Publications by authors named "Janet L Gibson"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bacteria-to-Human Protein Networks Reveal Origins of Endogenous DNA Damage.

Cell 2019 01;176(1-2):127-143.e24

Graduate Program in Quantitative and Computational Biosciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Systems Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

DNA damage provokes mutations and cancer and results from external carcinogens or endogenous cellular processes. However, the intrinsic instigators of endogenous DNA damage are poorly understood. Here, we identify proteins that promote endogenous DNA damage when overproduced: the DNA "damage-up" proteins (DDPs). We discover a large network of DDPs in Escherichia coli and deconvolute them into six function clusters, demonstrating DDP mechanisms in three: reactive oxygen increase by transmembrane transporters, chromosome loss by replisome binding, and replication stalling by transcription factors. Their 284 human homologs are over-represented among known cancer drivers, and their RNAs in tumors predict heavy mutagenesis and a poor prognosis. Half of the tested human homologs promote DNA damage and mutation when overproduced in human cells, with DNA damage-elevating mechanisms like those in E. coli. Our work identifies networks of DDPs that provoke endogenous DNA damage and may reveal DNA damage-associated functions of many human known and newly implicated cancer-promoting proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.12.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344048PMC
January 2019

An ultra-dense library resource for rapid deconvolution of mutations that cause phenotypes in Escherichia coli.

Nucleic Acids Res 2016 Mar 17;44(5):e41. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA The Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA

With the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS), genetic mapping has become the rate-limiting step, inhibiting unbiased forward genetics in even the most tractable model organisms. We introduce a rapid deconvolution resource and method for untagged causative mutations after mutagenesis, screens, and WGS in Escherichia coli. We created Deconvoluter-ordered libraries with selectable insertions every 50 kb in the E. coli genome. The Deconvoluter method uses these for replacement of untagged mutations in the genome using a phage-P1-based gene-replacement strategy. We validate the Deconvoluter resource by deconvolution of 17 of 17 phenotype-altering mutations from a screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutants. The Deconvoluter resource permits rapid unbiased screens and gene/function identification and will enable exploration of functions of essential genes and undiscovered genes/sites/alleles not represented in existing deletion collections. This resource for unbiased forward-genetic screens with mapping-by-sequencing ('forward genomics') demonstrates a strategy that could similarly enable rapid screens in many other microbes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv1131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4797258PMC
March 2016

Atypical Role for PhoU in Mutagenic Break Repair under Stress in Escherichia coli.

PLoS One 2015 11;10(5):e0123315. Epub 2015 May 11.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America; Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America; Dan L Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Mechanisms of mutagenesis activated by stress responses drive pathogen/host adaptation, antibiotic and anti-fungal-drug resistance, and perhaps much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli, repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination is high fidelity in unstressed cells, but switches to a mutagenic mode using error-prone DNA polymerases when the both the SOS and general (σS) stress responses are activated. Additionally, the σE response promotes spontaneous DNA breakage that leads to mutagenic break repair (MBR). We identified the regulatory protein PhoU in a genetic screen for functions required for MBR. PhoU negatively regulates the phosphate-transport and utilization (Pho) regulon when phosphate is in excess, including the PstB and PstC subunits of the phosphate-specific ABC transporter PstSCAB. Here, we characterize the PhoU mutation-promoting role. First, some mutations that affect phosphate transport and Pho transcriptional regulation decrease mutagenesis. Second, the mutagenesis and regulon-expression phenotypes do not correspond, revealing an apparent new function(s) for PhoU. Third, the PhoU mutagenic role is not via activation of the σS, SOS or σE responses, because mutations (or DSBs) that restore mutagenesis to cells defective in these stress responses do not restore mutagenesis to phoU cells. Fourth, the mutagenesis defect in phoU-mutant cells is partially restored by deletion of arcA, a gene normally repressed by PhoU, implying that a gene(s) repressed by ArcA promotes mutagenic break repair. The data show a new role for PhoU in regulation, and a new regulatory branch of the stress-response signaling web that activates mutagenic break repair in E. coli.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123315PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4427277PMC
April 2016

Engineered proteins detect spontaneous DNA breakage in human and bacterial cells.

Elife 2013 Oct 29;2:e01222. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics , Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , United States ; Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology , Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , United States ; Dan L Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , United States ; Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology , Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , United States.

