Publications by authors named "Jannatul Ferdous"

51 Publications

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Bangladesh related to novel coronavirus infection.

IJID Reg 2022 Mar 2;2:198-203. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst household members in 32 districts of Bangladesh to build knowledge about disease epidemiology and seroepidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective: Antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were assessed in people between April and October 2020.

Results: The national seroprevalence rates of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM were estimated to be 30.4% and 39.7%, respectively. In Dhaka, the seroprevalence of IgG was 35.4% in non-slum areas and 63.5% in slum areas. In areas outside of Dhaka, the seroprevalence of IgG was 37.5% in urban areas and 28.7% in rural areas. Between April and October 2020, the highest seroprevalence rate (57% for IgG and 64% for IgM) was observed in August. IgM antibody was more prevalent in younger participants, while older participants had more frequent IgG seropositivity. Follow-up specimens from patients with COVID-19 and their household members suggested that both IgG and IgM seropositivity increased significantly at day 14 and day 28 compared with day 1 after enrolment. : SARS-CoV-2 had spread extensively in Bangladesh by October 2020. This highlights the importance of monitoring seroprevalence data, particularly with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijregi.2022.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8809641PMC
March 2022

Covishield vaccine induces robust immune responses in Bangladeshi adults.

IJID Reg 2022 Jun 29;3:211-217. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: To evaluate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody responses after Covishield vaccination for 6 months after vaccination.

Design: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the recombinant receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 in 381 adults given the Covishield vaccine at baseline (=119), 1 month (=126) and 2 months (=75) after the first dose, 1 month after the second dose (=161), and monthly for 3 additional months.

Results: Over 51% of participants were seropositive at baseline (before vaccination with Covishield), and almost all participants (159/161) became seropositive 1 month after the second dose. Antibody levels peaked 1 month after receipt of the second dose of vaccine, and decreased by 4 months after the first dose; the lowest responses were found 6 months after the first dose, although antibody responses and responder frequencies remained significantly higher compared with baseline (<0.0001). Compared with younger participants, older participants had lower antibody responses 6 months after the first dose of vaccine (<0.05). Participants who had previous SARS-CoV-2 infection showed robust higher antibody responses after vaccination.

Conclusions: These findings help to elucidate the longevity of vaccine-specific antibody responses following vaccination with Covishield, and provide information relevant to the planning of booster doses after the initial two doses of vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijregi.2022.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9050186PMC
June 2022

Effect of pesticides on nitrification activity and its interaction with chemical fertilizer and manure in long-term paddy soils.

Chemosphere 2022 Oct 15;304:135379. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Biological Science, Islamic University, Kushtia, 7003, Bangladesh.

Effect of pesticides on nitrification activity and its interaction among heavy metal concentrations (HMCs), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes of long-term paddy soils is little known. The aim was to study the effect of pesticides on net nitrification rate (NR), potential nitrification rate (NP), HMCs, ARGs (sulI, sulII, tetO, and tetQ), and amoA (amoA-AOA, amoA-AOB, and amoA-NOB) genes in long-term treated paddy soils. NR and NP were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas HMCs (Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe) were a significantly increased (p < 0.05) in chemical fertilizer with pesticide treated paddy soils as compared with chemical fertilizer treated paddy soils. The scatter plot matrix indicated that total carbon (TC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and Fe were linearly correlated with NR and NP in long-term treated paddy soils. ARGs and amoA genes were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in chemical fertilizer and manure with pesticide treated paddy soils. Overall, the result indicated the response of pesticide and their combination of manure with pesticide interaction present in long-term paddy soils, which will play a great role in the control uses of pesticides, manure, and chemical fertilizers in paddy soils and protect the nitrogen cycle as well as environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135379DOI Listing
October 2022

Short duration phantosmia changes in a post-COVID-19 patient in Bangladesh.

Clin Case Rep 2022 Mar 22;10(3):e05616. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Public Health North South University Dhaka Bangladesh.

Phantosmia is a condition in perceived odors that do not exist. Given the high outlook and swift recovery of COVID-19-induced olfactory dysfunction, the emphasis should be on patients presenting with a poor prognosis who might receive from early management to avoid sequelae such as olfactory dysfunction-related phantosmia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.5616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8939035PMC
March 2022

Escherichia coli Ingested via Food May Overshadow the Positive Effects of Clean Drinking Water: An Example from Dhaka.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2022 Feb 7. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The minimal health impact observed in large-scale water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention studies motivated us to investigate the contribution of contaminated food and drinking water to the total daily Escherichia coli load ingested by the average adult in a low-income, urban area. Leftover food (food left at room temperature for more than 6 hours) from 32 households was collected eight times at 6-week intervals in 2014-2015 in the low-income area of Arichpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. In total, 117 samples were obtained from four food types: fish, lentils, rice, and vegetables, which comprise approximately 85.2% of the average adult's personal daily food consumption. Samples were analyzed for E. coli using selective chromogenic media. For an average adult, the daily consumption of the four food types at mean contamination levels of E. coli can contribute 4.45 log colony-forming units (cfu)/day (95% confidence interval 4.06-4.84). Drinking water quality was measured 211 times at the point of drinking, with a mean, median, and maximum contamination of 1.9, 1.2, and 2.82 log E. coli cfu/100 mL, respectively. If the typical adult in Arichpur were able to drink water with 0 E. coli cfu/100 mL, it would only remove < 5.2% of the total E. coli ingested per day with a mean-contaminated diet. These approximations may suggest why insignificant effects have been observed for water quality interventions in similar, low-hygiene settings. In Arichpur, the E. coli contribution from drinking water to the total E. coli load was insufficient to exert a substantial effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-1530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8991349PMC
February 2022

Disease characteristics and serological responses in patients with differing severity of COVID-19 infection: A longitudinal cohort study in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 01 4;16(1):e0010102. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Background: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 ranges from asymptomatic to severe disease and can cause fatal and devastating outcome in many cases. In this study, we have compared the clinical, biochemical and immunological parameters across the different disease spectrum of COVID-19 in Bangladeshi patients.

