Publications by authors named "Janis Reinelt"

8 Publications

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Positivity in Younger and in Older Age: Associations With Future Time Perspective and Socioemotional Functioning.

Front Psychol 2020 17;11:567133. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Aging has been associated with a motivational shift to positive over negative information (i.e., positivity effect), which is often explained by a limited future time perspective (FTP) within the framework of socioemotional selectivity theory (SST). However, whether a limited FTP functions similarly in younger and older adults, and whether inter-individual differences in socioemotional functioning are similarly associated with preference for positive information (i.e., positivity) is still not clear. We investigated younger (20-35 years, = 73) and older (60-75 years, = 56) adults' gaze preferences on pairs of happy, angry, sad, and neutral faces using an eye-tracking system. We additionally assessed several parameters potentially underlying inter-individual differences in emotion processing such as FTP, stress, cognitive functioning, social support, emotion regulation, and well-being. While we found no age-related differences in positivity when the entire trial duration was considered, older adults showed longer fixations on the more positive face in later stages of processing (i.e., ). This allocation of resources toward more positive stimuli might serve an emotion regulatory purpose and seems consistent with the SST. However, our findings suggest that age moderates the relationship between FTP and positivity shifts, such that the relationship between FTP and positivity preferences was negative in older, and positive in younger adults, potentially stemming from an age-related differential meaning of the FTP construct across age. Furthermore, our exploratory analyses showed that along with the age and FTP interaction, lower levels of worry also played a significant role in positivity shifts. We conclude that positivity effects cannot be solely explained by aging, or the associated reduced FTP , but is rather determined by a complex interplay of psychosocial and emotional features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.567133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705101PMC
November 2020

Cortical thickness and resting-state cardiac function across the lifespan: A cross-sectional pooled mega-analysis.

Psychophysiology 2020 Oct 10. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting-state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, particularly cortical thickness [CT]. While findings have been mixed regarding the anatomical distribution and direction of the associations, these inconsistencies may be due to sex and age differences in HR/HRV and CT. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes, which impede the assessment of sex differences and aging effects on the association between ANS function and CT. To overcome these limitations, 20 groups worldwide contributed data collected under similar protocols of CT assessment and HR/HRV recording to be pooled in a mega-analysis (N = 1,218 (50.5% female), mean age 36.7 years (range: 12-87)). Findings suggest a decline in HRV as well as CT with increasing age. CT, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, explained additional variance in HRV, beyond the effects of aging. This pattern of results may suggest that the decline in HRV with increasing age is related to a decline in orbitofrontal CT. These effects were independent of sex and specific to HRV; with no significant association between CT and HR. Greater CT across the adult lifespan may be vital for the maintenance of healthy cardiac regulation via the ANS-or greater cardiac vagal activity as indirectly reflected in HRV may slow brain atrophy. Findings reveal an important association between CT and cardiac parasympathetic activity with implications for healthy aging and longevity that should be studied further in longitudinal research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13688DOI Listing
October 2020

Domain-specific cues improve robustness of deep learning-based segmentation of CT volumes.

Sci Rep 2020 07 1;10(1):10712. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute for Medical Informatics and Biometry, Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Machine learning has considerably improved medical image analysis in the past years. Although data-driven approaches are intrinsically adaptive and thus, generic, they often do not perform the same way on data from different imaging modalities. In particular computed tomography (CT) data poses many challenges to medical image segmentation based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), mostly due to the broad dynamic range of intensities and the varying number of recorded slices of CT volumes. In this paper, we address these issues with a framework that adds domain-specific data preprocessing and augmentation to state-of-the-art CNN architectures. Our major focus is to stabilise the prediction performance over samples as a mandatory requirement for use in automated and semi-automated workflows in the clinical environment. To validate the architecture-independent effects of our approach we compare a neural architecture based on dilated convolutions for parallel multi-scale processing (a modified Mixed-Scale Dense Network: MS-D Net) to traditional scaling operations (a modified U-Net). Finally, we show that an ensemble model combines the strengths across different individual methods. Our framework is simple to implement into existing deep learning pipelines for CT analysis. It performs well on a range of tasks such as liver and kidney segmentation, without significant differences in prediction performance on strongly differing volume sizes and varying slice thickness. Thus our framework is an essential step towards performing robust segmentation of unknown real-world samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67544-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329868PMC
July 2020

Acute psychosocial stress alters thalamic network centrality.

