Publications by authors named "Janet Liversidge"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Older Patients Are Immunocompromised by Cytokine Depletion and Loss of Innate Immune Function After HIP Fracture Surgery.

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2015 Dec;6(4):295-302

Section of Immunology and Infection, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, United Kingdom.

Purpose/introduction: We have examined the immune status of elderly patients who underwent surgery for a hip fracture, an injury associated with poor postoperative outcomes, to identify specific immune defects.

Methods: In a cohort observational study, 16 patients undergoing surgery for hip fractures had immune function evaluation prior to surgery, and then at 3 and 7 days postoperatively, using flow cytometry for phenotype and for monocyte and granulocyte phagocytic function and respiratory burst. Serum samples were stored and batch analyzed using a human cytokine 25-plex panel.

Results: We report significant loss of innate immune function, related specifically to reduced granulocyte numbers by day 7 (P < .0001, flow cytometry; P < .05 white blood cells), and although granulocyte ability to take up opsonized Escherichia coli was increased (P < .05), the ability of those cells to generate a respiratory burst was reduced at days 3 and 7 (P < .05). Monocyte respiratory burst was also significantly reduced (P < .05). Serum cytokine levels indicated very poor T-cell function.

Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the antimicrobial immune response is profoundly reduced after surgery in elderly patients with hip fractures. The effect was sustained up to 7 days postoperatively, identifying these patients as particularly vulnerable to bacterial infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2151458515605564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4647197PMC
December 2015

Quantitative in situ analysis of claudin expression at the blood-retinal barrier.

Methods Mol Biol 2011 ;762:321-31

Centre for Vision and Vascular Science, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

It is apparent that claudins are involved in signalling to and from cellular tight junctions (TJs) and control cell behaviour such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Methods to identify and measure specific claudins in TJs would, therefore, be useful to monitor TJ structure and functional integrity under physiological and pathological conditions. The molecular pathways involved in claudin signalling are not understood and are likely to become a focus for intensive research as better understanding of tight junction structure and function may provide opportunities for better drug delivery and absorption. In this chapter, we describe our method for quantitative analysis of specific claudins in TJ during the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier in a mouse model of inflammatory uveitis, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-185-7_23DOI Listing
November 2011

CX3CR1-deficiency is associated with increased severity of disease in experimental autoimmune uveitis.

Immunology 2009 Sep;128(1):25-33

Division of Applied Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

The role of CX3CR1 in regulating the function of monocytes and microglia was examined in mice in which CX3CR1 had been replaced by green fluorescent protein (GFP). Induction of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in these mice resulted in increased disease severity at day 23 postimmunization with uveitogenic peptide when compared with CX3CR1-positive mice and increased apoptosis of neuronal cells in the inner nuclear layer. Resident microglia within the retina were activated equally as EAU developed in mice with or without CX3CR1, as determined by changes in morphology, suggesting that the microglial cell response did not account for the differences. Although the inflammatory infiltrate had increased in mice without CX3CR1 at day 23 postimmunization, the percentage of natural killer cells in the infiltrate was not changed in these mice. Similarly, increased disease severity at this stage was not associated with an overall increased percentage of macrophages in the retinal inflammatory infiltrate or in increased activation of these cells. The increased recruitment of monocytes to the retina in response to EAU induction in CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice compared with CX3CR1(GFP/+) mice was not reflected in increased migration away from vessels, leading to marked clustering of GFP(+) cells around veins and venules in these mice. It is possible that this monocyte/macrophage clustering leads to the increased severity of disease seen in the mice by focusing and so intensifying the inflammatory response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2009.03046.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2747136PMC
September 2009

Development of experimental autoimmune uveitis: efficient recruitment of monocytes is independent of CCR2.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009 Sep 8;50(9):4288-94. Epub 2009 Apr 8.

Division of Applied Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Macrophages are major contributors to the damage occurring in the retina in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). CCR2 may be needed for efficient recruitment of monocytes to an inflammatory site, and the aim of this study was to determine whether this was the case in EAU.

Methods: EAU was induced and graded in C57BL/6J and CCR2(-/-) mice. Macrophage infiltration and CCR2 expression were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Retinas were examined for MCP-1 expression using RT-PCR. Rolling and infiltration of labeled bone marrow monocytes at the inflamed retinal vasculature were examined by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and confocal microscopy, respectively. Effect of CCR2 deletion or blockade by antibody and antagonist was determined.

Results: Expression of mRNA for MCP-1 increased as EAU developed and was localized to the retina. CCR2 was associated with infiltrating macrophages. However, EAU induced in CCR2(-/-) mice was not reduced in severity, and neither was the percentage of macrophages in the retina. CCR2(-/-) monocytes, 48 hours after adoptive transfer to mice with EAU, showed no significant difference in percentage rolling or infiltration into the retina compared to WT. CCR2-independent rolling of monocytes was confirmed by CCR2 neutralizing antibody and antagonist treatment.

Conclusions: CCR2 does not have a primary role in the recruitment of monocytes to the inflammatory site across the blood-retina barrier in well-developed EAU. Therapeutics targeting CCR2 are unlikely to be of value in treating human posterior uveitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.09-3434DOI Listing
September 2009

Critical but divergent roles for CD62L and CD44 in directing blood monocyte trafficking in vivo during inflammation.