Methodology/principal Findings: This longitudinal study was conducted in two COVID-19 hospitals and also around the community in Dhaka city in Bangladesh between November 2020 to March 2021. A total of 100 patients with COVID-19 infection were enrolled and classified into asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe cases (n = 25/group). In addition, thirty age and sex matched healthy participants were enrolled and 21 were analyzed as controls based on exclusion criteria. After enrollment (study day1), follow-up visits were conducted on day 7, 14 and 28 for the cases. Older age, male gender and co-morbid conditions were the risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease. Those with moderate and severe cases of infection had low lymphocyte counts, high neutrophil counts along with a higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at enrollment; this decreased to normal range within 42 days after the onset of symptom. At enrollment, D-dimer, CRP and ferritin levels were elevated among moderate and severe cases. The mild, moderate, and severe cases were seropositive for IgG antibody by day 14 after enrollment. Moderate and severe cases showed significantly higher IgM and IgG levels of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 compared to mild and asymptomatic cases.

Conclusion/significance: We report on the clinical, biochemical, and hematological parameters associated with the different severity of COVID-19 infection. We also show different profile of antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 in relation to disease severity, especially in those with moderate and severe disease manifestations compared to the mild and asymptomatic infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8759637PMC
January 2022

A non-inferiority trial comparing two killed, whole cell, oral cholera vaccines (Cholvax vs. Shanchol) in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Vaccine 2022 01 27;40(4):640-649. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Bangladesh remains cholera endemic with biannual seasonal peaks causing epidemics. At least 300,000 severe cases and over 4,500 deaths occur each year. The available oral cholera vaccineshave not yet been adopted for cholera control in Bangladesh due to insufficient number of doses available for endemic control. With a public private partnership, icddr,b initiated a collaboration between vaccine manufacturers in Bangladesh and abroad. A locally manufactured Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) named Cholvax became available for testing in Bangladesh. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of this locally produced Cholvax (Incepta Vaccine Ltd) inexpensive OCV comparatively to Shanchol (Shantha Biotechnics-Sanofi Pasteur) which is licensed in several countries. We conducted a randomized non-inferiority clinical trial of bivalent, killed oral whole-cell cholera vaccine Cholvax vs. Shanchol in the cholera-endemic area of Mirpur, Dhaka, among three different age cohorts (1-5, 6-17 and 18-45 years) between April 2016 and April 2017. Two vaccine doses were given at 14 days apart to 2,052 healthy participants. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. There were no significant differences in the frequency of solicited (7.31% vs. 6.73%) and unsolicited (1.46% vs. 1.07%) adverse events reported between the Cholvax and Shanchol groups. Vibriocidal antibody responses among the overall population for O1 Ogawa (81% vs. 77%) and O1 Inaba (83% vs. 84%) serotypes showed that Cholvax was non-inferior to Shanchol, with the non-inferiority margin of -10%. For O1 Inaba, GMT was 462.60 (Test group), 450.84 (Comparator group) with GMR 1.02(95% CI: 0.92, 1.13). For O1 Ogawa, GMT was 419.64 (Test group), 387.22 (Comparator group) with GMR 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.23). Cholvax was safe and non-inferior to Shanchol in terms of immunogenicity in the different age groups. These results support public use of Cholvax to contribute for reduction of the cholera burden in Bangladesh. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT027425581.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.12.015DOI Listing
January 2022

Occurrence and multidrug resistance of Campylobacter spp. at duck farms and associated environmental and anthropogenic risk factors in Bangladesh.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Nov 7;21(1):1139. Epub 2021 Nov 7.

Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, 2202, Bangladesh.

Background: The alarming rise in multi-drug resistant (MDR) zoonotic pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., has been threatening the health sector globally. In Bangladesh, despite rapid growth in poultry sector little is known about the potential risks of zoonotic pathogens in homestead duck flocks. The aim of this study was to understand the occurrence, species diversity, and multi-drug resistance in Campylobacter spp., and identify the associated risk factors in duck farms in Bangladesh.

Methods: The study involved 20 duck farms at 6 sub-districts of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Monthly occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in potential sources at the farms during February-September, 2018, was detected by culture and PCR-based methods. Campylobacter isolates were examined for resistance to different antimicrobials. Risk factors, concerning climatic and environmental disposition, farm management, and anthropogenic practices, of Campylobacter infection were estimated by participatory epidemiological tools.

Results: Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in overall 36.90% (155/420) samples, more frequently in drinking water (60%, 30/50), followed by cloacal swab (37.50%, 75/200), egg surface swab (35%, 35/100) and soil of the duck resting places (30%, 15/50) but was not detected in feed samples (n = 20). PCR assays distinguished the majority (61.30%, 95/155) of the isolates as C. coli, while the rest (38.70%, 60/155) were C. jejuni. Notably, 41.7% (25/60) and 31.6% (30/95) strains of C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, were observed to be MDR. The dynamics of Campylobacter spp., distinctly showing higher abundance during summer and late-monsoon, correlated significantly with temperature, humidity, and rainfall, while sunshine hours had a negative influence. Anthropogenic management-related factors, including, inadequate hygiene practices, use of untreated river water, wet duck shed, flock age (1-6 months), and unscrupulous use of antimicrobials were identified to enhance the risk of MDR Campylobacter infection.

Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates that duck farms contribute to the enhanced occurrence and spread of potentially pathogenic and MDR C. coli and C. jejuni strains and the bacterial dynamics are governed by a combined interaction of environmental and anthropogenic factors. A long-term holistic research at the environment-animal-human interface would be integral to divulge health risk reduction approaches tackling the spread of Campylobacter spp. from duck farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06834-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8574054PMC
November 2021

Is It Human or Animal? The Origin of Pathogenic in the Drinking Water of a Low-Income Urban Community in Bangladesh.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Oct 5;6(4). Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Copenhagen Center for Disaster Research, Section for Global Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, 1014 Copenhagen, Denmark.

This study aimed to investigate the origin of diverse pathotypes of , isolated from communal water sources and from the actual drinking water vessel at the point-of-drinking inside households in a low-income urban community in Arichpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-six percent (57/125, CI 95%: 41-58) of the isolates in the point-of-drinking water and 53% (55/103, CI 95%: 45-64) of the isolates in the source water were diarrheagenic . Among the pathotypes, enterotoxigenic (ETEC) was the most common, 81% (46/57) of ETEC was found in the point-of-drinking water and 87% (48/55) was found in the communal source water. Phylogenetic group B1, which is predominant in animals, was the most frequently found isolate in both the point-of-drinking water (50%, 91/181) and in the source (50%, 89/180) water. The phylogenetic subgroup B2, usually of human origin, was more common in the point-of-drinking water (65%, 13/20) than in the source water (35%, 7/20). Our findings suggest that non-human mammals and birds played a vital role in fecal contamination for both the source and point-of-drinking water. Addressing human sanitation without a consideration of fecal contamination from livestock sources will not be enough to prevent drinking-water contamination and thus will persist as a greater contributor to diarrheal pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6040181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8544722PMC
October 2021

Psychological and Mental Health Issues Due to COVID-19 Among Bangladeshi Tertiary Educational Institution Students.

Int J Ment Health Addict 2021 Aug 20:1-5. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Public Administration, Comilla University, Cumilla, 3506 Bangladesh.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11469-021-00623-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378525PMC
August 2021

A phase I/II study to evaluate safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of Hillchol®, an inactivated single Hikojima strain based oral cholera vaccine, in a sequentially age descending population in Bangladesh.

Vaccine 2021 07 1;39(32):4450-4457. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh(icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) as part of an integrated control program, both in highly endemic settings and during cholera epidemics. The available and internationally recommended WHO-prequalified OCVs (Dukoral, Shanchol, Euvichol) contain multiple heat and formalin-killed V. cholerae strains of Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. MSD Wellcome Trust Hilleman Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. in technical collaboration with University of Gothenburg, Sweden has developed a new single strain OCV, Hillchol. This vaccine consists of formaldehyde-inactivated whole cell El Tor V. cholerae O1 bacteria engineered into the Hikojima serotype for stable expression of both the Ogawa (AB) and Inaba (AC) LPS antigens on the bacterial surface. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of this novel and potentially much less expensive OCV in comparison with Shanchol.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority, age-descending clinical trial of OCV (Hillchol vs. Shanchol) in the Mirpur area of Dhaka city from July 2016 to May 2017. This study was carried out in three different age cohorts (1-<5, 5-17 and ≥18 years old). Two doses of vaccine were given at 14 days intervals to 560 healthy participants.

Findings: No serious adverse events were reported. There were no significant differences in the rates of adverse events between the test vaccine (Hillchol) and the comparator (Shanchol) group. Serum vibriocidal antibody responses in all age groups combined were comparable for all the O1 Ogawa (59% vs. 67%; 90% CI of difference: -14.55, -0.84) and Inaba (70% vs. 71%; 90% CI of difference: -7.24, 5.77) serotypes, showing that the Hillchol vaccine was non-inferior to Shanchol. This new vaccine was also non-inferior to Shanchol in the different age strata.

Conclusion: The safety and immunogenicity profile of the new OCV Hillchol is comparable to Shanchol in persons residing in a cholera-endemic setting. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02823899.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.06.069DOI Listing
July 2021

Historical and contemporary views on cholera transmission: are we repeating past discussions? Can lessons learned from cholera be applied to COVID-19?

APMIS 2021 Jul 1;129(7):421-430. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Cholera, a devastating diarrheal disease that caused several global pandemics in the last centuries, may share some similarities with the new COVID-19. Cholera has affected many populations in history and still remains a significant burden in developing countries. The main transmission route was thought to be predominantly through contaminated drinking water. However, revisiting the historical data collected during the Copenhagen 1853 cholera outbreak allowed us to re-evaluate the role of drinking-water transmission in a city-wide outbreak and reconsider some critical transmission routes, which have been neglected since the time of John Snow. Recent empirical and cohort data from Bangladesh also strengthened the dynamic potentiality of other transmission routes (food, fomite, fish, flies) for transmitting cholera. Analyzing this particular nature of the cholera disease transmission, this paper will describe how the pattern of transmission routes are similar to COVID-19 and how the method of revisiting old data can be used for further exploration of new and known diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.13102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014510PMC
July 2021

Environmental contamination of lead in dairy farms in Narayangonj, Bangladesh.

