNase III inhibitors.

Mol Plant Pathol 2020 07 21;21(7):961-974. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The class 1 ribonuclease III (RNase III) encoded by Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (CSR3) suppresses RNA silencing in plant cells and thereby counters the host antiviral response by cleaving host small interfering RNAs, which are indispensable components of the plant RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The synergy between sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus and sweet potato feathery mottle virus can reduce crop yields by 90%. Inhibitors of CSR3 might prove efficacious to counter this viral threat, yet no screen has been carried out to identify such inhibitors. Here, we report a novel high-throughput screening (HTS) assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for identifying inhibitors of CSR3. For monitoring CSR3 activity via HTS, we used a small interfering RNA substrate that was labelled with a FRET-compatible dye. The optimized HTS assay yielded 109 potential inhibitors of CSR3 out of 6,620 compounds tested from different small-molecule libraries. The three best inhibitor candidates were validated with a dose-response assay. In addition, a parallel screen of the selected candidates was carried out for a similar class 1 RNase III enzyme from Escherichia coli (EcR3), and this screen yielded a different set of inhibitors. Thus, our results show that the CSR3 and EcR3 enzymes were inhibited by distinct types of molecules, indicating that this HTS assay could be widely applied in drug discovery of class 1 RNase III enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280029PMC
July 2020

A Novel Interaction Network Used by Potyviruses in Virus-Host Interactions at the Protein Level.

Viruses 2019 12 14;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Host proteins that are central to infection of potyviruses (genus ; family Potyviridae) include the eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. The potyviral genome-linked protein (VPg) and the helper component proteinase (HCpro) interact with each other and with eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E and proteins are involved in the same functions during viral infection. VPg interacts with eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E via the 7-methylguanosine cap-binding region, whereas HCpro interacts with eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E via the 4E-binding motif YXXXXLΦ, similar to the motif in eIF4G. In this study, HCpro and VPg were found to interact in the nucleus, nucleolus, and cytoplasm in cells infected with the potyvirus potato virus A (PVA). In the cytoplasm, interactions between HCpro and VPg occurred in punctate bodies not associated with viral replication vesicles. In addition to HCpro, the 4E-binding motif was recognized in VPg of PVA. Mutations in the 4E-binding motif of VPg from PVA weakened interactions with eIF4E and heavily reduced PVA virulence. Furthermore, mutations in the 4G-binding domain of eIF4E reduced interactions with VPg and abolished interactions with HCpro. Thus, HCpro and VPg can both interact with eIF4E using the 4E-binding motif. Our results suggest a novel interaction network used by potyviruses to interact with host plants via translation initiation factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11121158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950583PMC
December 2019

Phenotyping viral infection in sweetpotato using a high-throughput chlorophyll fluorescence and thermal imaging platform.

Plant Methods 2019 22;15:116. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Virus diseases caused by co-infection with (SPFMV) and (SPCSV) are a severe problem in the production of sweetpotato ( L.). Traditional molecular virus detection methods include nucleic acid-based and serological tests. In this study, we aimed to validate the use of a non-destructive imaging-based plant phenotype platform to study plant-virus synergism in sweetpotato by comparing four virus treatments with two healthy controls.

Results: By monitoring physiological and morphological effects of viral infection in sweetpotato over 29 days, we quantified photosynthetic performance from chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging and leaf thermography from thermal infrared (TIR) imaging among sweetpotatoes. Moreover, the differences among different treatments observed from ChlF and TIR imaging were related to virus accumulation and distribution in sweetpotato. These findings were further validated at the molecular level by related gene expression in both photosynthesis and carbon fixation pathways.

Conclusion: Our study validated for the first time the use of ChlF- and TIR-based imaging systems to distinguish the severity of virus diseases related to SPFMV and SPCSV in sweetpotato. In addition, we demonstrated that the operating efficiency of PSII and photochemical quenching were the most sensitive parameters for the quantification of virus effects compared with maximum quantum efficiency, non-photochemical quenching, and leaf temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13007-019-0501-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805361PMC
October 2019

Small-RNA analysis of pre-basic mother plants and conserved accessions of plant genetic resources for the presence of viruses.