Blood 2008 Aug 7;112(4):1166-74. Epub 2008 Apr 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Using noninvasive in vivo imaging and experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis as a model, we show for the first time that the mechanisms controlling blood monocyte recirculation through peripheral and lymphoid tissues alter during inflammation. The recirculation of monocytes in mice with ocular inflammation but not controls was found to depend on the selectin CD62-ligand (CD62L) and on CD44. Not only was rolling efficiency ablated or markedly reduced in antibody-treated mice, but most of the labeled monocytes also disappeared from the circulation within seconds, anti-CD44-treated monocytes homing to the lymph nodes and anti-CD62L-treated monocytes homing to the spleen. Our data indicate that, although PSGL-1 has a partial role in the transmigration of monocytes into the inflamed retina, CD62L has a key role in regulating recruitment of monocytes to lymphoid tissue from the blood during inflammation and that CD44 is required to maintain CD62L(+) inflammatory monocytes within the circulation during inflammation. This effect was systemic, because sequestered monocytes accumulated in mesenteric as well as draining cervical lymph nodes, and inflammation dependent, because depletion of circulating blood monocytes was much reduced or absent in normal mice and accumulations of adoptively transferred monocytes in the lymphoid tissues did not occur.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-06-098327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2515150PMC
August 2008

Mechanisms of leukocyte migration across the blood-retina barrier.

Semin Immunopathol 2008 Apr 28;30(2):165-77. Epub 2008 Feb 28.

School of Medicine, University of Aberdeen Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK.

Immune-mediated inflammation in the retina is regulated by a combination of anatomical, physiological and immuno-regulatory mechanisms, referred to as the blood-retina barrier (BRB). The BRB is thought to be part of the specialised ocular microenvironment that confers protection or "immune privilege" by deviating or suppressing destructive inflammation. The barrier between the blood circulation and the retina is maintained at two separate anatomical sites. These are the endothelial cells of the inner retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelial cells on Bruch's membrane between the fenestrated choroidal vessels and the outer retina. The structure and regulation of the tight junctions forming the physical barrier are described. For leukocyte migration across the BRB to occur, changes are needed in both the leukocytes themselves and the cells forming the barrier. We review how the blood-retina barrier is compromised in various inflammatory diseases and discuss the mechanisms controlling leukocyte subset migration into the retina in uveoretinitis in more detail. In particular, we examine the relative roles of selectins and integrins in leukocyte interactions with the vascular endothelium and the pivotal role of chemokines in selective recruitment of leukocyte subsets, triggering adhesion, diapedesis and migration of inflammatory cells into the retinal tissue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-008-0106-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2315689PMC
April 2008

Identification of novel dendritic cell populations in normal mouse retina.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007 Apr;48(4):1701-10

Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK.

Purpose: Whether tissue resident or infiltrating antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are involved in modulating immune responses in the retina and initiating inflammation is controversial. In this histologic study, the authors examine the retinas of mice strains with different susceptibility to experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) for tissue resident APC.

Methods: Retinal wholemounts from normal and inflamed eyes of B10R III, C57BL/6, BALB/c, and ABH Biozii mice were immunostained for APC markers (33D1, CD11c, CD11b, major histocompatibility complex [MHC] class II, F4/80, CD80, CD86, CD205, mPDCA, B220, and GR1) and analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy using emission fingerprinting and three-dimensional reconstruction techniques. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic sections were used to evaluate EAU disease scores and to assess outer blood retina barrier (retinal pigment epithelium [RPE]) structures.

Results: A population of 33D1(+) cells was identified exclusively in the peripheral margins and juxtapapillary areas of the retina in normal, nonimmunized C57BL/6 adult mice. These cells were also MHC class II(high), and their location corresponded to sites of earliest inflammation in EAU. Numbers in the papillary area were very low (less than 10), but this region marked the predominant anatomic site for initiation of inflammation in this moderately susceptible strain. The distribution and phenotype of these cells within the retinas differed between mouse strains exhibiting different disease susceptibility. In EAU-resistant BALB/c mice, many more 33D1(+) dendritic cells were present in the normal retina but were MHC class II(low/-). Conversely, no 33D1(+) or MHC class II (+) dendriform cells could be found in the normal retinas of highly EAU-susceptible B10.RIII mice.

Conclusions: A novel population of 33D1(+) DCs was identified in normal mouse retina. The function of these cells remains to be defined, but increased numbers correlate positively with structural abnormalities in the RPE and increased resistance of the strain to EAU.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.06-0697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2446435PMC
April 2007

Is the CD200/CD200 receptor interaction more than just a myeloid cell inhibitory signal?

Crit Rev Immunol 2006 ;26(3):213-30

Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, UK.

The membrane glycoprotein CD200, which has a widespread but defined distribution and a structurally similar receptor (CD200R) that transmits an inhibitory signal to cells of the hematopoetic lineage, especially myeloid cells, has been characterized. CD200R expression is restricted predominantly to cells of the myeloid lineage indicating that this ligand/receptor pair has a specific role in controlling myeloid cell function. In addition to CD200R, several related genes have been identified. Whether these gene products also regulate immune function is controversial. CD200R is also expressed by certain subsets of T cells and CD200 may be expressed by antigen-presenting cells, adding additional layers of complexity to the CD200/CD200R axis. Because monocytic myeloid cells provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune response, mechanisms to control their function through receptors such as CD200R will have therapeutic potential. Regulation of immune responses is accomplished by the concerted, but opposing, activity of kinases and phosphatases, fine control often being achieved through paired receptors. In this review, we will consider whether CD200R signaling functions within a framework of paired activating and inhibitory receptors and whether the inhibitory signal delivered has functional consequences beyond inhibition of myeloid cell proinflammatory activation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2446434PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/critrevimmunol.v26.i3.20DOI Listing
August 2006

Involvement of CCR5 in the passage of Th1-type cells across the blood-retina barrier in experimental autoimmune uveitis.

