Publications by authors named "Jani Seppänen"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Stromal activation associated with development of prostate cancer in prostate-targeted fibroblast growth factor 8b transgenic mice.

Neoplasia 2010 Nov;12(11):915-27

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is commonly increased in prostate cancer. Experimental studies have provided evidence that it plays a role in prostate tumorigenesis and tumor progression. To study how increased FGF-8 affects the prostate, we generated and analyzed transgenic (TG) mice expressing FGF-8b under the probasin promoter that targets expression to prostate epithelium. Prostates of the TG mice showed an increased size and changes in stromal and epithelial morphology progressing from atypia and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mouse PIN, mPIN) lesions to tumors with highly variable phenotype bearing features of adenocarcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and sarcoma. The development of mPIN lesions was preceded by formation of activated stroma containing increased proportion of fibroblastic cells, rich vasculature, and inflammation. The association between advancing stromal and epithelial alterations was statistically significant. Microarray analysis and validation with quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression of osteopontin and connective tissue growth factor was markedly upregulated in TG mouse prostates compared with wild type prostates. Androgen receptor staining was decreased in transformed epithelium and in hypercellular stroma but strongly increased in the sarcoma-like lesions. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that disruption of FGF signaling pathways by increased epithelial production of FGF-8b leads to strongly activated and atypical stroma, which precedes development of mPIN lesions and prostate cancer with mixed features of adenocarcinoma and sarcoma in the prostates of TG mice. The results suggest that increased FGF-8 in human prostate may also contribute to prostate tumorigenesis by stromal activation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2978914PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1593/neo.10776DOI Listing
November 2010

Fast growth associated with aberrant vasculature and hypoxia in fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) over-expressing PC-3 prostate tumour xenografts.

BMC Cancer 2010 Oct 30;10:596. Epub 2010 Oct 30.

Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Prostate tumours are commonly poorly oxygenated which is associated with tumour progression and development of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and radiotherapy. Fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) is a mitogenic and angiogenic factor, which is expressed at an increased level in human prostate tumours and is associated with a poor prognosis. We studied the effect of FGF8b on tumour oxygenation and growth parameters in xenografts in comparison with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-expressing xenografts, representing another fast growing and angiogenic tumour model.

Methods: Subcutaneous tumours of PC-3 cells transfected with FGF8b, VEGF or empty (mock) vectors were produced and studied for vascularity, cell proliferation, glucose metabolism and oxygenation. Tumours were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry, use of radiolabelled markers of energy metabolism ([18F]FDG) and hypoxia ([18F]EF5), and intratumoral polarographic measurements of pO2.

Results: Both FGF8b and VEGF tumours grew rapidly in nude mice and showed highly vascularised morphology. Perfusion studies, pO2 measurements, [18F]EF5 and [18F]FDG uptake as well as IHC staining for glucose transport protein (GLUT1) and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1 showed that VEGF xenografts were well-perfused and oxygenised, as expected, whereas FGF8b tumours were as hypoxic as mock tumours. These results suggest that FGF8b-induced tumour capillaries are defective. Nevertheless, the growth rate of hypoxic FGF8b tumours was highly increased, as that of well-oxygenised VEGF tumours, when compared with hypoxic mock tumour controls.

Conclusion: FGF8b is able to induce fast growth in strongly hypoxic tumour microenvironment whereas VEGF-stimulated growth advantage is associated with improved perfusion and oxygenation of prostate tumour xenografts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2984431PMC
October 2010

Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors.

BMC Cancer 2009 Oct 12;9:362. Epub 2009 Oct 12.

Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku, Finland.

Background: Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood.

Methods: We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig) and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice.

Results: VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p < 0.05) and inhibited metastasis to iliac and sacral lymph nodes. In addition, tumor volumes were smaller in the VEGFR3-Ig-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Transfection of PC-3 cells with the VEGF-C gene led to a high level of 29/31 kD VEGF-C expression in PC-3 cells. The size of orthotopic and subcutaneous PC-3/VEGF-C tumors was significantly greater than that of PC-3/mock tumors (both p < 0.001). Interestingly, while most orthotopic PC-3 and PC-3/mock tumors grown for 4 weeks metastasized to prostate-draining lymph nodes, orthotopic PC-3/VEGF-C tumors primarily metastasized to the lungs. PC-3/VEGF-C tumors showed highly angiogenic morphology with an increased density of blood capillaries compared with PC-3/mock tumors (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2767356PMC
October 2009

Estrogen and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) protection against cell death in estrogen receptor alpha and beta expressing U2OS cells.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2008 Jul 25;289(1-2):38-48. Epub 2008 Mar 25.

Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Turku, Tykistökatu 6 B, 20520 Turku, Finland.