Spontaneous DNA breaks instigate genomic changes that fuel cancer and evolution, yet direct quantification of double-strand breaks (DSBs) has been limited. Predominant sources of spontaneous DSBs remain elusive. We report synthetic technology for quantifying DSBs using fluorescent-protein fusions of double-strand DNA end-binding protein, Gam of bacteriophage Mu. In Escherichia coli GamGFP forms foci at chromosomal DSBs and pinpoints their subgenomic locations. Spontaneous DSBs occur mostly one per cell, and correspond with generations, supporting replicative models for spontaneous breakage, and providing the first true breakage rates. In mammalian cells GamGFP-labels laser-induced DSBs antagonized by end-binding protein Ku; co-localizes incompletely with DSB marker 53BP1 suggesting superior DSB-specificity; blocks resection; and demonstrates DNA breakage via APOBEC3A cytosine deaminase. We demonstrate directly that some spontaneous DSBs occur outside of S phase. The data illuminate spontaneous DNA breakage in E. coli and human cells and illustrate the versatility of fluorescent-Gam for interrogation of DSBs in living cells. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01222.001.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809393PMC
October 2013

Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks.

Science 2012 Dec;338(6112):1344-8

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030-3411, USA.

Mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis are defined on the basis of relatively few proteins acting on DNA, yet the identities and functions of all proteins required are unknown. Here, we identify the network that underlies mutagenic repair of DNA breaks in stressed Escherichia coli and define functions for much of it. Using a comprehensive screen, we identified a network of ≥93 genes that function in mutation. Most operate upstream of activation of three required stress responses (RpoS, RpoE, and SOS, key network hubs), apparently sensing stress. The results reveal how a network integrates mutagenic repair into the biology of the cell, show specific pathways of environmental sensing, demonstrate the centrality of stress responses, and imply that these responses are attractive as potential drug targets for blocking the evolution of pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1226683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782309PMC
December 2012

Two mechanisms produce mutation hotspots at DNA breaks in Escherichia coli.

Cell Rep 2012 Oct 4;2(4):714-21. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Mutation hotspots and showers occur across phylogeny and profoundly influence genome evolution, yet the mechanisms that produce hotspots remain obscure. We report that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) provoke mutation hotspots via stress-induced mutation in Escherichia coli. With tet reporters placed 2 kb to 2 Mb (half the genome) away from an I-SceI site, RpoS/DinB-dependent mutations occur maximally within the first 2 kb and decrease logarithmically to ∼60 kb. A weak mutation tail extends to 1 Mb. Hotspotting occurs independently of I-site/tet-reporter-pair position in the genome, upstream and downstream in the replication path. RecD, which allows RecBCD DSB-exonuclease activity, is required for strong local but not long-distance hotspotting, indicating that double-strand resection and gap-filling synthesis underlie local hotspotting, and newly illuminating DSB resection in vivo. Hotspotting near DSBs opens the possibility that specific genomic regions could be targeted for mutagenesis, and could also promote concerted evolution (coincident mutations) within genes/gene clusters, an important issue in the evolution of protein functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2012.08.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607216PMC
October 2012

What limits the efficiency of double-strand break-dependent stress-induced mutation in Escherichia coli?

J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2011 13;21(1-2):8-19. Epub 2012 Jan 13.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Stress-induced mutation is a collection of molecular mechanisms in bacterial, yeast and human cells that promote mutagenesis specifically when cells are maladapted to their environment, i.e. when they are stressed. Here, we review one molecular mechanism: double-strand break (DSB)-dependent stress-induced mutagenesis described in starving Escherichia coli. In it, the otherwise high-fidelity process of DSB repair by homologous recombination is switched to an error-prone mode under the control of the RpoS general stress response, which licenses the use of error-prone DNA polymerase, DinB, in DSB repair. This mechanism requires DSB repair proteins, RpoS, the SOS response and DinB. This pathway underlies half of spontaneous chromosomal frameshift and base substitution mutations in starving E. coli [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:13659-13664], yet appeared less efficient in chromosomal than F' plasmid-borne genes. Here, we demonstrate and quantify DSB-dependent stress-induced reversion of a chromosomal lac allele with DSBs supplied by I-SceI double-strand endonuclease. I-SceI-induced reversion of this allele was previously studied in an F'. We compare the efficiencies of mutagenesis in the two locations. When we account for contributions of an F'-borne extra dinB gene, strain background differences, and bypass considerations of rates of spontaneous DNA breakage by providing I-SceI cuts, the chromosome is still ∼100 times less active than F. We suggest that availability of a homologous partner molecule for recombinational break repair may be limiting. That partner could be a duplicated chromosomal segment or sister chromosome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000335354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697267PMC
May 2012