J Leukoc Biol 2006 Mar 19;79(3):435-43. Epub 2005 Dec 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK.

Although the recruitment of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)/Th2 cells into peripheral tissues is essential for inflammation and the host response to infection, the traffic signals that enable the distinct positioning of Th1/Th2 cells are unclear. We have determined the role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) in this using experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) as a model system. In EAU, Th1-like cells are preferentially recruited into the retina across the blood-retina barrier, partly as a result of expression of the adhesion molecules P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 on these cells. CD3+ T cells, infiltrating the retina, also expressed the chemokine receptor CCR5, and CCR5 ligands, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), were strongly expressed in the retina at peak EAU. Th1-like cells, polarized in vitro, expressed high levels of CCR5. The trafficking of these CCR5+ cells was examined by tracking them after adoptive transfer in real time in vivo at an early disease stage using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Treatment of the cells with antibody against CCR5 prior to transfer resulted in a reduction in their infiltration into the retina. However, rolling velocity, rolling efficiency, and adherence of the cells to retinal endothelium were not reduced. CCR5 is clearly important for Th1 cell recruitment, and this study demonstrates for the first time in vivo that CCR5 may act at the level of transendothelial migration rather than at the earlier stage of rolling on the endothelium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0305130DOI Listing
March 2006

Differentiation to the CCR2+ inflammatory phenotype in vivo is a constitutive, time-limited property of blood monocytes and is independent of local inflammatory mediators.

J Immunol 2005 Nov;175(10):6915-23

Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Aberdeen, UK.

It is proposed that CCR2+ monocytes are specifically recruited to inflammatory sites, whereas CCR2- monocytes are recruited to normal tissue to become resident macrophages. Whether these subsets represent separate lineages, how differential trafficking is regulated and whether monocytes undergo further differentiation is uncertain. Using a mouse model of autoimmune uveoretinitis we examined monocyte trafficking to the inflamed retina in vivo. We show that bone marrow-derived CD11b+ F4/80- monocytes require 24 to 48 h within the circulation and lymphoid system before acquiring the CCR2+ phenotype and trafficking to the inflamed retina is enabled. This phenotype, and the capacity to traffic were lost by 72 h. Monocyte CCR2 expression followed a similar time course in normal mice indicating that differentiation to an inflammatory phenotype is a constitutive, time-limited property, independent of local inflammatory mediators. Phenotypic analysis of adoptively transferred cells indicated that circulating inflammatory monocytes also differentiate into CD11c+ and B220+ dendritic cells and F4/80+ tissue macrophages in vivo. Our data supports the hypothesis of continuous extravasation and progressive differentiation over time of inflammatory monocytes in the circulation rather than replication within the actively inflamed tissue, and supports the concept of myeloid dendritic cell differentiation from trafficking monocytes under physiological conditions in vivo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2496954PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.175.10.6915DOI Listing
November 2005

Leukocyte diapedesis in vivo induces transient loss of tight junction protein at the blood-retina barrier.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005 Jul;46(7):2487-94

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Although much is now understood about the molecular structure of tight junctions (TJs), little is known about the regulation of their function during neural inflammatory disease processes in vivo. The mechanisms by which leukocytes transmigrate the blood-retina barrier (BRB) without affecting endothelial permeability are controversial.

Methods: Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of ex vivo retinal wholemounts was used to study BRB integrity during leukocyte adhesion and migration during experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Western blot analysis was used to measure levels of TJ proteins in EAU retina and RPE and in normal retina or RPE cultured with cytokines or chemokines.

Results: No evidence for discontinuity or other weakness of the endothelial or epithelial barrier at tricellular corners was observed, and maximum disruption of TJ protein expression was focused in retinal venules correlating with sites of leukocyte extravasation. Areas of maximum TJ protein loss in vivo also correlated with redistribution or loss of ensheathing astrocyte processes on venules but not adjacent capillaries or arterioles. Exposure of normal choroidal and retinal explants ex vivo to cytokines and chemokines alone did not downregulate total occludin-1 or claudin-3 TJ protein expression.

Conclusions: The data presented herein support an active role for leukocytes in TJ disruption and blood-retina barrier (BRB) breakdown during retinal inflammation and further implicate venule microenvironment as a key factor in leukocyte recruitment to retinal tissue in vivo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.04-1333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2478725PMC
July 2005

Evaluation of MRI for in vivo monitoring of retinal damage and detachment in experimental ocular inflammation.

Magn Reson Med 2005 Jan;53(1):61-8

Department of Biomedical Physics & Bioengineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK.