PLoS One 2019 7;14(8):e0220621. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.

Pathogen-free stocks of vegetatively propagated plants are crucial in certified plant production. They require regular monitoring of the plant germplasm for pathogens, especially of the stocks maintained in the field. Here we tested pre-basic mother plants of Fragaria, Rubus and Ribes spp., and conserved accessions of the plant genetic resources of Rubus spp. maintained at research stations in Finland, for the presence of viruses using small interfering RNA (siRNA) -based diagnostics (VirusDetect). The advance of the method is that unrelated viruses can be detected simultaneously without resumptions of the viruses present. While no virus was detected in pre-basic mother plants of Fragaria and Ribes species, rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) was detected in pre-basic mother plants of Rubus. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV), black raspberry necrosis virus (BRNV), raspberry vein chlorosis virus (RVCV) and RYNV were detected in the Rubus genetic resource collection. The L polymerase encoding sequence characterized from seven RVCV isolates showed considerable genetic variation. The data provide the first molecular biological evidence for the presence of RYNV in Finland. RYNV was not revealed in virus indexing by indicator plants, which suggests that it may be endogenously present in some raspberry cultivars. In addition, a putative new RYNV-like badnavirus was detected in Rubus spp. Blackcurrant reversion virus (BRV) and gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV) were detected in symptomatic Ribes plants grown in the field. Results were consistent with those obtained using PCR or reverse transcription PCR and suggest that the current virus indexing methods of pre-basic mother plants work as expected. Furthermore, many new viruses were identified in the collections of plant genetic resources not previously tested for viruses. In the future, siRNA-based diagnostics could be a useful supplement for the currently used virus detection methods in certified plant production and thus rationalize and simplify the current testing system.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220621PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685626PMC
March 2020

Sunagoke Moss () Used for Greening Roofs Is Severely Damaged by and Protected by a Putative Isolate.

Front Microbiol 2019 28;10:372. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Biotechnological Science, Graduate School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, Wakayama, Japan.

Mosses are ecologically important plants also used for greening, gardening, and decorative purposes. Knowledge of the microbial flora associated with mosses is expected to be important for control and preservation of global and local environments. However, the moss-associated microbial flora is often poorly known. Moss-associated fungi and bacteria may promote plant growth and pest control, but they may be alternative hosts for pathogens of vascular plants. In this study, the fungus was identified for the first time as a pathogen that causes severe damage to Sunagoke moss (). This moss is used for greening roofs and walls of buildings in urban environments owing to its notable tolerance of environmental stresses. Inoculation with the strain SR1 of the mono- and dicotyledonous seed plants , var. , , and , in addition to the liverwort and the moss , showed that the fungus has a wide host range. Colonization with SR1 progressed more rapidly in non-vascular than in vascular plant species. Studies with under controlled conditions showed that SR1 secreted a fluid during colonization. Treatment with the secretion induced production of reactive oxygen species in the moss. Endogenous peroxidase partially inhibited SR1 colonization of . A bacterial isolate, most likely , that coexists with was antagonistic to SR1 growth. Taken together, the present results suggest that fungal colonization of mosses may be prevented by a peroxidase secreted by the moss and an antagonistic bacterium coexisting in the moss habitat. The findings suggest that there is potential to apply biological control measures for protection of mosses against fungal pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403164PMC
February 2019