Impact of a stress-inducible switch to mutagenic repair of DNA breaks on mutation in Escherichia coli.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Aug 1;108(33):13659-64. Epub 2011 Aug 1.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Basic ideas about the constancy and randomness of mutagenesis that drives evolution were challenged by the discovery of mutation pathways activated by stress responses. These pathways could promote evolution specifically when cells are maladapted to their environment (i.e., are stressed). However, the clearest example--a general stress-response-controlled switch to error-prone DNA break (double-strand break, DSB) repair--was suggested to be peculiar to an Escherichia coli F' conjugative plasmid, not generally significant, and to occur by an alternative stress-independent mechanism. Moreover, mechanisms of spontaneous mutation in E. coli remain obscure. First, we demonstrate that this same mechanism occurs in chromosomes of starving F(-) E. coli. I-SceI endonuclease-induced chromosomal DSBs increase mutation 50-fold, dependent upon general/starvation- and DNA-damage-stress responses, DinB error-prone DNA polymerase, and DSB-repair proteins. Second, DSB repair is also mutagenic if the RpoS general-stress-response activator is expressed in unstressed cells, illustrating a stress-response-controlled switch to mutagenic repair. Third, DSB survival is not improved by RpoS or DinB, indicating that mutagenesis is not an inescapable byproduct of repair. Importantly, fourth, fully half of spontaneous frame-shift and base-substitution mutation during starvation also requires the same stress-response, DSB-repair, and DinB proteins. These data indicate that DSB-repair-dependent stress-induced mutation, driven by spontaneous DNA breaks, is a pathway that cells usually use and a major source of spontaneous mutation. These data also rule out major alternative models for the mechanism. Mechanisms that couple mutagenesis to stress responses can allow cells to evolve rapidly and responsively to their environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1104681108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3158223PMC
August 2011

Separate DNA Pol II- and Pol IV-dependent pathways of stress-induced mutation during double-strand-break repair in Escherichia coli are controlled by RpoS.

J Bacteriol 2010 Sep 16;192(18):4694-700. Epub 2010 Jul 16.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine,Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030-3411, USA.

Previous work showed that about 85% of stress-induced mutations associated with DNA double-strand break repair in carbon-starved Escherichia coli result from error-prone DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) (DinB) and that the mutagenesis is controlled by the RpoS stress response, which upregulates dinB. We report that the remaining mutagenesis requires high-fidelity Pol II, and that this component also requires RpoS. The results identify a second DNA polymerase contributing to stress-induced mutagenesis and show that RpoS promotes mutagenesis by more than the simple upregulation of dinB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00570-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2937414PMC
September 2010

The sigma(E) stress response is required for stress-induced mutation and amplification in Escherichia coli.

Mol Microbiol 2010 Jul 19;77(2):415-30. Epub 2010 May 19.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030-3411, USA.

Pathways of mutagenesis are induced in microbes under adverse conditions controlled by stress responses. Control of mutagenesis by stress responses may accelerate evolution specifically when cells are maladapted to their environments, i.e. are stressed. Stress-induced mutagenesis in the Escherichia coli Lac assay occurs either by 'point' mutation or gene amplification. Point mutagenesis is associated with DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair and requires DinB error-prone DNA polymerase and the SOS DNA-damage- and RpoS general-stress responses. We report that the RpoE envelope-protein-stress response is also required. In a screen for mutagenesis-defective mutants, we isolated a transposon insertion in the rpoE P2 promoter. The insertion prevents rpoE induction during stress, but leaves constitutive expression intact, and allows cell viability. rpoE insertion and suppressed null mutants display reduced point mutagenesis and maintenance of amplified DNA. Furthermore, sigma(E) acts independently of stress responses previously implicated: SOS/DinB and RpoS, and of sigma(32), which was postulated to affect mutagenesis. I-SceI-induced DSBs alleviated much of the rpoE phenotype, implying that sigma(E) promoted DSB formation. Thus, a third stress response and stress input regulate DSB-repair-associated stress-induced mutagenesis. This provides the first report of mutagenesis promoted by sigma(E), and implies that extracytoplasmic stressors may affect genome integrity and, potentially, the ability to evolve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07213.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909356PMC
July 2010

An SOS-regulated type 2 toxin-antitoxin system.

J Bacteriol 2009 Dec 16;191(24):7456-65. Epub 2009 Oct 16.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030-3411, USA.

The Escherichia coli chromosome encodes seven demonstrated type 2 toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems: cassettes of two or three cotranscribed genes, one encoding a stable toxin protein that can cause cell stasis or death, another encoding a labile antitoxin protein, and sometimes a third regulatory protein. We demonstrate that the yafNO genes constitute an additional chromosomal type 2 TA system that is upregulated during the SOS DNA damage response. The yafNOP genes are part of the dinB operon, of which dinB underlies stress-induced mutagenesis mechanisms. yafN was identified as a putative antitoxin by homology to known antitoxins, implicating yafO (and/or yafP) as a putative toxin. Using phage-mediated cotransduction assays for linkage disruption, we show first that yafN is an essential gene and second that it is essential only when yafO is present. Third, yafP is not a necessary part of either the toxin or the antitoxin. Fourth, although DinB is required, the yafNOP genes are not required for stress-induced mutagenesis in the Escherichia coli Lac assay. These results imply that yafN encodes an antitoxin that protects cells against a yafO-encoded toxin and show a protein-based TA system upregulated by the SOS response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00963-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2786605PMC
December 2009

Residues that influence in vivo and in vitro CbbR function in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and identification of a specific region critical for co-inducer recognition.