Two quantitative methods were developed for investigation of the potential of MRI for in vivo monitoring of retinal damage and detachment in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Measurements of retinal thickness and detachment area were performed on matched MR and histologic (HIST) images of rat eyes at different stages of EAU. In vivo MR images of rat eyes were acquired at 4.7 T using a figure-of-eight surface coil and a spin echo pulse sequence. Ex vivo measurements were performed on HIST images acquired using a digital camera attached to a microscope. MR images mirrored the HIST appearance of inflamed eyes at each stage of disease. Retinal detachments as small as 0.1 mm(2) were measured in vivo by MRI and confirmed in the same eye ex vivo by histology. Measurements performed on corresponding MR and HIST images demonstrated a good agreement between the two techniques. The potential of MRI for in vivo visualization and for monitoring changes in the eye during development of EAU was demonstrated in this study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.20326DOI Listing
January 2005

Enhanced tolerance to autoimmune uveitis in CD200-deficient mice correlates with a pronounced Th2 switch in response to antigen challenge.

J Immunol 2005 Jan;174(1):143-54

College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, United Kingdom.

A single exposure to inhaled Ag 10 days before immunization leads to long term, Ag-specific tolerance. Respiratory tract myeloid APCs are implicated, but how regulation is invoked, and how tolerance is sustained are unclear. This study examines the in vivo function of the myeloid regulatory molecule CD200 in the process of tolerance induction. Despite earlier onset of experimental autoimmune uveitis in sham-tolerized, CD200-deficient mice, disease incidence and subsequent severity were actually reduced compared with those in wild-type mice. Protection was more effective and long term, lasting at least 28 days. Halting disease progression and tolerance in CD200(-/-) mice correlated with a marked increase in Th2-associated cytokine production by Ag-challenged splenocytes. Reduced overall disease and enhanced tolerance in the CD200-deficient mice in this model system were unexpected and may be related to altered populations of MHC class II(low) APC in the respiratory tract compared with wild-type mice together with associated activation of STAT6 in draining lymph nodes of tolerized mice. These data indicate that in the absence of default inhibitory CD200 receptor signaling, alternative, powerful regulatory mechanisms are invoked. This may represent either permissive dominant Th2 activation or an altered hierarchy of negative signaling by other myeloid cell-expressed regulatory molecules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2446433PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.174.1.143DOI Listing
January 2005

Characterization of the B-cell inhibitory protein factor in Ixodes ricinus tick saliva: a potential role in enhanced Borrelia burgdoferi transmission.

Immunology 2004 Nov;113(3):401-8

School of Biological Science, Zoology, University of Aberdeen, UK.

We recently described the inhibition of host B lymphocytes by Ixodes ricinus tick saliva. In this study, we characterized the factor responsible for this activity and examined the modulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein (Osp)-induced proliferation of naive murine B lymphocytes by an enriched fraction of this factor. The B-lymphocyte inhibitory activity was destroyed by trypsin treatment, indicating that a proteinaceous factor was responsible for this activity. The removal of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from tick salivary glands extracts (SGE) showed that this B-cell inhibitory protein (BIP) was not a GST. Gel filtration liquid chromatography indicated that BIP has a native molecular weight of approximately 18,000. An enrichment protocol, using a combination of anion-exchange and reverse-phase liquid chromatography, was established. BIP-enriched fractions did not suppress T-cell proliferation. Delayed addition of BIP-enriched fractions, up to 7 hr after LPS addition, inhibited the proliferation of isolated B cells. BIP-enriched fractions dramatically inhibited both OspA- and OspC-induced proliferation of isolated B cells. These results strongly suggest that BIP may facilitate B. burgdorferi transmission by preventing B-cell activation, and also highlights the potential of BIP as a therapeutic agent in B-cell maladies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01975.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782588PMC
November 2004

The role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU).

Prog Retin Eye Res 2004 Nov;23(6):617-37

Department of Clinical Sciences at South Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol Eye Hospital, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol BS1 2LX, UK.

The pleiotropic cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is released from cells that include macrophages and T-cells during inflammatory responses, orchestrating the initiation of further leucocytic infiltration via adhesion molecule upregulation, dendritic cell maturation and survival, macrophage activation and driving Th1 T-cells responses within tissues. Exposure to TNF also plays a role in maintaining tissue homeostasis, particularly relating to resident cell responses of both microglia and retinal pigment epithelium. Depending on the balance between duration and dose of TNF exposure, an environment where full expression of inflammatory and autoimmune responses within tissues may occur. In experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), increased tissue concentrations of TNF facilitate the on-going T-cell effector responses and macrophage activation. These are responsible for targeted and bystander tissue damage and can be suppressed by anti-TNF therapies, in particular, those directed at the p55 TNF receptor. The ability to suppress disease experimentally has led to the successful translation of anti-TNF therapy for treatment of uveitis in cohort studies and phase I/II trials where, additionally, altered peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell profiles can be demonstrated following each treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2004.06.005DOI Listing
November 2004

Recruitment of IFN-gamma-producing (Th1-like) cells into the inflamed retina in vivo is preferentially regulated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1:P/E-selectin interactions.