Neuroimage 2019 10 5;199:680-690. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany; MindBrainBody Institute at the Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Acute stress triggers a broad psychophysiological response that is adaptive if rapidly activated and terminated. While the brain controls the stress response, it is strongly affected by it. Previous research of stress effects on brain activation and connectivity has mainly focused on pre-defined brain regions or networks, potentially missing changes in the rest of the brain. We here investigated how both stress reactivity and stress recovery are reflected in whole-brain network topology and how changes in functional connectivity relate to other stress measures. Healthy young males (n = 67) completed the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task. From 60 min before until 105 min after stress onset, blocks of resting-state fMRI were acquired. Subjective, autonomic, and endocrine measures of the stress response were assessed throughout the experiment. Whole-brain network topology was quantified using Eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping, which detects central hubs of a network. Stress influenced subjective affect, autonomic activity, and endocrine measures. EC differences between groups as well as before and after stress exposure were found in the thalamus, due to widespread connectivity changes in the brain. Stress-driven EC increases in the thalamus were significantly correlated with subjective stress ratings and showed non-significant trends for a correlation with heart rate variability and saliva cortisol. Furthermore, increases in thalamic EC and in saliva cortisol persisted until 105 min after stress onset. We conclude that thalamic areas are central for information processing after stress exposure and may provide an interface for the stress response in the rest of the body and in the mind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.06.005DOI Listing
October 2019

A functional connectome phenotyping dataset including cognitive state and personality measures.

Sci Data 2019 02 12;6:180307. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

The dataset enables exploration of higher-order cognitive faculties, self-generated mental experience, and personality features in relation to the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain. We provide multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and a broad set of state and trait phenotypic assessments: mind-wandering, personality traits, and cognitive abilities. Specifically, 194 healthy participants (between 20 and 75 years of age) filled out 31 questionnaires, performed 7 tasks, and reported 4 probes of in-scanner mind-wandering. The scanning session included four 15.5-min resting-state functional MRI runs using a multiband EPI sequence and a hig h-resolution structural scan using a 3D MP2RAGE sequence. This dataset constitutes one part of the MPI-Leipzig Mind-Brain-Body database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371896PMC
February 2019

A mind-brain-body dataset of MRI, EEG, cognition, emotion, and peripheral physiology in young and old adults.

Sci Data 2019 02 12;6:180308. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

We present a publicly available dataset of 227 healthy participants comprising a young (N=153, 25.1±3.1 years, range 20-35 years, 45 female) and an elderly group (N=74, 67.6±4.7 years, range 59-77 years, 37 female) acquired cross-sectionally in Leipzig, Germany, between 2013 and 2015 to study mind-body-emotion interactions. During a two-day assessment, participants completed MRI at 3 Tesla (resting-state fMRI, quantitative T1 (MP2RAGE), T2-weighted, FLAIR, SWI/QSM, DWI) and a 62-channel EEG experiment at rest. During task-free resting-state fMRI, cardiovascular measures (blood pressure, heart rate, pulse, respiration) were continuously acquired. Anthropometrics, blood samples, and urine drug tests were obtained. Psychiatric symptoms were identified with Standardized Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID-I), Hamilton Depression Scale, and Borderline Symptoms List. Psychological assessment comprised 6 cognitive tests as well as 21 questionnaires related to emotional behavior, personality traits and tendencies, eating behavior, and addictive behavior. We provide information on study design, methods, and details of the data. This dataset is part of the larger MPI Leipzig Mind-Brain-Body database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371893PMC
February 2019

Association of peripheral blood pressure with gray matter volume in 19- to 40-year-old adults.