J Adv Vet Anim Res 2020 Dec 1;7(4):621-625. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Objective: In recent years, lead (Pb) has arisen as a foremost contaminant due to overpopulation, rapid industrialization, and expansion that could contaminate the human food chain. However, the correlation between the environmental contamination of Pb and its spatial transfer to the dairy products is still unmapped. In this paper, we intend to evaluate the concentration of environmental Pb and its spatial distribution in dairy feed and products in Narayangonj, a highly polluted district of Bangladesh.

Materials And Methods: A total of 125 samples of soil, water, forage, and milk were collected from five upazilas (Narayangonj Sadar, Bondor, Rupgonj, Araihazar, and Sonargoan) of Narayangonj. The samples were digested by acid digestion, and Pb was detected by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. The bioconcentration factor of the samples was also calculated.

Results: In this study, 25% of the soil, 20% of the water, 5% of the forage, and 2% of the milk samples contained Pb at a variable level. Among the environmental samples, the highest concentration (26-39 μg/kg) of Pb was detected in the soil, followed by in the water (0.023-0.059 μg/kg) and forage (0.017-0.035 μg/kg). The contamination (0.041-0.068 μg/kg) in the milk, however, was lower than the soil but higher than the water and forage. The concentration of Pb in all the samples was within a safer limit. None of the forage samples was the potential bioaccumulator.

Conclusion: Although no linear correlation was established between the environmental samples, forage, and milk, the study identifies the potentials of the spatial distribution of Pb from the environment to the dairy feed and products. Therefore, feasible procedures should be adapted to cease the residue to the human food chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/javar.2020.g460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774782PMC
December 2020

Terbutaline, forskolin and cAMP reduce secretion of aqueous humour in the isolated bovine eye.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(12):e0244253. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Physiology and the Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States of America.

In order to elucidate involvement of cyclic AMP and intracellular Ca2+,[Ca2+]i, in the modulation of aqueous humour formation (AHF), we studied the effects of terbutaline, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP in the isolated bovine eye. We also studied the interaction of cAMP on calcium signaling in cultured ciliary epithelial (CE) cells. Drug effects on AHF were measured by fluorescein dilution. Drug effects on [Ca2+]i were studied by the fura-2 fluorescence ratio technique. Terbutaline (100 nmol-100 M), forskolin (30 nM-100 M) or 8-Br-cAMP (100 nM- 10 μM), administered in the arterial perfusate produced significant reductions in AHF. The AH reducing effect of terbutaline was blocked by a selective inhibitor of protein kinase A (KT-5720). ATP (100 M) caused a rapid, transient (peak) increase in [Ca2+]i followed by a sustained plateau phase lasting more than 5 minutes. Preincubation of the cells (6 min) with terbutaline, forskolin or 8-Br-cAMP significantly reduced the peak calcium response to ATP. The sustained plateau phase of the response, on the other hand, was augmented by each of the agents. KT-5720 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of terbutaline on the peak and totally inhibited its effect on the plateau phase. These data indicate: (a) that AHF in the bovine eye can be manipulated through cyclic AMP, operating via protein kinase A, (b) that protein kinase A can affect [Ca2+]i homeostasis, (c) that calcium release from the intracellular store, not the entry, affects AHF, and (d) that interaction of [Ca2+]i with cAMP plays a role in modulating AH secretion.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244253PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751850PMC
March 2021

O1 transmission in Bangladesh: insights from a nationally representative serosurvey.

Lancet Microbe 2020 12;1(8):e336-e343

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Pandemic from cholera-endemic countries around the Bay of Bengal regularly seed epidemics globally. Without reducing cholera in these countries, including Bangladesh, global cholera control might never be achieved. Little is known about the geographical distribution and magnitude of O1 transmission nationally. We aimed to describe infection risk across Bangladesh, making use of advances in cholera seroepidemiology, therefore overcoming many of the limitations of current clinic-based surveillance.

Methods: We tested serum samples from a nationally representative serosurvey in Bangladesh with eight -specific assays. Using these data with a machine-learning model previously validated within a cohort of confirmed cholera cases and their household contacts, we estimated the proportion of the population with evidence of infection by O1 in the previous year (annual seroincidence) and used Bayesian geostatistical models to create high-resolution national maps of infection risk.

Findings: Between Oct 16, 2015, and Jan 24, 2016, we obtained and tested serum samples from 2930 participants (707 households) in 70 communities across Bangladesh. We estimated national annual seroincidence of O1 infection of 17·3% (95% CI 10·5-24·1). Our high-resolution maps showed large heterogeneity of infection risk, with community-level annual infection risk within the sampled population ranging from 4·3% to 62·9%. Across Bangladesh, we estimated that 28·1 (95% CI 17·1-39·2) million infections occurred in the year before the survey. Despite having an annual seroincidence of O1 infection lower than much of Bangladesh, Dhaka (the capital of Bangladesh and largest city in the country) had 2·0 (95% CI 0·6-3·9) million infections during the same year, primarily because of its large population.

Interpretation: Serosurveillance provides an avenue for identifying areas with high O1 transmission and investigating key risk factors for infection across geographical scales. Serosurveillance could serve as an important method for countries to plan and monitor progress towards 2030 cholera elimination goals.

Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2666-5247(20)30141-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738617PMC
December 2020

Revisiting pharmacological potentials of Nigella sativa seed: A promising option for COVID-19 prevention and cure.

