Publications by authors named "Jannat Ijaz"

3 Publications

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Drivers underpinning the malignant transformation of giant cell tumour of bone.

J Pathol 2020 Dec 6;252(4):433-440. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Pathology (research), University College London Cancer Institute, London, UK.

The rare benign giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is defined by an almost unique mutation in the H3.3 family of histone genes H3-3A or H3-3B; however, the same mutation is occasionally found in primary malignant bone tumours which share many features with the benign variant. Moreover, lung metastases can occur despite the absence of malignant histological features in either the primary or metastatic lesions. Herein we investigated the genetic events of 17 GCTBs including benign and malignant variants and the methylation profiles of 122 bone tumour samples including GCTBs. Benign GCTBs possessed few somatic alterations and no other known drivers besides the H3.3 mutation, whereas all malignant tumours harboured at least one additional driver mutation and exhibited genomic features resembling osteosarcomas, including high mutational burden, additional driver event(s), and a high degree of aneuploidy. The H3.3 mutation was found to predate the development of aneuploidy. In contrast to osteosarcomas, malignant H3.3-mutated tumours were enriched for a variety of alterations involving TERT, other than amplification, suggesting telomere dysfunction in the transformation of benign to malignant GCTB. DNA sequencing of the benign metastasising GCTB revealed no additional driver alterations; polyclonal seeding in the lung was identified, implying that the metastatic lesions represent an embolic event. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation profiles revealed that malignant H3.3-mutated tumours are distinct from their benign counterpart, and other bone tumours. Differential methylation analysis identified CCND1, encoding cyclin D1, as a plausible cancer driver gene in these tumours because hypermethylation of the CCND1 promoter was specific for GCTBs. We report here the genomic and methylation patterns underlying the rare clinical phenomena of benign metastasising and malignant transformation of GCTB and show how the combination of genomic and epigenomic findings could potentially distinguish benign from malignant GCTBs, thereby predicting aggressive behaviour in challenging diagnostic cases. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5537DOI Listing
December 2020

A comprehensive model for heat-induced radio-sensitisation.

Int J Hyperthermia 2018 06 5;34(4):392-402. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

a Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research , Royal Marsden NHSF Trust , Sutton , UK.

Combined radiotherapy (RT) and hyperthermia (HT) treatments may improve treatment outcome by heat induced radio-sensitisation. We propose an empirical cell survival model (AlphaR model) to describe this multimodality therapy. The model is motivated by the observation that heat induced radio-sensitisation may be explained by a reduction in the DNA damage repair capacity of heated cells. We assume that this repair is only possible up to a threshold level above which survival will decrease exponentially with dose. Experimental cell survival data from two cell lines (HCT116, Cal27) were considered along with that taken from the literature (baby hamster kidney [BHK] and Chinese hamster ovary cells [CHO]) for HT and combined RT-HT. The AlphaR model was used to study the dependence of clonogenic survival on treatment temperature, and thermal dose R ≥ 0.95 for all fits). For HT survival curves (0-80 CEM43 at 43.5-57 °C), the number of free fit AlphaR model parameters could be reduced to two. Both parameters increased exponentially with temperature. We derived the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) or HT treatments at different temperatures, to provide an alternative description of thermal dose, based on our AlphaR model. For combined RT-HT, our analysis is restricted to the linear quadratic arm of the model. We show that, for the range used (20-80 CEM43, 0-12 Gy), thermal dose is a valid indicator of heat induced radio-sensitisation, and that the model parameters can be described as a function thereof. Overall, the proposed model provides a flexible framework for describing cell survival curves, and may contribute to better quantification of heat induced radio-sensitisation, and thermal dose in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2017.1341059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989161PMC
June 2018