In the current work, we compared the ability of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tamoxifen (Tam), raloxifene (Ral) and ospemifene (Osp) to promote the survival of osteoblast-derived cells against etoposide-induced apoptosis. In order to compare the roles of the two estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes, we created a U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line stably expressing either ERalpha (ERalpha) or ERbeta (ERbeta). Transfection with either of the ERs was able to render the U2OS cells sensitive to E2. We show that E2 opposed etoposide-induced apoptosis and that the effect was mediated via both ER isotypes. The ER isotype selective agonists propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) had the same effect in U2OS/ERalpha and U2OS/ERbeta cells, respectively. Osp also opposed apoptosis at least in U2OS/ERalpha cells. Tam and Ral were not able to protect against etoposide-induced cell death. In order to evaluate the protective effects of E2 and Osp upon etoposide challenge, we studied the expression of two E2-regulated, osteoblast-produced cytokines, IL-6 and OPG in E2 and SERM-treated U2OS/ERalpha and U2OS/ERbeta cells. Etoposide strongly increased expression of IL-6 and decreased that of OPG. E2 opposed IL-6 increase only in U2OS/ERalpha cells and OPG decrease primarily in ERbeta cells. Osp opposed the effect of etoposide on OPG primarily in U2OS/ERbeta cells but interestingly, it had little effect on IL-6 expression. E2, PPT, DNP and Osp also inhibited etoposide-induced death and cytokine changes in SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells expressing endogenous ERalpha and ERbeta. Collectively, our results suggest that the osteoblast protective anti-apoptotic effects of E2 are mediated by both ERalpha and ERbeta but those of Osp primarily by ERalpha. In addition, E2 and Osp opposed the etoposide-induced increase of IL-6 and decrease of OPG which changes would increase osteoclastic activity. These anti-resorptive effects of E2 and Osp upon etoposide challenge differed from each other and they seemed to be differentially mediated in ERalpha and ERbeta expressing osteoblast-derived U2OS cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2008.03.005DOI Listing
July 2008

Androgen and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) downregulation of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) in mouse breast cancer cells.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2006 Jul 24;253(1-2):36-43. Epub 2006 May 24.

Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland.

In the search for androgen target genes responsible for malignant growth in S115 mouse mammary tumor cells we found that thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) expression was strongly downregulated by testosterone (Te). Experiments with cycloheximide suggested that Te repression of TSP1 was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. TSP1 repression by Te was preceded by the induction of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) expression. FGF8 has previously been shown to mediate androgen effects on proliferation of S115 cells by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. It has also been shown to increase breast cancer cell growth as tumors in nude mice and to stimulate tumor angiogenesis. We studied here the possibility that FGF8 belonged to the Te-induced de novo synthesized proteins that mediate the effect of Te on TSP1 expression in these cells. We found that addition of FGF8b to in vitro cultures or ectopic expression of FGF8b in S115 cells repressed TSP1 expression at mRNA and protein levels even in the absence of Te. FGF2, another angiogenic member of FGF family, also downregulated TSP1 mRNA level in the in vitro cultures of S115 cells. The antisense oligonucleotides for FGF8 did not, however, prevent Te-repression of TSP1 mRNA expression and a neutralizing anti-FGF8b antibody only partially opposed Te induced downregulation of TSP1. These results suggest that both androgen and FGF8 inhibit TSP1 expression independently. They also suggest that opposite to many other androgen-induced responses in S115 cells, the effect of Te on the expression TSP1 is not mediated by FGF8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2006.04.007DOI Listing
July 2006

Regulation of osteoblast differentiation: a novel function for fibroblast growth factor 8.

Endocrinology 2006 May 26;147(5):2171-82. Epub 2006 Jan 26.

Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Turku, Finland.

Several members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have an important role in the development of skeletal tissues. FGF-8 is widely expressed in the developing skeleton, but its function there has remained unknown. We asked in this study whether FGF-8 could have a role in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to an osteoblastic lineage. Addition of FGF-8 to mouse bone marrow cultures effectively increased initial cell proliferation as well as subsequent osteoblast-specific alkaline phosphatase production, bone nodule formation, and calcium accumulation if it was added to the cultures at an early stage of osteoblastic differentiation. Exogenous FGF-8 also stimulated the proliferation of MG63 osteosarcoma cells, which was blocked by a neutralizing antibody to FGF-8b. In addition, the heparin-binding growth factor fraction of Shionogi 115 (S115) mouse breast cancer cells, which express and secrete FGF-8 at a very high level, had an effect in bone marrow cultures similar to that of exogenous FGF-8. Interestingly, experimental nude mouse tumors of S115 cells present ectopic bone and cartilage formation as demonstrated by typical histology and expression of markers specific for cartilage (type II and IX collagen) and bone (osteocalcin). These results demonstrate that FGF-8 effectively predetermines bone marrow cells to differentiate to osteoblasts and increases bone formation in vitro. It is possible that FGF-8 also stimulates bone formation in vivo. The results suggest that FGF-8, which is expressed by a great proportion of malignant breast and prostate tumors, may, among other factors, also be involved in the formation of osteosclerotic bone metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2005-1502DOI Listing
May 2006