J Immunol 2004 Mar;172(5):3215-24

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Although there is evidence that altering the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2 cells may be important in the resolution of Th1-type autoimmune disease, adoptive transfer of Th2 cells is not effective in protecting against Th1-type disease and may cause disease. Therefore, we examined the recruitment of Th1- and Th2-like cells into the retina in the murine autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. CD4 T cells were polarized in vitro to IFN-gamma-producing Th1-like cells and non-IFN-gamma-producing Th2-like cells, labeled, and adoptively transferred. Trafficking to the retina in vivo was evaluated by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and infiltration by confocal microscopy. There were more rolling and adherent Th1-like cells and they rolled more slowly than did Th2-like cells. Th1-like cells were preferentially recruited into the retinal parenchyma at both initiation and resolution. Surface P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) and LFA-1 were up-regulated on both populations but were expressed at higher levels on Th1-like cells. Up-regulation of CD44 expression was higher on Th2-like cells. P-selectin, E-selectin, and ICAM-1 are up-regulated on postcapillary venules in the retina. Pretreatment of Th1-like cells with anti-PSGL-1 inhibited rolling and infiltration of Th1-like cells but not Th2-like cells, providing direct in vivo evidence for the inability of Th2 to respond to P/E-selectin despite increased expression of PSGL-1. Anti-LFA-1 pretreatment inhibited infiltration of both Th1- and Th2-like cells, but more so Th-1. We suggest that random trafficking of activated T cells (both Th1 and Th2) across the blood-retina barrier is mediated by CD44:CD44R and LFA-1:ICAM-1, whereas preferential recruitment of Th1 cells is mediated by PSGL-1:P/E-selectin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.3215DOI Listing
March 2004

Reduction in shear stress, activation of the endothelium, and leukocyte priming are all required for leukocyte passage across the blood--retina barrier.

J Leukoc Biol 2004 Feb 21;75(2):224-32. Epub 2003 Nov 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen University Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK.

The passage of leukocytes across the blood-retina barrier at the early stages of an inflammatory reaction is influenced by a complex series of interactions about which little is known. In particular, the relationship between hydrodynamic factors, such as shear stress and leukocyte velocity, to the adherence and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes into the retina is unclear. We have used a physiological method, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, to track labeled leukocytes circulating in the retina, followed by confocal microscopy of retinal flatmounts to detect infiltrating cells at the early stage of experimental autoimmune uveitis. This has shown that retinal vessels are subjected to high shear stress under normal circumstances. During the inflammatory reaction, shear stress in retinal veins is reduced 24 h before leukocyte infiltration. This reduction is negatively correlated with leukocyte rolling and sticking in veins and postcapillary venules, the sites of leukocyte extravasation. Activation of vascular endothelial cells is also a prerequisite for leukocyte rolling and infiltration. In addition, antigen priming of leukocytes is influential at the early stage of inflammation, and this is seen clearly in the reduction in rolling velocity and adherence of the primed leukocytes in activated retinal venules, 9 days postimmunization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.1002479DOI Listing
February 2004

Requirements for passage of T lymphocytes across non-inflamed retinal microvessels.

J Neuroimmunol 2003 Sep;142(1-2):47-57

Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen University Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK.

Although activated T lymphocytes can migrate through unstimulated neural endothelium to perform immune surveillance or initiate inflammation, the precise mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. In this study, we have used intravital scanning laser ophthalmoscopy to show that circulating, activated T cells induce early changes in the retinal venules that enable T cell diapedesis in the absence of cell rolling, and without any reduction in shear stress within the venules. Concanavalin A (Con A)-activated T cells, but not naive T cells, were able to penetrate the normal blood-retinal barrier (BRB) 8-16 h after adoptive transfer. A minimum number (> or =1 x 10(5) cells/mouse) of Con A-activated T cells needed to be transferred before lymphocytes crossed the normal BRB. Cell rolling and reduction of shear stress did not occur in normal retinal venules and post-capillary venules. In contrast, in mice with experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), in which the BRB has broken down, 45% of blast cells were rolling in retinal venules. Cell rolling correlated with significantly reduced shear stress. Both naive and Con A-activated T cells could cross the disabled barrier, with Con A-activated T cells migrating faster and in greater numbers than naive cells. Adoptive transfer of Con A-activated cells into normal recipient mice induced limited and transient breakdown of the BRB and up-regulation of ICAM-1 but not P-selectin. Pretreatment of Con A-activated cells with anti-LFA-1 significantly suppressed T cell infiltration in normal recipient mice. Our data indicate that critical to immune surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS) is the ability of activated T cells to interact with the endothelium, up-regulating ICAM-1 and inducing transient breakdown of the barrier.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-5728(03)00258-3DOI Listing
September 2003

Control of myeloid activity during retinal inflammation.

J Leukoc Biol 2003 Aug;74(2):161-6

Division of Ophthalmology, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

Combating myeloid cell-mediated destruction of the retina during inflammation or neurodegeneration is dependent on the integrity of homeostatic mechanisms within the tissue that may suppress T cell activation and their subsequent cytokine responses, modulate infiltrating macrophage activation, and facilitate healthy tissue repair. Success is dependent on response of the resident myeloid-cell populations [microglia (MG)] to activation signals, commonly cytokines, and the control of infiltrating macrophage activation during inflammation, both of which appear highly programmed in normal and inflamed retina. The evidence that tissue CD200 constitutively provides down-regulatory signals to myeloid-derived cells via cognate CD200-CD200 receptor (R) interaction supports inherent tissue control of myeloid cell activation. In the retina, there is extensive neuronal and endothelial expression of CD200. Retinal MG in CD200 knockout mice display normal morphology but unlike the wild-type mice, are present in increased numbers and express nitric oxide synthase 2, a macrophage activation marker, inferring that loss of CD200 or absent CD200R ligation results in "classical" activation of myeloid cells. Thus, when mice lack CD200, they show increased susceptibility to and accelerated onset of tissue-specific autoimmunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.1102535DOI Listing
August 2003

Neutralizing tumor necrosis factor-alpha activity suppresses activation of infiltrating macrophages in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003 Jul;44(7):3034-41

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Purpose: During experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), infiltrating macrophages become activated to express nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2 and generate nitric oxide (NO). The current study was designed to determine whether neutralizing TNF activity with a soluble fusion protein of TNFp55 receptor (sTNFr-IgG) inhibits macrophage activation, thereby contributing to reduced tissue damage observed with such treatment.