Species-specific synergistic effects of two plant growth-promoting microbes on green roof plant biomass and photosynthetic efficiency.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(12):e0209432. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, FI, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Rhizophagus irregularis, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, a bacterium, are microorganisms that promote plant growth. They associate with plant roots and facilitate nutrient absorption by their hosts, increase resistance against pathogens and pests, and regulate plant growth through phytohormones. In this study, eight local plant species in Finland (Antennaria dioica, Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Geranium sanguineum, Lotus corniculatus, Thymus serpyllum, Trifolium repens, and Viola tricolor) were inoculated with R. irregularis and/or B. amyloliquefaciens in autoclaved substrates to evaluate the plant growth-promoting effects of different plant/microbe combinations under controlled conditions. The eight plant species were inoculated with R. irregularis, B. amyloliquefaciens, or both microbes or were not inoculated as a control. The impact of the microbes on the plants was evaluated by measuring dry shoot weight, colonization rate by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, bacterial population density, and chlorophyll fluorescence using a plant phenotyping facility. Under dual inoculation conditions, B. amyloliquefaciens acted as a "mycorrhiza helper bacterium" to facilitate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization in all tested plants. In contrast, R. irregularis did not demonstrate reciprocal facilitation of the population density of B. amyloliquefaciens. Dual inoculation with B. amyloliquefaciens and R. irregularis resulted in the greatest increase in shoot weight and photosynthetic efficiency in T. repens and F. vesca.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209432PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312232PMC
May 2019

Editorial: Cooperative Adaptation and Evolution in Plant-Microbe Systems.

Front Plant Sci 2018 14;9:1090. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6102494PMC
August 2018

Sensitivity of Small RNA-Based Detection of Plant Viruses.

Front Microbiol 2018 14;9:939. Epub 2018 May 14.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Plants recognize unrelated viruses by the antiviral defense system called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi processes double-stranded viral RNA into small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21-24 nucleotides, the reassembly of which into longer strands allows virus identification by comparison with the sequences available in databases. The aim of this study was to compare the virus detection sensitivity of sRNA-based virus diagnosis with the established virus species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Viruses propagated in tobacco plants included three engineered, infectious clones of (PVA), each carrying a different marker gene, and an infectious clone of (PVY). Total RNA (containing sRNA) was isolated and subjected to reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-RT-PCR) and sRNA deep-sequencing at different concentrations. RNA extracted from various crop plants was included in the reactions to normalize RNA concentrations. Targeted detection of selected viruses showed a similar threshold for the sRNA and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses. The detection limit for PVY and PVA by RT-qPCR in this study was 3 and 1.5 fg of viral RNA, respectively, in 50 ng of total RNA per PCR reaction. When knowledge was available about the viruses likely present in the samples, sRNA-based virus detection was 10 times more sensitive than RT-RT-PCR. The advantage of sRNA analysis is the detection of all tested viruses without the need for virus-specific primers or probes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960716PMC
May 2018

Utilization of engineered resistance to viruses in crops of the developing world, with emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa.

Curr Opin Virol 2017 10 8;26:90-97. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Viral diseases in crop plants constitute a major obstacle to food security in the developing world. Subsistence crops, including cassava, sweetpotato, potato, banana, papaya, common bean, rice and maize are often infected with RNA and/or DNA viruses that cannot be controlled with pesticides. Hence, healthy planting materials and virus-resistant cultivars are essential for high yields of good quality. However, resistance genes are not available for all viral diseases of crop plants. Therefore, virus resistance engineered in plants using modern biotechnology methods is an important addition to the crop production toolbox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2017.07.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669357PMC
October 2017

Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

PLoS One 2017 25;12(5):e0178242. Epub 2017 May 25.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178242PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5444779PMC
September 2017

Differential Requirement of the Ribosomal Protein S6 and Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase for Plant-Virus Accumulation and Interaction of S6 Kinase with Potyviral VPg.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2017 05 24;30(5):374-384. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

3 Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, U.S.A.

Ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is an indispensable plant protein regulated, in part, by ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) which, in turn, is a key regulator of plant responses to stresses and developmental cues. Increased expression of RPS6 was detected in Nicotiana benthamiana during infection by diverse plant viruses. Silencing of the RPS6 and S6K genes in N. benthamiana affected accumulation of Cucumber mosaic virus, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), and Potato virus A (PVA) in contrast to Turnip crinkle virus and Tobacco mosaic virus. In addition, the viral genome-linked protein (VPg) of TuMV and PVA interacted with S6K in plant cells, as detected by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. The VPg-S6K interaction was detected in cytoplasm, nucleus, and nucleolus, whereas the green fluorescent protein-tagged S6K alone showed cytoplasmic localization only. These results demonstrate that the requirement for RPS6 and S6K differs for diverse plant viruses with different translation initiation strategies and suggest that potyviral VPg-S6K interaction may affect S6K functions in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-06-16-0122-RDOI Listing
May 2017

Strigolactone biosynthesis is evolutionarily conserved, regulated by phosphate starvation and contributes to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi in a moss, Physcomitrella patens.

New Phytol 2017 Oct 6;216(2):455-468. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, Freiburg, 79104, Germany.

In seed plants, strigolactones (SLs) regulate architecture and induce mycorrhizal symbiosis in response to environmental cues. SLs are formed by combined activity of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) 7 and 8 from 9-cis-β-carotene, leading to carlactone that is converted by cytochromes P450 (clade 711; MAX1 in Arabidopsis) into various SLs. As Physcomitrella patens possesses CCD7 and CCD8 homologs but lacks MAX1, we investigated if PpCCD7 together with PpCCD8 form carlactone and how deletion of these enzymes influences growth and interactions with the environment. We investigated the enzymatic activity of PpCCD7 and PpCCD8 in vitro, identified the formed products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS, and generated and analysed ΔCCD7 and ΔCCD8 mutants. We defined enzymatic activity of PpCCD7 as a stereospecific 9-cis-CCD and PpCCD8 as a carlactone synthase. ΔCCD7 and ΔCCD8 lines showed enhanced caulonema growth, which was revertible by adding the SL analogue GR24 or carlactone. Wild-type (WT) exudates induced seed germination in Orobanche ramosa. This activity was increased upon phosphate starvation and abolished in exudates of both mutants. Furthermore, both mutants showed increased susceptibility to phytopathogenic fungi. Our study reveals the deep evolutionary conservation of SL biosynthesis, SL function, and its regulation by biotic and abiotic cues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14506DOI Listing
October 2017

A Framework for the Evaluation of Biosecurity, Commercial, Regulatory, and Scientific Impacts of Plant Viruses and Viroids Identified by NGS Technologies.

Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:45. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

DLR Rheinpfalz, Institute of Plant Protection, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse Germany.

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have generated huge new opportunities for discovering and diagnosing plant viruses and viroids. Plant virology has undoubtedly benefited from these new methodologies, but at the same time, faces now substantial bottlenecks, namely the biological characterization of the newly discovered viruses and the analysis of their impact at the biosecurity, commercial, regulatory, and scientific levels. This paper proposes a scaled and progressive scientific framework for efficient biological characterization and risk assessment when a previously known or a new plant virus is detected by next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Four case studies are also presented to illustrate the need for such a framework, and to discuss the scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5258733PMC
January 2017

Repeated Applications of a Nonpathogenic Streptomyces Strain Enhance Development of Suppressiveness to Potato Common Scab.

Plant Dis 2017 Jan 10;101(1):224-232. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Department of Agriculture Sciences, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.