Phytother Res 2021 Mar 12;35(3):1329-1344. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

ABEx Bio-Research Center, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Nigella sativa seed and its active compounds have been historically recognized as an effective herbal panacea that can establish a balanced inflammatory response by suppressing chronic inflammation and promoting healthy immune response. The essential oil and other preparations of N. sativa seed have substantial therapeutic outcomes against immune disturbance, autophagy dysfunction, oxidative stress, ischemia, inflammation, in several COVID-19 comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, Kawasaki-like diseases, and many bacterial and viral infections. Compelling evidence in the therapeutic efficiency of N. sativa along with the recent computational findings is strongly suggestive of combating emerged COVID-19 pandemic. Also, being an available candidate in nutraceuticals, N. sativa seed oil could be immensely potential and feasible to prevent and cure COVID-19. This review was aimed at revisiting the pharmacological benefits of N. sativa seed and its active metabolites that may constitute a potential basis for developing a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy against COVID-19. Bioactive compounds of N. sativa seed, especially thymiquinone, α-hederin, and nigellidine, could be alternative and promising herbal drugs to combat COVID-19. Preclinical and clinical trials are required to delineate detailed mechanism of N. sativa's active components and to investigate their efficacy and potency under specific pathophysiological conditions of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675410PMC
March 2021

A global analysis on the effect of temperature, socio-economic and environmental factors on the spread and mortality rate of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Environ Dev Sustain 2021 6;23(6):9352-9366. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, 3114 Bangladesh.

We performed a global analysis with data from 149 countries to test whether temperature can explain the spatial variability of the spread rate and mortality of COVID-19 at the global scale. We performed partial correlation analysis and linear mixed effect modelling to evaluate the association of the spread rate and motility of COVID-19 with maximum, minimum, average temperatures and diurnal temperature variation (difference between daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperature) and other environmental and socio-economic parameters. After controlling the effect of the duration since the first positive case, partial correlation analysis revealed that temperature was not related with the spatial variability of the spread rate of COVID-19 at the global scale. Mortality was negatively related with temperature in the countries with high-income economies. In contrast, diurnal temperature variation was significantly and positively correlated with mortality in the low- and middle-income countries. Taking the country heterogeneity into account, mixed effect modelling revealed that inclusion of temperature as a fixed factor in the model significantly improved model skill predicting mortality in the low- and middle-income countries. Our analysis suggests that warm climate may reduce the mortality rate in high-income economies, but in low- and middle-income countries, high diurnal temperature variation may increase the mortality risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01028-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538192PMC
October 2020

Exposure pathways and ecological risk assessment of common veterinary antibiotics in the environment through poultry litter in Bangladesh.

J Environ Sci Health B 2020 22;55(12):1061-1068. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) have entered the ecosystem principally through the application of organic fertilizer. However, factors influencing the contributions made by the prescribers and users thereof with respect to VAs in poultry manure have not been investigated. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to identify factors associated with the VA prescription and usage as well as to measure the residual concentration along with the ecological risk of common VAs in poultry litter in Bangladesh. Structured questionnaire surveys were conducted so as to provide an understanding the perspective of prescribers and farmers. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR), oxytetracycline (OTC), and doxycycline (DOX) were screened through the use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Also, methods of risk quotient (RQ) were applied to assess ecotoxicity. Most VAs were prescribed without a confirmatory diagnosis. The residue of CIP was dominant with a high concentration, followed by OTC but with a low concentration. A high ecological risk was associated with the use of OTC and DOX whereas the risk associated with the use of CIP and ENR was insignificant to low. The study highlights prescriber and user factors along with the variable ecological risk of VAs in litter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2020.1816090DOI Listing
February 2021

Role of molecular biomarker human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 oncoprotein in cervical cancer screening.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 09 14;158(3):590-596. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Massachusetts General Hospital, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The Onco E6™ Cervical Test, based on detection of the E6 oncoprotein of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes is evaluated as a screen for the early detection cervical neoplasia in resource-limited countries.

Methods: This prospective study from June 2018 to June 2019 evaluated 235 women aged 21-65 years, who came to Gynaecological Oncology Outpatient Department by VIA, cytology, E6 oncoprotein test and by colposcopy. Screen-positive women by any of the tests or women with suspicious findings were further evaluated by biopsy at colposcopy. The McNemar test was used to compare the performance of E6 oncoprotein test with other screening tests.

Results: The E6 oncoprotein positivity rate was 6.8% (n = 16) with 81.25% HPV 16 positive and 18.75% HPV 18 positive. Among VIA positive cases (n = 100), E6 oncoprotein was positive in 9% (p < .001). In histopathology confirmed chronic cervicitis, CIN I, CIN II, CIN III and invasive cervical cancer, E6 test was positive for 2.8%, 4.7%, 25%, 50% and 100% respectively. E6 oncoprotein test had the highest specificity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV; 97% and 75%) compared to VIA (42% and 18%), cytology (95% and 46%) and colposcopy (94% and 59%). Sensitivity of the E6 oncoprotein test for detection of CIN3+ was significantly higher than that of cytology (52% VS 25%) but lower than that of VIA (52% VS 74%).

Conclusions: The HPV E6 oncoprotein test is highly specific and is an effective triage test to reduce colposcopy referrals for the large number of false positive test outcomes seen with VIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.06.496DOI Listing
September 2020

Perceptions and experiences with district health information system software to collect and utilize health data in Bangladesh: a qualitative exploratory study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 26;20(1):465. Epub 2020 May 26.

Health system and population studies division (HSPSD), icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Accurate and high-quality data are important for improving program effectiveness and informing policy. In 2009 Bangladesh's health management information system (HMIS) adopted the District Health Information Software, Version 2 (DHIS2) to capture real-time health service utilization data. However, routinely collected data are being underused because of poor data quality and reporting. We aimed to understand the facilitators and barriers to implementing DHIS2 as a way to retrieve meaningful and accurate data for reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (RMNCAH) services.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in two districts of Bangladesh from September 2017 to 2018. Data collection included key informant interviews (n = 11), in-depth interviews (n = 23), and focus group discussions (n = 2). The study participants were involved with DHIS2 implementation from the community level to the national level. The data were analyzed thematically.