Methods: EAU was induced in Lewis rats by active immunization with soluble retinal extract (RE) and pertussis toxin (intraperitoneally), and animals were treated on days 6 and 8 after immunization with either sTNFr-IgG or human (hu)IgG. Disease course and severity were noted clinically, and eyes were enucleated for histologic scoring, including TUNEL immunofluorescence, at various stages of disease. Infiltrating retinal macrophages were isolated through a density gradient and subsequently phenotyped by flow cytometry, analyzed for ability to produce nitrite, either spontaneously or after cytokine stimulation, and assayed by PCR for cytokine gene expression.

Results: Neutralizing TNF activity suppressed tissue damage without impeding myeloid cell infiltrate. Moreover, with sTNFr-IgG treatment, infiltrating macrophages demonstrated reduced nitrite production at the height of disease, and the level of apoptosis within the retina of both ED1(+) cells and resident cells was reduced. PCR analysis demonstrated a significant increase in TGF beta signal and absent or low TNF signal throughout the disease course after treatment with sTNFr-IgG.

Conclusions: sTNFr-IgG successfully suppresses retinal damage and impairs macrophage activation but not trafficking during EAU. sTNFr-IgG-mediated suppression of NO production results in reduced levels of apoptosis of inflammatory cells and reduction in photoreceptor damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.02-1156DOI Listing
July 2003

Ixodes ricinus tick salivary gland extract inhibits IL-10 secretion and CD69 expression by mitogen-stimulated murine splenocytes and induces hyporesponsiveness in B lymphocytes.

Parasite Immunol 2003 Jan;25(1):27-37

School of Biological Science (Zoology), University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, UK.

Tick saliva contains immunosuppressive factors allowing this blood-feeding ectoparasite to remain on hosts and enhancing pathogen transmission. In this study, we examined the modulation of mitogen-induced activation of naive murine splenocytes by the saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) of I. ricinus ticks. We found that saliva-specific factors reduced IL-10 production by both concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated splenocytes. The LPS-induced IL-10 production is 10 times more sensitive to SGE than the ConA-induced IL-10 production. Flow cytometric analysis determined that SGE particularly inhibited B (B220+) cell IL-10 production in mitogen-stimulated splenocyte preparations. Moreover, SGE reduced the early activation marker CD69 expression on ConA-activated T cells and also on B cells in presence of ConA or LPS. Annexin V and Via-probe staining demonstrated that SGE did not increase cell death in activated splenocytes and slightly decreased apoptosis in B lymphocytes. By employing assays with isolated B cells, we further showed that SGE had a direct effect on B cells and inhibited LPS-induced B cell proliferation. Taken together, our results indicate that salivary immunomodulators induce hyporesponsiveness to mitogen in both T and B cells, and that a direct B-cell inhibitory activity is present in tick saliva.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3024.2003.00605.xDOI Listing
January 2003

Effect of anti-macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha on leukocyte trafficking and disease progression in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis.

Eur J Immunol 2003 Feb;33(2):402-10

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, GB.

This study has enabled us to identify the influence of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), on leukocyte behavior at the blood-retina barrier in vivo and its link with the inflammatory process and disease pathogenesis. MIP-1alpha has not previously been thought to be effective under conditions of physiological shear flow. However, short-term anti-MIP-1alpha treatment inhibited leukocyte slowing and accumulation and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes at the blood-retina barrier in animals with experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. This was effective predominantly in the post-capillary venules which have been shown to be the main site of passage of leukocytes across the blood-retina barrier. Long-term anti-MIP-1alpha treatment also prevented decreased leukocyte velocity and reduced disease severity as measured clinically, histologically and in terms of blood-retina barrier breakdown.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/immu.200310014DOI Listing
February 2003

Leukocyte trafficking in experimental autoimmune uveitis: breakdown of blood-retinal barrier and upregulation of cellular adhesion molecules.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003 Jan;44(1):226-34

Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen University Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To clarify the order of events occurring in the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) and in particular to study the relationships between increased vascular permeability, upregulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, and leukocyte adhesion and infiltration during EAU.

Methods: B10.RIII mice were immunized with human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) peptide 161-180. Changes in the retinal microvasculature were examined on days 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 16, and 21 postimmunization (pi). Evans blue dye was administered intravenously to assess vascular permeability. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 was evaluated by in vivo administration of antibody and subsequent immunostaining of retinal wholemounts. Lymphocytes from inguinal lymph nodes of normal and chicken ovalbumin (OVA)- or IRBP peptide-immunized mice at day 5, 6, 7, 8, and 15 pi were labeled in vitro with calcein-AM (C-AM) and infused intravenously into syngeneic recipient mice, which had been immunized with peptide at the same corresponding time point. Wholemount preparations of retinas were observed 24 hours later by confocal microscopy to determine the adhesion and infiltration of lymphocytes.