Potato common scab caused by several Streptomyces spp. is an important disease with no effective methods of control. Suppressiveness against common scab can develop in soil as a result of long-term potato monoculture and has been associated with nonpathogenic Streptomyces spp. To determine whether the development of scab suppressiveness could be enhanced, the effect of repeated applications of an antagonistic Streptomyces strain on common scab was investigated in a long-term field trial over 5 years. Streptomyces strain 272 applied annually at planting consistently suppressed development of common scab symptoms. On scab-susceptible potato cultivar Bintje, strain 272 reduced disease severity, on average, by 43%; whereas, on the scab-tolerant Nicola, the strain reduced both disease incidence and severity by 43 and 59%, respectively. Regardless of disease pressure, the combined use of strain 272 and the tolerant cultivar reduced the scab coverage to a negligible level. After a single application of strain 272, efficient disease suppression did not persist in the soil to the following growing season. However, when strain 272 was applied in three or more consecutive years, the soil remained suppressive to scab for at least 2 years beyond the last application, suggesting that, with repeated applications, it may be possible to enhance development of scab suppression in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-16-1020-REDOI Listing
January 2017

Mixed Infections of Four Viruses, the Incidence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Fleck Virus (Betaflexiviridae) Isolates in Wild Species and Sweetpotatoes in Uganda and Evidence of Distinct Isolates in East Africa.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(12):e0167769. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Viruses infecting wild flora may have a significant negative impact on nearby crops, and vice-versa. Only limited information is available on wild species able to host economically important viruses that infect sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea batatas). In this study, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV; Carlavirus, Betaflexiviridae) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; Crinivirus, Closteroviridae) were surveyed in wild plants of family Convolvulaceae (genera Astripomoea, Ipomoea, Hewittia and Lepistemon) in Uganda. Plants belonging to 26 wild species, including annuals, biannuals and perennials from four agro-ecological zones, were observed for virus-like symptoms in 2004 and 2007 and sampled for virus testing. SPCFV was detected in 84 (2.9%) of 2864 plants tested from 17 species. SPCSV was detected in 66 (5.4%) of the 1224 plants from 12 species sampled in 2007. Some SPCSV-infected plants were also infected with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; Potyvirus, Potyviridae; 1.3%), Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; Ipomovirus, Potyviridae; 0.5%) or both (0.4%), but none of these three viruses were detected in SPCFV-infected plants. Co-infection of SPFMV with SPMMV was detected in 1.2% of plants sampled. Virus-like symptoms were observed in 367 wild plants (12.8%), of which 42 plants (11.4%) were negative for the viruses tested. Almost all (92.4%) the 419 sweetpotato plants sampled from fields close to the tested wild plants displayed virus-like symptoms, and 87.1% were infected with one or more of the four viruses. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of the 3'-proximal genomic region of SPCFV, including the silencing suppressor (NaBP)- and coat protein (CP)-coding regions implicated strong purifying selection on the CP and NaBP, and that the SPCFV strains from East Africa are distinguishable from those from other continents. However, the strains from wild species and sweetpotato were indistinguishable, suggesting reciprocal movement of SPCFV between wild and cultivated Convolvulaceae plants in the field.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167769PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5179071PMC
July 2017

Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

PLoS One 2016 20;11(12):e0168662. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, (Latokartanonkaari 7), Helsinki, Finland.

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology, ecology, and control of the pathogenic fungi of common beans in the field.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168662PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5173241PMC
June 2017

Graphical genotyping as a method to map Ny and Gpa5 using a reference panel of tetraploid potato cultivars.

Theor Appl Genet 2017 Mar 21;130(3):515-528. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research, P.O.Box 386, 6700 AJ, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Key Message: The method of graphical genotyping is applied to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars to visualize haplotype sharing. The method allowed to map genes involved in virus and nematode resistance. The physical coordinates of the amount of linkage drag surrounding these genes are easily interpretable. Graphical genotyping is a visually attractive and easily interpretable method to represent genetic marker data. In this paper, the method is extended from diploids to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars. Application of filters to select a subset of SNPs allows one to visualize haplotype sharing between individuals that also share a specific locus. The method is illustrated with cultivars resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY), while simultaneously selecting for the absence of the SNPs in susceptible clones. SNP data will then merge into an image which displays the coordinates of a distal genomic region on the northern arm of chromosome 11 where a specific haplotype is introgressed from the wild potato species S. stoloniferum (CPC 2093) carrying a gene (Ny ) conferring resistance to two PVY strains, PVY and PVY. Graphical genotyping was also successful in showing the haplotypes on chromosome 12 carrying Ry-f , another resistance gene derived from S. stoloniferum conferring broad-spectrum resistance to PVY, as well as chromosome 5 haplotypes from S. vernei, with the Gpa5 locus involved in resistance against Globodera pallida cyst nematodes. The image also shows shortening of linkage drag by meiotic recombination of the introgression segment in more recent breeding material. Identity-by-descent was found to be a requirement for using graphical genotyping, which is proposed as a non-statistical alternative method for gene discovery, as compared with genome-wide association studies. The potential and limitations of the method are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-016-2831-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5315735PMC
March 2017