Neurology 2019 02 23;92(8):e758-e773. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

From the Department of Neurology (H.L.S., S.K.M., F.B., D.K., M.U., J.D.R., A.M.F.R., L.L., A.B., M.E., J.R., M.L.S., A.V.W., M.G., A.V.), Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy & Connectivity (N.M., D.S.M.), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Group (K.M.), Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences; International Max Planck Research School NeuroCom (H.L.S., M.U.), Leipzig; MindBrainBody Institute at Berlin School of Mind and Brain (D.K., A.B., M.E., M.G., A.V.), Charité & Humboldt Universität zu Berlin; Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (A.M.F.R.), Technische Universität Dresden; Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) (M.L.S., M.G., A.V.), Clinic for Cognitive Neurology (M.L.S., A.V.), and Collaborative Research Centre 1052 'Obesity Mechanisms,' Subproject A1, Faculty of Medicine (F.B., A.V.W., A.V.), University of Leipzig, Germany; Department of Psychology (H.O.-S.), University of Haifa, Israel; and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (A.V.), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.

Objective: To test whether elevated blood pressure (BP) relates to gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) changes in young adults who had not previously been diagnosed with hypertension (systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ≥140/90 mm Hg).

Methods: We associated BP with GMV from structural 3T T1-weighted MRI of 423 healthy adults between 19 and 40 years of age (mean age 27.7 ± 5.3 years, 177 women, SBP/DBP 123.2/73.4 ± 12.2/8.5 mm Hg). Data originated from 4 previously unpublished cross-sectional studies conducted in Leipzig, Germany. We performed voxel-based morphometry on each study separately and combined results in image-based meta-analyses (IBMA) to assess cumulative effects across studies. Resting BP was assigned to 1 of 4 categories: (1) SBP <120 and DBP <80 mm Hg, (2) SBP 120-129 or DBP 80-84 mm Hg, (3) SBP 130-139 or DBP 85-89 mm Hg, (4) SBP ≥140 or DBP ≥90 mm Hg.

Results: IBMA yielded the following results: (1) lower regional GMV was correlated with higher peripheral BP; (2) lower GMV was found with higher BP when comparing individuals in subhypertensive categories 3 and 2, respectively, to those in category 1; (3) lower BP-related GMV was found in regions including hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, frontal, and parietal structures (e.g., precuneus).

Conclusion: BP ≥120/80 mm Hg was associated with lower GMV in regions that have previously been related to GM decline in older individuals with manifest hypertension. Our study shows that BP-associated GM alterations emerge continuously across the range of BP and earlier in adulthood than previously assumed. This suggests that treating hypertension or maintaining lower BP in early adulthood might be essential for preventing the pathophysiologic cascade of asymptomatic cerebrovascular disease to symptomatic end-organ damage, such as stroke or dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006947DOI Listing
February 2019

Salivary cortisone, as a biomarker for psychosocial stress, is associated with state anxiety and heart rate.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 03 28;101:35-41. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Paul-List Strasse 13-15, 04103, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Stress activates the central nervous, the autonomic nervous, and the endocrine system. This study aimed to (1) test the usability of salivary cortisone in a standardized psychosocial stressor, (2) create a comprehensive profile of hormonal responses to determine laboratory parameters with high discriminatory power, and (3) analyze their association with psychometric and autonomic stress measures.

Methods: Healthy young men (18-35 years) completed either the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (n = 33) or a Placebo-TSST (n = 34). Blood and saliva were collected at 14 time points along with state-anxiety (STAI) and heart rate. Serum steroids (cortisol*, cortisone*, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, androstenedione*, progesterone*, 17-hydroxyprogesterone*, testosterone, estradiol*, aldosterone*), salivary cortisol* and cortisone*, copeptin*, adrenocorticoptropic hormone*, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and salivary alpha-amylase* were analyzed. We used mixed-design ANOVAs to test group differences, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to assess the discriminatory power of each measure, and Spearman correlation analyses to probe the association between measures.

Results: The largest area under the ROC curve was observed in salivary cortisone at 20 min after the end of the TSST (AUC = 0.909 ± 0.044, p < 0.0001). Significant time-by-group interactions were found in the parameters marked with * above, indicating stress-induced increases. The peak response of salivary cortisone was significantly associated with those of STAI (rho = 0.477, p = 0.016) and heart rate (rho = 0.699, p < 0.0001) in the TSST group.

Conclusion: Our study found salivary cortisone to be a stress biomarker with high discriminatory power and significant correlations with subjective and autonomic stress measures. Our results can inform future stress studies of sampling time for different laboratory parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.10.015DOI Listing
March 2019