Results: The first observation of an increase in vascular permeability occurred at day 7 pi and was restricted to focal areas of the retinal postcapillary venules of the inner vascular plexus. This progressively extended to the outer vascular plexus at day 9 pi. Specific adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium of retinal venules of the inner vascular plexus was first observed at day 6 pi. Leukocyte extravasation into the retinal parenchyma from these vessels began at day 8 pi and extended to the outer vascular plexus at day 9 pi. The expression of adhesion molecules increased progressively during the development of EAU. In particular, the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin were expressed predominately in retinal venules, the sites of BRB breakdown, cell adhesion, and extravasation, from day 7 pi. The increases in expression of ICAM-1 and P-selectin were associated both spatially and temporally with breakdown of the BRB, cell adhesion, and extravasation. No increase in expression of P-selectin and ICAM-1 was observed in either the mesenteric vessels of EAU mice or the retinal vessels of OVA-immunized mice.

Conclusions: The sequence of events in EAU appears to be focal adhesion of leukocytes to discrete sites on postcapillary venules, followed by upregulation of adhesion molecules, especially ICAM-1 and P-selectin, and breakdown of the BRB, leading to transendothelial migration of leukocytes and recruitment of large numbers of cells to the retinal parenchyma. These changes occur over a short period of 6 to 9 days pi and initiate the process of tissue damage during the following 2 to 3 weeks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.01-1202DOI Listing
January 2003

Involvement of CD44 in leukocyte trafficking at the blood-retinal barrier.

J Leukoc Biol 2002 Dec;72(6):1133-41

Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen University Medical School, Scotland, United Kingdom.

In the present study, we investigated the involvement of CD44 in leukocyte trafficking in vivo at the blood-retinal barrier using experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) as a model system. Leukocyte trafficking was evaluated using adoptive transfer of calcein-AM (C-AM)-labeled spleen cells harvested from syngeneic mice at prepeak severity of EAU to mice at a similar stage of disease. CD44 and its ligand hyaluronan were up-regulated in the eye during EAU. CD44-positive leukocytes were found sticking in the retinal venules and postcapillary venules but not in the retinal arterioles nor in mesenteric vessels. Preincubation of in vitro C-AM-labeled leukocytes with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAb; IM7) or high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) before transfer significantly suppressed leukocyte rolling but not sticking in retinal venules and also reduced cell infiltration in the retinal parenchyma. Administration of the HA-specific enzyme hyaluronidase to mice before cell transfer also reduced leukocyte infiltration, suggesting that CD44-HA interactions are involved in leukocyte recruitment in EAU. This was further supported by the observation that disease severity was reduced by administration of anti-CD44 mAb (IM7) at the early leukocyte-infiltration stage. Further studies also indicated that CD44 activation was associated with increased levels of apoptosis, and this may also be in part responsible for the reduction in disease severity. These findings demonstrate that CD44 is directly involved in leukocyte-endothelial interaction in vivo and influence the trafficking of primed leukocytes to the retina and their overall survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
December 2002

Secretion of interleukin-10 or interleukin-12 by LPS-activated dendritic cells is critically dependent on time of stimulus relative to initiation of purified DC culture.

J Leukoc Biol 2002 Nov;72(5):978-85

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen Medical School Foresterhill, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of adaptive immunity with the potential to induce T cell activation/immunity or T cell suppression/tolerance. DC are themselves induced by "maturation" signals such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We demonstrate here that LPS can stimulate DC to display similar maturation phenotypes but to differentiate toward an interleukin (IL)-10(high)- or IL-12(high)-secretor profile depending on the timing of maturation signal induction. Immediate/early administration of LPS induced purified bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) to differentiate as IL-10(high)IL-12(low)-secreting cells, termed early DC (eDC). Conversely, delayed administration of LPS altered the DC cytokine profile to IL-10(low)IL-12(high), termed later DC (lDC). The presence of IL-4 enhanced the yield and maturation of BMDC but inhibited LPS-induced IL-10 production by eDC. In contrast, interferon-gamma reduced the yield of DC but promoted the level of LPS-induced IL-10 production by lDC. Our data provide new evidence that ex vivo manipulation and the cytokine environment regulate DC maturation status and cytokine-secretor phenotype with implications for the control of T cell differentiation and function via DC-based immunotherapeutic strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2002

Constitutive retinal CD200 expression regulates resident microglia and activation state of inflammatory cells during experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis.

Am J Pathol 2002 Nov;161(5):1669-77

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Recent evidence supports the notion that tissue OX2 (CD200) constitutively provides down-regulatory signals to myeloid-lineage cells via CD200-receptor (CD200R). Thus, mice lacking CD200 (CD200(-/-)) show increased susceptibility to and accelerated onset of tissue-specific autoimmunity. In the retina there is extensive expression of CD200 on neurons and retinal vascular endothelium. We show here that retinal microglia in CD200(-/-) mice display normal morphology, but unlike microglia from wild-type CD200(+/+) mice are present in increased numbers and most significantly, express inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), a macrophage activation marker. Onset and severity of uveitogenic peptide (1-20) of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis is accelerated in CD200(-/-) mice and although tissue destruction appears no greater than seen in CD200(+/+) mice, there is continued increased ganglion and photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Myeloid cell infiltrate was increased in CD200(-/-) mice during experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis, although NOS2 expression was not heightened. The results indicate that the CD200:CD200R axis regulates retinal microglial activation. In CD200(-/-) mice the release of suppression of tonic macrophage activation, supported by increased NOS2 expression in the CD200(-/-) steady state accelerates disease onset but without any demonstration of increased target organ/tissue destruction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1850781PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64444-6DOI Listing
November 2002

Retinal microenvironment controls resident and infiltrating macrophage function during uveoretinitis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002 Jul;43(7):2250-7

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.