Results: DHIS2 could improve the timeliness and completeness of data reporting over time. The reported facilitating factors were strong government commitment, extensive donor support, and positive attitudes toward technology among staff. Quality checks and feedback loops at multiple levels of data gathering points are helpful for minimizing data errors. Introducing a dashboard makes DHIS2 compatible to use as a monitoring tool. Barriers to effective DHIS2 implementation were lack of human resources, slow Internet connectivity, frequent changes to DHIS2 versions, and maintaining both manual and electronic system side-by-side. The data in DHIS2 remains incomplete because it does not capture data from private health facilities. Having two parallel HMIS reporting the same RMNCAH indicators threatens data quality and increases the reporting workload.

Conclusion: The overall insights from this study are expected to contribute to the development of effective strategies for successful DHIS2 implementation and building a responsive HMIS. Focused strategic direction is needed to sustain the achievements of digital data culture. Periodic refresher trainings, incentives for increased performance, and an automated single reporting system for multiple stakeholders could make the system more user-friendly. A national electronic health strategy and implementation framework can facilitate creating a culture of DHIS2 use for planning, setting priorities, and decision making among stakeholder groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05322-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249629PMC
May 2020

Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensor IRE1α in Cellular Physiology, Calcium, ROS Signaling, and Metaflammation.

Cells 2020 05 8;9(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Institute of New Drug Development, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54907, Korea.

Inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase endoribonuclease-1α (IRE1α) is the most prominent and evolutionarily conserved unfolded protein response (UPR) signal transducer during endoplasmic reticulum functional upset (ER stress). A IRE1α signal pathway arbitrates yin and yang of cellular fate in objectionable conditions. It plays several roles in fundamental cellular physiology as well as in several pathological conditions such as diabetes, obesity, inflammation, cancer, neurodegeneration, and in many other diseases. Thus, further understanding of its molecular structure and mechanism of action during different cell insults helps in designing and developing better therapeutic strategies for the above-mentioned chronic diseases. In this review, recent insights into structure and mechanism of activation of IRE1α along with its complex regulating network were discussed in relation to their basic cellular physiological function. Addressing different binding partners that can modulate IRE1α function, UPRosome triggers different downstream pathways depending on the cellular backdrop. Furthermore, IRE1α are in normal cell activities outside the dominion of ER stress and activities under the weather of inflammation, diabetes, and obesity-related metaflammation. Thus, IRE1 as an ER stress sensor needs to be understood from a wider perspective for comprehensive functional meaning, which facilitates us with assembling future needs and therapeutic benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9051160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290600PMC
May 2020

Augmented immune responses to a booster dose of oral cholera vaccine in Bangladeshi children less than 5 years of age: Revaccination after an interval of over three years of primary vaccination with a single dose of vaccine.

Vaccine 2020 02 24;38(7):1753-1761. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

We have earlier reported that a single dose of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is protective in adults and children ≥5 years of age and sustained for 2 years. We enrolled participants (n = 240) from this study, between March-September 2017, over 3 years after receiving a primary single dose. Immune responses were measured in placebo group (Primary Immunization group: PI) and compared with those who received a single dose (Booster Immunization group: BI). The children were 4 to <5 years, 5 to <18 years and adults >18 years. Blood was collected at day 0 (before vaccination) and after receiving 1st and 2nd doses of OCV. Overall, the BI and PI groups showed vibriocidal antibody response after 1st and 2nd dose of vaccination in all age groups to V. cholerae O1 and O139. Young children in the BI group showed significantly higher vibriocidal antibody response two weeks after receiving the first dose as compared to PI group to LPS. Elevated plasma IgA responses to LPS after the first dose were observed among the BI group compared to the PI group among the young children. Mucosal antibody responses measured in fecal extracts showed similar increases as that of vibriocidal and LPS responses in the BI group. These results suggest a single boosting dose of OCV generated immune response in primed population >5 years of age who had earlier received OCV. However, young children who had received OCV earlier, boosting after a single dose, resulted in increased immune responses compared to the PI group. Further studies are needed to assess protection obtained from different strategies, especially for young children and to determine the numbers of primary and booster doses needed. In addition, more information is needed regarding the optimum interval between primary and booster doses to plan future interventions for cholera control. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02027207.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.12.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014297PMC
February 2020

Water usage, hygiene and diarrhea in low-income urban communities-A mixed method prospective longitudinal study.

MethodsX 2019 19;6:2822-2837. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Copenhagen Center for Disaster Research, Section for Global Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Epidemiological studies considered water use and hygiene practices as central risk factors for diarrhea. Few studies focused on independent association of water quantity with diarrheal diseases. This study aimed to describe the methodological protocol that adapted multidisciplinary and mixed-method research approach to assess how water usage including water quantity influences the attributable risk for diarrhea in a low-income urban community in Bangladesh. The quantitative, anthropological and microbiological approaches were threaded together to provide a greater understanding of the infrastructural, behavioral and microbial interactions to fathom the dimensions of fecal oral transmission pathways within the households. The use of the (i.e. a mobile phone based real time diarrheal reporting system) was a contemporary approach intended to cut down on resources, reduce research fatigue and provide more accurate data compared to the 'gold standard' (i.e. visiting a household of diarrhea cases within 48 hours) for measuring diarrhea incidence. Development of methods to measure water quantity using qualitative and quantitative approach within a setting where meter water connection is rare was another unique feature of this protocol. This protocol provided guidance and insight on how multiple methods of different disciplines can be combined to enrich understanding of waterborne diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.11.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6909126PMC
November 2019

Developing an empirical model from Landsat data series for monitoring water salinity in coastal Bangladesh.