Viral RNase3 Co-Localizes and Interacts with the Antiviral Defense Protein SGS3 in Plant Cells.

PLoS One 2016 8;11(7):e0159080. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; family Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III endoribonuclease (RNase3) that suppresses post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) and eliminates antiviral defense in sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas). For RNAi suppression, RNase3 cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNAs (ds-siRNA) and long dsRNA to fragments that are too short to be utilized in RNAi. However, RNase3 can suppress only RNAi induced by sense RNA. Sense-mediated RNAi involves host suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6). In this study, subcellular localization and host interactions of RNase3 were studied in plant cells. RNase3 was found to interact with SGS3 of sweetpotato and Arabidopsis thaliana when expressed in leaves, and it localized to SGS3/RDR6 bodies in the cytoplasm of leaf cells and protoplasts. RNase3 was also detected in the nucleus. Co-expression of RNase3 and SGS3 in leaf tissue enhanced the suppression of RNAi, as compared with expression of RNase3 alone. These results suggest additional mechanisms needed for efficient RNase3-mediated suppression of RNAi and provide new information about the subcellular context and phase of the RNAi pathway in which RNase3 realizes RNAi suppression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0159080PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4938523PMC
August 2017

Dissecting Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways Involved in Cuticle Formation.

Mol Plant 2016 06 7;9(6):926-38. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

Division of Plant Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

The cuticle is the outer physical barrier of aerial plant surfaces and an important interaction point between plants and the environment. Many environmental stresses affect cuticle formation, yet the regulatory pathways involved remain undefined. We used a genetics and gene expression analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana to define an abscisic acid (ABA) signaling loop that positively regulates cuticle formation via the core ABA signaling pathway, including the PYR/PYL receptors, PP2C phosphatase, and SNF1-Related Protein Kinase (SnRK) 2.2/SnRK2.3/SnRK2.6. Downstream of the SnRK2 kinases, cuticle formation was not regulated by the ABA-responsive element-binding transcription factors but rather by DEWAX, MYB16, MYB94, and MYB96. Additionally, low air humidity increased cuticle formation independent of the core ABA pathway and cell death/reactive oxygen species signaling attenuated expression of cuticle-biosynthesis genes. In Physcomitrella patens, exogenous ABA suppressed expression of cuticle-related genes, whose Arabidopsis orthologs were ABA-induced. Hence, the mechanisms regulating cuticle formation are conserved but sophisticated in land plants. Signaling specifically related to cuticle deficiency was identified to play a major role in the adaptation of ABA signaling pathway mutants to increased humidity and in modulating their immunity to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis. These results define a cuticle-specific downstream branch in the ABA signaling pathway that regulates responses to the external environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2016.04.001DOI Listing
June 2016

A novel sweet potato potyvirus open reading frame (ORF) is expressed via polymerase slippage and suppresses RNA silencing.

Mol Plant Pathol 2016 09 28;17(7):1111-23. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.