Purpose: Macrophages infiltrating an inflamed or injured tissue undergo development of coordinated sets of properties that contribute to tissue damage, repair, and remodeling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether macrophages isolated from normal or inflamed retina are programmed to a distinct set of properties and to examine whether the development of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) affects macrophage function.

Methods: EAU was induced in Lewis rats, and a retina-derived macrophage-enriched population was generated by density centrifugation during the prepeak, peak, and resolution phases of the disease. Cell surface phenotype was assessed by two- and three-color flow cytometry, and function was determined in vitro by nitric oxide (NO) production, with or without further cytokine stimulation or by immunohistochemistry to determine expression of beta-glucuronidase, nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2, and nitrotyrosine.

Results: Myeloid-derived cells from normal retina were programmed similar to TGF-beta-stimulated uncommitted bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Contrary to BMDM behavior, retina-isolated macrophages displayed distinct properties and phenotype at different phases of the disease course and remained resistant throughout, to further cytokine challenge in vitro. During peak disease, retina-isolated macrophages had characteristics of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha primed cells (nitrotyrosine positive and NO producing). Despite equivalent numbers of macrophages during resolution, their function reverted to characteristics of TGF-beta primed cells (beta-glucuronidase positive).

Conclusions: Resident retinal myeloid-derived cells are primed and are resistant to further cytokine stimulation, and, similar to macrophages derived during EAU recovery, behave operationally as though TGF-beta primed. During peak inflammation, infiltrating macrophages adapt to concurrent hierarchical Th1 T-cell response (IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha), generating NO. The results provide evidence of in vivo programming of macrophages within the retina.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2002

Improved leukocyte tracking in mouse retinal and choroidal circulation.

Exp Eye Res 2002 Mar;74(3):403-10

Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen University Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.

The purpose of this study is to develop a new method with which to visualize leukocyte dynamics in murine choroidal and retinal circulation. Both pigmented (B10.RIII) and non-pigmented (BALB/c) mice were used in this study. One hundred microl of 0.05% sodium fluorescein was injected via the mice tail vein to outline the vessel, followed by 150 microl (10(7) cells) C-AM labelled leukocytes. Fundus images were obtained with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The dynamic image sequences were recorded simultaneously on videotape (S-VHS) and digitally at 25 frames per sec. The digital images were later analysed with a custom-made personal computer-based image analysis system. Both the choroidal and retinal circulation can be visualized in non-pigmented mice in the first few seconds of fluorescein angiography. However, the view of the choroidal and the retinal capillary circulation is soon blurred due to the rapid fluorescein leakage in the choroid. In contrast, in pigmented mice, retinal circulation is clear against the dark background of the choroid, while choroidal circulation is masked behind the pigment epithelial layer and cannot be seen at all. C-AM labelled leukocytes were clearly seen in the retinal circulation of all experimental mice and in the choroidal circulation of non-pigmented mice for as long as 30 min. The number of labelled circulating cells decreased as time clasped. Cells moved rapidly in the retinal arteries, slowing down or even stopping for a few seconds in the capillary system, and then moved slightly faster again through the postcapillary venules and veins. In non-pigmented mice, significant number of cells were seen to have arrested in the choroidal circulation. There was no difference between B10.RIII mice and BALB/c mice in vessel diameters, leukocyte velocities and shear stresses. This method allows the visualization of leukocytes and provides data on their behavior as they move through the choroidal and retinal circulation of non-pigmented mice, and in the retinal circulation of pigmented mice. It provides a valuable new tool for the investigation of real time leukocyte dynamics in murine retinal and choroidal microcirculations both under physiological conditions and during the development of ocular disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.2001.1134DOI Listing
March 2002

Nitric oxide mediates apoptosis through formation of peroxynitrite and Fas/Fas-ligand interactions in experimental autoimmune uveitis.

Am J Pathol 2002 Mar;160(3):905-16

Department of Ophthalmology, University ofAberdeen Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Conflicting reports have led to the description of nitric oxide as a "double-edged sword" in animal models of autoimmunity. In this study we show that tissue damage within the eye during experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis correlates with peroxynitrite formation in infiltrating monocytes/macrophages within the outer retina together with extensive photoreceptor apoptosis and apoptosis of Fas(+) T cells within the retina. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression was primarily restricted to infiltrating monocytes/macrophages in the outer retina and photoreceptor rod outer segments (target tissue), but despite showing evidence of lipid peroxidation, myeloid cells remained resistant to apoptosis. The protective effect of the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester could be attributed to dramatically reduced photoreceptor apoptosis, absence of nitrotyrosine formation, and reduced NOS2 protein expression. However, inhibition of NOS by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was accompanied by a sparing of CD3(+) and CD2(+) T cells despite continued expression of Fas and Fas ligand, thus compromising functional inactivation of T cells in the target tissue. These data suggests that in addition to contributing to tissue damage in the retina through generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide also seems to be required for activation-induced cell death and elimination of T cells in the retina.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1867184PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64913-9DOI Listing
March 2002