J Environ Manage 2020 Feb 28;255:109861. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Civil Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Mirpur, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh.

This study aims to develop an empirical model from Landsat data series to monitor the water salinity of coastal Bangladesh efficiently. Such a model can substitute expensive conventional techniques for assessing remote water quality. A set of equations connecting sensors 5 TM and 8 OLI were generated using multiple regression analysis. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections were carried out to enhance the quality of satellite images. Total 13 compositions of different bands including blue, green and red were considered to find the Coefficient of Determination (r) with the field level EC (electrical conductivity) values collected from 74 sampling locations. Salinity data mainly EC values of coastal water were collected from primary and secondary sources. Considering the r values, significant band compositions were identified and then employed to generate linear equations. Such equation for Landsat 5 TM could detect water salinity (i.e. EC) accurately of around 82%. Similarly, the r value for Landsat 8 OLI was found as 0.76 that can confirm the applicability of Landsat data series to detect the change of salinity level of coastal water for a long period. The availability of coastal water was delineated by NDWI whereas salinity level was assessed using the developed equations for the year 2001 and 2019. Interestingly, it was observed that coastal areas having lower level of EC almost vanished whereas those of having higher level of EC were increased significantly between 2001 and 2019. Such increase in coastal water salinity is the result of combined effects of climatic and anthropogenic factors, which can pose a considerable risk to the coastal inhabitants including freshwater scarcity, food insecurity, and health hazard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109861DOI Listing
February 2020

Assessing farmers' perspective on antibiotic usage and management practices in small-scale layer farms of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh.

Vet World 2019 Sep;12(9):1441-1447

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh - 2202, Bangladesh.

Background And Aim: Indiscriminate and injudicious use of antibiotics in layer farms is a common practice of Bangladesh for the compensation of Poor management practices and ignorance. Despite this scenario, there is no published documentation on antibiotic usage pattern and farm management practices in layer farms. This study was undertaken to understand the farmers' perspective in small-scale layer farms regarding antibiotics usage and farm management.

Materials And Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 120 small-scale layer farms of Mymensingh district during January-February 2017. We only considered farms in production. Data were analyzed on antibiotic usage, purpose, egg management, understanding of antibiotic residue, withdrawal period, and other issues.

Results: Among 120 farmers, about 94.16% of farmers are using antibiotics without respecting the withdrawal period. Only 39.1% of farmers possess knowledge of residues. In our surveyed farms, 91.83% of farmers are not practicing egg washing before supplying to the market and 52.67% of farmers are unaware of cleaning and disinfection of egg tray. Ten different types of antibiotics of seven classes have found in the survey. Most antibiotics are in the Watch (49%) and Reserve (8%) groups according to the WHO AWaRe categorization and 73% antibiotics are critically important for human medicine and are considered as last resort.

Conclusion: This study found that due to the lack of knowledge and poor management, farmers consider using antibiotics as the most effective practices to control disease and enhancement of egg production. These indiscriminate uses of antibiotics are responsible for antibiotic residual and resistance problem. Here, we also provide some suggestion and guidelines to improve management practices to minimize the emerging problems of antimicrobial resistance through small-scale layer farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2019.1441-1447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6813615PMC
September 2019

Antibiotic residues in milk: Past, present, and future.

J Adv Vet Anim Res 2019 Sep 11;6(3):315-332. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Now-a-days, various types of antibiotics are being used worldwide in veterinary sector indiscriminately for promotion of growth and treatment of the livestock. Significant portions of antibiotics are released through milk of dairy animals unaltered and exert serious harmful effects on human health. This review evaluates and compare researches on antibiotic residues in milk in published literatures from Pubmed, CrossRef, CAB direct, DOAJ, JournalTOCs, AGRICOLA, ScientificGate, Electronic Journals Library, CAB abstracts, Global Health Databases, Global Impact Factor, Google Scholar, Park Directory of Open Access Journals, BanglaJOL and ISC E-Journals. Antibiotics residue in milk was first detected in 60s and then with an increasing trend with highest after 2,000 (188). The highest no. of works, 49 (21.87%) were accomplished in China, followed by Spain, 30 (13.39%); Germany, 11 (4.91%); and USA, 10 (4.46%). Continent-wise highest researches are published from Europe, 105 (46.88%), followed by Asia, 77 (34.38%); South America, 18 (8.04%); North America, 16 (7.14%); and Africa, 8 (3.57%). For detection, Bovine milk sample is mostly used, 193 (86.16%), followed by ovine, 19 (8.48%); and caprine, 14 (6.25%). Acetonitrile was used in maximum cases (77) for processing the samples. Chromatographic technique was the highest, 115 (51.34%) for detection. Residue of β-lactam group have been detected mostly 133 (36.54%), followed by tetracyclines, 51 (14.01%); fluoroquinolones, 49 (13.46%); sulfonamides, 46 (12.64%); and aminoglycosides, 38 (10.44%). This review observe that antibiotics residues are more common in milk samples that are being manifested in increasing researches on antibiotic detection and measures should adopt to cease this residue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/javar.2019.f350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760505PMC
September 2019

Assessing informed consent practices during normal vaginal delivery and immediate postpartum care in tertiary-level hospitals of Bangladesh.

Eur J Midwifery 2019 21;3:10. Epub 2019 May 21.