The single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of viruses in the genus Potyvirus encodes a large polyprotein that is cleaved to yield 10 mature proteins. The first three cleavage products are P1, HCpro and P3. An additional short open reading frame (ORF), called pipo, overlaps the P3 region of the polyprotein ORF. Four related potyviruses infecting sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) are predicted to contain a third ORF, called pispo, which overlaps the 3' third of the P1 region. Recently, pipo has been shown to be expressed via polymerase slippage at a conserved GA6 sequence. Here, we show that pispo is also expressed via polymerase slippage at a GA6 sequence, with higher slippage efficiency (∼5%) than at the pipo site (∼1%). Transient expression of recombinant P1 or the 'transframe' product, P1N-PISPO, in Nicotiana benthamiana suppressed local RNA silencing (RNAi), but only P1N-PISPO inhibited short-distance movement of the silencing signal. These results reveal that polymerase slippage in potyviruses is not limited to pipo expression, but can be co-opted for the evolution and expression of further novel gene products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4979677PMC
September 2016

Comparative Analysis of Prokaryotic Communities Associated with Organic and Conventional Farming Systems.

PLoS One 2015 18;10(12):e0145072. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Laboratory of microbiological monitoring and bioremediation of soils, All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

One of the most important challenges in agriculture is to determine the effectiveness and environmental impact of certain farming practices. The aim of present study was to determine and compare the taxonomic composition of the microbiomes established in soil following long-term exposure (14 years) to a conventional and organic farming systems (CFS and OFS accordingly). Soil from unclared forest next to the fields was used as a control. The analysis was based on RT-PCR and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of bacteria and archaea. The number of bacteria was significantly lower in CFS than in OFS and woodland. The highest amount of archaea was detected in woodland, whereas the amounts in CFS and OFS were lower and similar. The most common phyla in the soil microbial communities analyzed were Proteobacteria (57.9%), Acidobacteria (16.1%), Actinobacteria (7.9%), Verrucomicrobia (2.0%), Bacteroidetes (2.7%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Woodland soil differed from croplands in the taxonomic composition of microbial phyla. Croplands were enriched with Proteobacteria (mainly the genus Pseudomonas), while Acidobacteria were detected almost exclusively in woodland soil. The most pronounced differences between the CFS and OFS microbiomes were found within the genus Pseudomonas, which significantly (p<0,05) increased its number in CFS soil compared to OFS. Other differences in microbiomes of cropping systems concerned minor taxa. A higher relative abundance of bacteria belonging to the families Oxalobacteriaceae, Koribacteriaceae, Nakamurellaceae and genera Ralstonia, Paenibacillus and Pedobacter was found in CFS as compared with OFS. On the other hand, microbiomes of OFS were enriched with proteobacteria of the family Comamonadaceae (genera Hylemonella) and Hyphomicrobiaceae, actinobacteria from the family Micrococcaceae, and bacteria of the genera Geobacter, Methylotenera, Rhizobium (mainly Rhizobium leguminosarum) and Clostridium. Thus, the fields under OFS and CFS did not differ greatly for the composition of the microbiome. These results, which were also confirmed by cluster analysis, indicated that microbial communities in the field soil do not necessarily differ largely between conventional and organic farming systems.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145072PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684275PMC
July 2016

Elucidation of virus-host interactions to enhance resistance breeding for control of virus diseases in potato.

Breed Sci 2015 Mar 1;65(1):69-76. Epub 2015 Mar 1.

Department of Agricultural Sciences , P O Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki , Finland.

Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) are viruses whose geographical distribution is expanding and economic losses are increasing, in contrast to most of other viruses infecting potato crops. Most potato cultivars lack broad-spectrum resistance to the new, genetically complex strains of PVY, and no efficient resistance to PMTV is known in potato. Control of the vectors of these viruses is not an efficient or possible strategy to prevent infections. Studies on molecular virus-host interactions can discover plant genes that are important to viral infection or antiviral defence. Both types of genes may be utilized in resistance breeding, which is discussed in this paper. The advanced gene technologies provide means to fortify potato cultivars with effective virus resistance genes or mutated, non-functional host factors that interfere with virus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.65.69DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4374565PMC
March 2015