Mol Microbiol 2005 Sep;57(5):1397-414

Department of Microbiology and Plant Molecular Biology/Biotechnology Program, The Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1292, USA.

CbbR is a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) that is required to activate transcription of the cbb operons, responsible for CO2 fixation, in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. LTTR proteins often require a co-inducer to regulate transcription. Previous studies suggested that ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) is a positive effector for CbbR function in this organism. In the current study, RuBP was found to increase the electrophoretic mobility of the CbbR/cbb(I) promoter complex. To define and analyse the co-inducer recognition region of CbbR, constitutively active mutant CbbR proteins were isolated. Under growth conditions that normally maintain transcriptionally inactive cbb operons, the mutant CbbR proteins activated transcription. Fourteen of the constitutively active mutants resulted from a single amino acid substitution. One mutant was derived from amino acid substitutions at two separate residues that appeared to act synergistically. Different mutant proteins showed both sensitivity and insensitivity to RuBP and residues that conferred constitutive transcriptional activity could be highlighted on a three-dimensional model, with several residues unique to CbbR shown to be at locations critical to LTTR function. Many of the constitutive residues clustered in or near two specific loops in the LTTR tertiary structure, corresponding to a proposed site of co-inducer binding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04783.xDOI Listing
September 2005

Complete genome sequence of the metabolically versatile photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

Nat Biotechnol 2004 Jan 14;22(1):55-61. Epub 2003 Dec 14.

Genome Analysis and Systems Modeling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA.

Rhodopseudomonas palustris is among the most metabolically versatile bacteria known. It uses light, inorganic compounds, or organic compounds, for energy. It acquires carbon from many types of green plant-derived compounds or by carbon dioxide fixation, and it fixes nitrogen. Here we describe the genome sequence of R. palustris, which consists of a 5,459,213-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome with 4,836 predicted genes and a plasmid of 8,427 bp. The sequence reveals genes that confer a remarkably large number of options within a given type of metabolism, including three nitrogenases, five benzene ring cleavage pathways and four light harvesting 2 systems. R. palustris encodes 63 signal transduction histidine kinases and 79 response regulator receiver domains. Almost 15% of the genome is devoted to transport. This genome sequence is a starting point to use R. palustris as a model to explore how organisms integrate metabolic modules in response to environmental perturbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt923DOI Listing
January 2004

Differential expression of the CO2 fixation operons of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by the Prr/Reg two-component system during chemoautotrophic growth.

J Bacteriol 2002 Dec;184(23):6654-64

Department of Microbiology and Plant Molecular Biology/Biotechnology Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1292, USA.

In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the two cbb operons encoding duplicated Calvin-Benson Bassham (CBB) CO2 fixation reductive pentose phosphate cycle structural genes are differentially controlled. In attempts to define the molecular basis for the differential regulation, the effects of mutations in genes encoding a subunit of Cbb3 cytochrome oxidase, ccoP, and a global response regulator, prrA (regA), were characterized with respect to CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression by using translational lac fusions to the R. sphaeroides cbb(I) and cbb(II) promoters. Inactivation of the ccoP gene resulted in derepression of both promoters during chemoheterotophic growth, where cbb expression is normally repressed; expression was also enhanced over normal levels during phototrophic growth. The prrA mutation effected reduced expression of cbb(I) and cbb(II) promoters during chemoheterotrophic growth, whereas intermediate levels of expression were observed in a double ccoP prrA mutant. PrrA and ccoP1 prrA strains cannot grow phototrophically, so it is impossible to examine cbb expression in these backgrounds under this growth mode. In this study, however, we found that PrrA mutants of R. sphaeroides were capable of chemoautotrophic growth, allowing, for the first time, an opportunity to directly examine the requirement of PrrA for cbb gene expression in vivo under growth conditions where the CBB cycle and CO2 fixation are required. Expression from the cbb(II) promoter was severely reduced in the PrrA mutants during chemoautotrophic growth, whereas cbb(I) expression was either unaffected or enhanced. Mutations in ccoQ had no effect on expression from either promoter. These observations suggest that the Prr signal transduction pathway is not always directly linked to Cbb3 cytochrome oxidase activity, at least with respect to cbb gene expression. In addition, lac fusions containing various lengths of the cbb(I) promoter demonstrated distinct sequences involved in positive regulation during photoautotrophic versus chemoautotrophic growth, suggesting that different regulatory proteins may be involved. In Rhodobacter capsulatus, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RubisCO) expression was not affected by cco mutations during photoheterotrophic growth, suggesting that differences exist in signal transduction pathways regulating cbb genes in the related organisms.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC135422PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.184.23.6654-6664.2002DOI Listing
December 2002
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