James P. Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Introduction: This study was conducted to assess the informed consent practices during normal vaginal delivery (NVD) process and immediate postpartum care in the tertiary-level hospitals of Bangladesh.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital (SSMCH) in November 2015. The study population and respondents were mothers who gave normal vaginal childbirth within the past 24 hours and received postpartum care in the study sites (N=190). The interview of every alternate mother from the patient register was conducted by researchers using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis of findings was carried out using MS Excel 2013.

Results: The study findings revealed the complete absence of informed consent practices during NVD and postpartum care in the tertiary-level hospitals in Bangladesh. Consent (not informed consent) was taken from 95% of the mothers before proceeding with the NVD process, 50-72% of examinations (except breast examination, 0%) and 8-72% of procedures during postpartum care. Choice and preferences of mothers for taking an alternative process/examination/procedure were absent in all cases.

Conclusions: The Respectful Maternity Care (RMC) Charter endorsed informed consent as one of the basic rights of child-bearing women. Absence of informed consent practices in the study sites indicates disrespect to maternity care and violation of this right. The Standard Clinical Management Protocols of Bangladesh also lacks clarification of this right. Improvement of the existing protocol, increased awareness and practices are essential to address protection of this right.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/ejm/109311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839100PMC
May 2019

Antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities of organic crude fractions of .

Ayu 2018 Apr-Jun;39(2):101-106

Department of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology Chittagong, Foys Lake, Pahartali (Chittagong), Bangladesh.

Background: The herb, (CP) Blume (Family-Commelinaceae) is medicinally used by the traditional practitioners in Bangladesh. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence on this medicinal herb.

Aim And Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of CP (ethanol [ECP], chloroform [CCP] and n-hexane [NHCP] of whole-plant extracts).

Materials And Methods: For this antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities of crude extracts of CP were conducted by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, disc diffusion and serial dilution, castor oil-induced diarrhea and yeast powder-induced pyrexia methods respectively.

Results And Observation: The results suggest that all the fractions significantly scavenged DPPH radicals. In the disc diffusion test, the zones of inhibition were observed within the range of 7 mm to 30.67 mm at 500 mg/disc. The highest zones of inhibition were observed by ECP, CCP and NHCP against and respectively. NHCP was found to exert stronger antibacterial effect than the ECP and CCP.

Conclusion: Minimum inhibitory concentrations were detected within the range of 31.25 and 250 μg/ml. Moreover, the crude fractions also showed significant ( < 0.05) antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities in Swiss mice. CP may be a good source of therapeutic components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ayu.AYU_213_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369604PMC
February 2019

Adjuvant Hysterectomy in Patients With Residual Disease After Radiation for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

J Glob Oncol 2019 01;5:1-7

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of hysterectomy in the control of pelvic disease in patients with post-irradiated residual cervical cancer.

Patients And Methods: Forty patients were treated at either National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital (NICRH) or Delta Cancer Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB to IIIB disease with residual disease after the following: either concurrent chemoradiation with or without brachytherapy, induction chemotherapy and external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with or without brachytherapy, or only EBRT. Patients were treated by either radical hysterectomy or extrafascial hysterectomy.

Results: From 2009 to June 2013, 55 patients were evaluated for central residual disease on their presentations to NICRH or Delta Hospital. Patients with distant recurrences after primary radiation were excluded. Forty patients had invasive cancer on biopsy and underwent either radical hysterectomy or extrafascial hysterectomy. Surgery was performed 14 to 18 weeks after the initial treatment. Of the 29 women who underwent extrafascial hysterectomy, four (13.8%) developed recurrent disease, and one died; none of the 11 patients treated by radical hysterectomy experienced recurrences during the study period. Morbidity was increased in patients who underwent radical hysterectomy. Overall 90% of patients (36 of 40 patients) who underwent surgery had no evidence of disease at 5 years of follow-up.

Conclusion: Surgery is a viable treatment option for patients with residual cervical cancer after radiation. Radical hysterectomy after radiation is more morbid but has better tumor control than extrafascial hysterectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JGO.18.00157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426523PMC
January 2019

A genome-wide analysis of coatomer protein (COP) subunits of apicomplexan parasites and their evolutionary relationships.

BMC Genomics 2019 Jan 31;20(1):98. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Malaria Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P. O. Box 10504, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Background: Protein secretion is an essential process in all eukaryotes including organisms belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes many intracellular parasites. The apicomplexan parasites possess a specialized collection of secretory organelles that release a number of proteins to facilitate the invasion of host cells and some of these proteins also participate in immune evasion. Like in other eukaryotes, these parasites possess a series of membrane-bound compartments, namely the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the intermediate compartments (IC) or vesicular tubular clusters (VTS) and Golgi complex through which proteins pass in a sequential and vectorial fashion. Two sets of proteins; COPI and COPII are important for directing the sequential transfer of material between the ER and Golgi complex.

Results: Here, using in silico approaches, we identify the components of COPI and COPII complexes in the genome of apicomplexan organisms. The results showed that the COPI and COPII protein complexes are conserved in most apicomplexan genomes with few exceptions. Diversity among the components of COPI and COPII complexes in apicomplexan is either due to the absence of a subunit or due to the difference in the number of protein domains. For example, the COPI epsilon subunit and COPII sec13 subunit is absent in Babesia bovis, Theileria parva, and Theileria annulata genomes. Phylogenetic and domain analyses for all the proteins of COPI and COPII complexes was performed to predict their evolutionary relationship and functional significance.

Conclusions: The study thus provides insights into the apicomplexan COPI and COPII coating machinery, which is crucial for parasites secretory network needed for the invasion of host cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5463-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357402PMC
January 2019
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